AIOU Solved Assignments code M.A 671 Spring 2020 Assignments 1 & 2 Course: Educational Psychology (671) spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Educational Psychology (671)
M.A Special education 2 Years
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 671 Spring 2020
Q.1 cognitive, physical and social differences among mentally challenged, hearing impaired, visually impaired and physically disabled children. (7+7+8)
Authors arguing a social definition of disability insist the importance of a physical difference lies solely in discriminatory social reaction to or ignorance of the effects of that difference.1 It is the reaction to these conditions, not the inherent limits they may impose, that are their signal feature. Advocates of this position typically see themselves in opposition to those advancing a “medical model” which defines disability as the presence of a physical or cognitive difference that deviates negatively from a “mundane” norm.2 For purposes of identification, in this paper the former are called “social difference” advocates or theorists while the latter are referred to as clinical or medical model proponents.
To use the language of Goffman, proponents of a clinical model, like Harris, are perceived by their critics as focusing upon the “stigmata,” the appearance of a physical diffrence, one presumed to be unaesthetic and undesirable. Social difference advocates, for their part, take as their focus the social reaction to that signal difference.3 Issues of functional impairment, or the compromise of interests potentially resulting from a clinically observable physical limit, are, from their perspective, unimportant outside the social response to those conditions. Indeed, social difference theorists typically reject the idea that physical difference may necessarily compromise the affected person’s interests. For them, “dis-ability” only results whenphysical difference is not accommodated by society at large.
Extended discussion about, for example
This opposition can be seen in an extended discussion about, for example, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) physically grounded definition of disability, and the means by which issues of social and physical difference are to be studied. In the former, the WHO’s primary allegiance to a clinical model, and only secondarily to issues of discrimination, is challenged by those who insist that social prejudice rather than physical distinction is the heart of the matter.4 In a social scientific vein, the opposition is continued in the debate about what some have called the “disability paradox”. If life quality is assumed to be dependent on physical wellness and independence, the reported positive life quality of physically restricted, dependent persons is seen, by at least some proponents of a physical model, as paradoxical.5 For medical ethicists and members of the greater community alike, the stakes are high. At issue are policies and approaches to people with chronic differences, and increasingly, future generations of persons who may inherit them. If physical differences are defined as negatives, then a eugenic selection for normalcy makes sense. From this perspective, Harris notes, eugenics is not a pejorative but instead a logical attempt to assure the “production of fine offspring” through abortion or positive genetic selection.2 Social difference advocates also see the leap as a logical next step for advocates of a clinical definition of disability. They, however, perceive the potential for eugenic selection as dangerous and ill advised.6
Given that by conservative estimates at least 13 million persons in the United States alone are affected adversely by genetic conditions, the potential effect on future generations is vast.7 Depending on one’s perspective, whole communities of persons at risk to one or another genetically defined disorder— achromatopsia,8 familial Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, Huntington’s chorea, etc—will be affected by this debate. At least in North America eugenic pruning, preventing the birth of those with disorders that can be diagnosed prenatally, today appears to be the default judgment on the part of many medical professionals, including bioethicists, and the general public. In a US study, for example, adults with neurofibromatosis 1 reported a consistent argument for abortion and against procreation by their genetic counsellors and physicians.7 In Canada, bioethicists at one hospital reported parents were likely to choose abortion when amniocentesis showed an otherwise normal fetus would be born with surgically correctable cleft palate and harelip.9 More generally, a recent US study reported upon a demographically diverse survey in which women questioned stated that the risk of a test procedure-related miscarriage was justified when compared with the possibility of having a child with Down’s syndrome.10