AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code MSc 4686 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course: Introduction to Sociology: Social Change & Social Institutions (4686)  Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  2
Introduction to Sociology: Social Change & Social Institutions (4686) MSc (2 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

Q.1          “A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the

preservation of a basic societal value”. Explain.         (25)

A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic societal value. Obviously, the sociologist does not define institutions in the same way as does the person on the street. Lay persons are likely to use the term “institution” very loosely, for churches, hospitals, jails, and many other things as institutions.

Normative systems:

Sociologists often reserve the term “institution” to describe normative systems that operate in five basic areas of life, which may be designated as the primary institutions. (1) In determining Kinship; (2) in providing for the legitimate use of power; (3) in regulating the distribution of goods and services; (4) in transmitting knowledge from one generation to the next; and (5) in regulating our relation to the supernatural. In shorthand form, or as concepts, these five basic institutions are called the family, government, economy, education and religion.

Basic primary institutions:

The five primary institutions are found among all human groups. They are not always as highly elaborated or as distinct from one another as into the United States, but, in rudimentary form at last, they exist everywhere. Their universality indicates that they are deeply rooted in human nature and that they are essential in the development and maintenance of orders. Sociologists operating in terms of the functionalist model society have provided the clearest explanation of the functions served by social institutions. Apparently there are certain minimum tasks that must be performed in all human groups. Unless these tasks are performed adequately, the group will cease to exist. An analogy may help to make the point. We might hypothesize that cost accounting department is essential to the operation of a large corporation. A company might procure a superior product and distribute it then at the price which is assigned to it, the company will soon go out of business. Perhaps the only way to avoid this is to have a careful accounting of the cost of each step in the production and distribution process.

Institutions are a part of the social construction of a community:

Institutions define the way we interact with each other within a community. They are determined by the formal and informal cultures and values of that community, and provide order and stability within that community.

Structures and mechanisms:

“Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals. Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual human lives and intentions, and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior. The term, institution, is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public service. As structures and mechanisms of social order among humans, institutions are one of the principal objects of study in the social sciences, including sociology, political science and economics. Institutions are a central concern for law, the formal regime for political rule-making and enforcement. The creation and evolution of institutions is a primary topic for history.

Without a form of order and stability …

the community can not fulfill its role,

there are no boundaries that define the community,

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AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

 

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