AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.ed 8605 Spring 2020 Assignment  2  Course: Educational Leadership and Management 8605) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No.  2
Educational Leadership and Management 8605) B.ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

Q1. What are the different techniques for better classroom discipline.   (20)

 School discipline and Classroom management describes the processes you use to keep a classroom organized, lessons running smoothly, and students engaged in the lesson. Although maintaining discipline is a component of classroom management, establishing procedures and rapport are just as important in keeping a classroom running efficiently. Today’s classroom is composed of a wide variety of students from different cultural and behavioral backgrounds. Classroom management is often one of the hardest things for a teacher to implement, but it is crucial to student success. Learning in the classroom is dependent upon the management skills of the teacher and the teacher’s ability to implement them adequately.

Rules

Rules must be succinct. To ensure that rules are effective, post only a few encompassing rules in the classroom. Too many rules can overcome and confuse students.

Consequences

Bad behavior must have consequences in the classroom. Make sure that students know the consequences of poor behavior. These consequences can be a loss of recess, a formal apology note or a phone call to the parents. Enforce consequences consistently to keep them effective.

Recognition

Celebrate student achievement the classroom. Recognizing and rewarding one student’s achievement not only encourages her but can help to encourage other students in class as well. Offer students recognition to help create a supportive environment where students are motivated to learn.

Rapport

Student-teacher rapport is a big component of classroom management. Students should feel comfortable asking their teacher questions and should feel encouraged to try their best. Developing a good student-teacher rapport helps class sessions run more smoothly.

Procedures

Procedures are the most important part of classroom management. By giving the students procedures on how to retrieve work when they were absent, when they can sharpen a pencil, where to obtain materials, and so on, you are setting up an organized classroom where students can be self-sufficient. Such procedures you to spend more time coaching and teaching and less time dealing with small classroom issues. Classroom management is the term teachers and instructors use to describe the act of managing their classroom and students to ensure that stressful and non-educational situations are avoided and students learn topics and subjects effectively. Classroom management involves more than the management and discipline of the students but also the availability of additional information on topics. Effective classroom management will make life less stressful for teachers and ensure that students are provided with the correct tools and a calm environment in which to learn. Classroom management will differ from one teacher to another because of the teacher’s personality, teaching styles, preparedness and number of students in the classroom at any given time. Effective classroom management involves teachers being prepared for lessons, motivating students, providing proper and effective discipline, making students feel comfortable, building student self-esteem and designing constructive and entertaining lesson plans. Engage Students Classroom management is important for effective teaching and ensuring that students learn the material rather than committing it to short-term memory for regurgitation of facts on tests. Engaging students in lectures by moving around the room, asking questions, and employing both verbal and nonverbal teaching methods ensure that students are paying attention and taking more from the learning experience than simple facts. Engaging students boosts their confidence and makes the lesson more effective.

Classroom Management Principles The key to starting the school year off with effective classroom management is to begin the year by teaching the students the behaviors and conduct expected of them in the classroom. Teachers should deliver a syllabus to older students or explain procedures to small children. By making rules and procedures the priority the first few days of school and explaining each rule and procedure with authority, teachers can effectively enforce their needs for a properly managed class.

Preparation Classroom management is more effective when a teacher is prepared. Failing to be prepared shows weakness and allows time for students to disrupt and cause problems while the teacher is formulating a plan for the day. Adverse situations often occur unexpectedly, so having emergency lesson plans handy for days when you are unable to design a specific plan is an effective classroom management tool.

Confidence Another effective classroom management technique is exuding confidence in all actions. A teacher who exhibits confidence rather than timidity will accomplish more in the classroom and gain the respect of the students. Confidence assists teachers in terminating unnecessary conversations, off-topic discussions and disruptive behavior.

Transitional Time Wasters Some of the worst time wasters in the classroom are transitions between subjects or classes. It is at this time that students tend to get distracted and lose focus, and it is often difficult to get them back into the flow of learning that you are attempting to establish. Avoid messy transitions by having a set routine that they must follow when moving from one subject or class to another. For instance, you might have a non-verbal cue to let them know they are to put their math books away or a quick assignment they must complete as they initially enter the class. This will keep them task oriented and help them to avoid the wasted minutes that often occur due to poor classroom management.

Academic Success The time that students save in a well managed classroom can lead to the availability of time for you to teach students academic material. When students spend time talking about social issues, or when there is a lack of control in the classroom that leads to continuous distraction, much time is often spent on attempting to squelch the undesired behavior. Set and follow classroom procedures consistently to avoid disruptions and increase academic time.

Behavior and Safety Safety within the school and classroom environment is dependent on classroom management. When students are out of control, inadvertent accidents are likely to occur. In addition, students with different personalities may clash, which can lead to physical and verbal altercations. Make it clear to students that the classroom is a place where learning is taking place and that they must leave their personal issues at the door when they enter school and the classroom in particular. Engage parents in controlling student behavior by sending notes, emailing or calling them when there is a problem with behavior control issues.

Social Lessons Students often do not understand how to treat others when they enter the classroom. They may call names, hit or disrespect others’ property. This can lead to classroom management issues. Use the classroom environment to teach students how to politely behave in society. Have specific rules and consequences about name calling or disrespectful behavior toward other students or adults, and give rewards to students who perform basic niceties such as please, thank you and excuse me.

Setting and Reaching Goals Students who reside in a well managed classroom are better able to set and meet goals. Goals are important for students to progress in their academics and personal achievements. When the class is out of control and no clear guidelines are set, students are less able to clearly see their goals and strive to reach them. Set clear goals for students in subject areas and post achievements in a prominent place in the classroom to encourage them to control adverse behavior and focus on necessary tasks. Schools across the United States face many challenges—including student disengagement, poverty and violence, shrinking resources, and growing truancy and dropout rates. Positive School Discipline provides a systemic approach that helps communities work together to overcome these challenges, creating environments in which students can thrive and succeed. Employing a proven process increases your likelihood of success, and schools have realized a number of benefits by applying this comprehensive strategy. For example, imagine walking into your school a year from now and finding: Students are more engaged and on task

  • Classrooms are managed well—students respect the teacher and get along with each other
  • Academic achievement has improved
  • There are fewer disciplinary referrals
  • Students view the rules as fair and are willing to comply
  • Suspensions and expulsions have been significantly reduced
  • Attendance has improved
  • Fewer students are involved in the juvenile justice system
  • Graduation rates have increased
  • Parents indicate that they feel welcomed and are engaged with the school
  • There is more revenue (in states where school funding is tied to average daily attendance rates)

School discipline is a required set of actions by a teacher towards a student (or groups of students) after the student’s behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a pre-established rule created by the school system. Discipline guides the children’s behaviour or sets limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them. School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline. These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, timekeeping, social conduct, and work ethic. The term ‘discipline is applied to the punishment that is the consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or going against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority students. Discipline often has a negative connotation, but discipline can be a positive way of instilling community values upon youth. Discipline is a set of actions determined by the school district to remedy actions taken by a student that are deemed inappropriate. Some scholars think students misbehave because of the lack of engagement and stimulation in typical school settings, a rigid definition of acceptable behaviors and/or a lack of attention and love in a student’s personal life. Recently, scholars have begun to explore alternative explanations for why students are being disciplined, in particular the disproportionate rate of discipline towards African American and Minority students.

  • Lack of engagement and stimulation –Students are curious and constantly searching for meaning and stimulation in the school environment. Classes that are too one-dimensional, that fail to involve students sufficiently, are too challenging or are very much information heavy (leaving little room for discussion and consideration), will not satisfy students’ curiosities or needs for authentic intellectual stimulation.
  • A rigid definition of acceptable behavior –Most students, particularly older ones, are asked to sit at their desks for many minutes at a time and listen, read, and/or take notes. Teachers who fail to offer opportunities for movement and interpersonal engagement are likelier to have to use strictness and rules to maintain law and order.
  • Lack of attention and love –When students fail to receive the attention that they crave, they are likelier to find other ways to get it, even if it means drawing negative attention to themselves and even negative consequences. The more teachers let their students know how much they care about them and value their work, the likelier they are to respect a teacher’s request and conform to their expectation.[6]
  • Disproportionate Discipline– African-American students, particularly boys, are disciplined more often in schools than any other demographic. African-American boys are also most likely to receive out-of-school suspensions. African-American boys were also the most likely to be labeled by faculty or school administration as overtly aggressive. Research suggests that when given an opportunity to choose among several disciplinary options for a relatively minor offense, teachers and school administrators often choose more severe punishment for black students than for white students for the same offense. Researchers who have examined these problems in American schools argue that schools use zero-tolerance discipline policies to, in effect, criminalize misdeeds such as dress code violations or talking back to a teacher. Disciplinary methods also vary based on the student’s socioeconomic status. While high-income students more often reported receiving mild and moderate consequences (e.g., teacher reprimand, seat reassignment), low-income students reported receiving more severe consequences, sometimes delivered in a less-than-professional manner (e.g., yelled at in front of class, made to stand in hall all day, search of personal belongings). School administrators may be implicitly biased towards students of colors and students of low socioeconomic status and need to find more equitable ways of disciplining their students in school.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

Q2    Discuss different kinds of learning resources with reference to school education.(20)  There are times when the real issue may not be the child but rather in the teaching style of the classroom teacher, that is, having unrealistic expectations, being critical, or being overly demanding. In such instances, help for the teacher can come in the form of classroom management techniques. Classroom management techniques are strategies developed to help handle various problems and conflicts within a classroom. An administrator, psychologist, or any realistic and diplomatic team member who feels comfortable with this type of situation may offer these practical suggestions to the teacher. There are many classroom techniques and modifications that should be tried before taking more serious steps. These include the following:

  • Display daily class schedule with times so that the student has a structured idea of the day ahead
  • Change seating
  • Seat the student with good role models
  • Use peer tutors when appropriate
  • Limit number of directions
  • Simplify complex directions
  • Give verbal as well as written directions
  • Provide extra work time
  • Shorten assignments
  • Modify curriculum but change content only as a last resort
  • Identify and address preferred learning styles
  • Provide manipulative materials
  • Provide examples of what is expected
  • Use color coding of materials to foster organizational skills
  • Develop a homework plan with parental support
  • Develop a behavior modification plan, if necessary

Help Classes Certain children may require only a temporary support system to get them through a difficult academic period. Some schools provide additional non special education services, such as help classes, that may be held during lunch or before or after school. These classes can clarify academic confusion that could lead to more serious problems if not addressed. Remedial Reading or Math Services Remedial reading or math services are academic programs within a school designed to help the student with reading or math by going slower in the curriculum or placing him or her with a smaller number of students in the classroom for extra attention. These services can be recommended when reading or math is the specific area of concern. Remedial reading and math classes are not special education services and can be instituted as a means of alleviating a child’s academic balms.

In-School Counseling In-school counseling is normally done by the school psychologist, social worker, or guidance counselor, and is designed to help the child deal with the issues that are currently problematic for him or her. Sometimes, a child may experience a situational or adjustment disorder (a temporary emotional pattern that may occur at any time in a person’s life without a prior history of problems) resulting from separation, divorce, health issues, newness to school district, and so on. When this pattern occurs, it may temporarily interfere with the child’s ability to concentrate, remember, or attend to tasks. Consequently, a drop in academic performance can occur. If such patterns occur, the school psychologist may want to institute in-school counseling, with the parent’s involvement and permission. This recommendation should be instituted only to address issues that can be resolved in a relatively short period of time. More serious issues may have to be referred to outside agencies or professionals for longer treatment.

Progress Reports A progress report is a synopsis of the child’s work and behavior in the classroom sent home to the parents in order to keep them updated on the child’s strengths and weaknesses over a period of time (e.g., every day, each week, biweekly, or once a month). Sometimes, a child who has fallen behind academically will “hide” from the real issues by avoiding reality. Daily progress reports for a week or two at first and then weekly reports may provide the child with the kinds of immediate gratification and positive feedback necessary to get back on track. They offer the child a greater sense of hope and control in getting back to a more normal academic pattern.

Disciplinary Action This recommendation is usually made when the child in question needs a structured boundary set involving inappropriate behavior. If a child demonstrates a pattern of inappropriate behavior, disciplinary action is usually used in conjunction with other recommendations because such patterned behavior may be symptomatic of a more serious problem. The appropriate disciplinary actions necessary should be discussed with the school psychologist, and how it should be implemented must be carefully considered before it begins.

Change of Program A change of program involves examining the child’s program and making adjustments to his or her schedule based on the presenting problem. This recommendation usually occurs when a student has been placed in a course that is not suited to his or her ability or needs. If a student is failing in an advanced class, then the student’s program should be changed to include more modified classes.

Consolidation of Program There are times when reducing a student’s course load is necessary. Consolidation of a program involves taking the student’s program and modifying it so that the workload is decreased. If a child is “drowning in school,” then that child’s available energy level may be extremely limited. In such cases, you may find that he or she is failing many courses. Temporarily consolidating or condensing the program allows for the possibility of salvaging some courses, because the student’s available energy will not have to be spread so thin.

Referral to Child Protective Services Child Protective Services is a state agency designed to investigate cases of possible neglect and abuse of children. A referral to Child Protective Services (CPS; name can vary by state) is mandated for all educators if there is a suspicion of abuse or neglect. The school official or staff does not have a choice as to referral if such a suspicion is present. Referrals to this service may result from physical, sexual, or emotional abuse and/or educational, environmental, or medical neglect.

Screening If the CST feels the prereferral strategies are not working after a realistic period of time, team members may recommend a screening for a suspected disability. The source of this suspicion may emanate from the team, a staff member, or the parent. Keep in mind that the team does not have to diagnose a specific disability, but only suspect one in order to begin the referral for a more comprehensive assessment to a multidisciplinary team. This team will administer a comprehensive evaluation conducted by a multitude of professionals to decrease the possibility of subjective and discriminatory assessment.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

 Q3    Why school record is kept? What are different kinds of records to be maintained at school level.

Record keeping in school is the maintenance of information about each student, which includes basic biographical data, contact information, educational progress and modifications, attendance, discipline, and medical concerns. These records not only document information about the student, they also contain information on which a school is judged and funded. Many laws exist concerning the use and availability of these records to non-school personnel.

Educators accountable and facilitate Record keeping in education is a very big part of the “business” of school, as accurate records keep educators accountable and facilitate the transfer of students, who are less likely to finish school in the system in which they started than they were years ago. Accurate biographical information, transcripts, medical records and special needs modifications must be transferred with a student from school to school, whether the school is within or outside the student’s previous system. Decisions about a child’s future education are often made based on school records, stressing the need for accuracy. Because of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, parents of students younger than 18 and students who are 18 or older have the right to inspect and amend school records. Decision about the school’s future are also made based on school records, and federal funding often relies on information contained in them. Each school or school system must utilize a method of creating, keeping, storing and disposing of records that maintains their integrity and privacy. The school sends you reports that tell you how your child is doing in school and what the school is doing for him. It may seem obvious that you should keep a file of those records. But did you know there are other records, both formal and informal, that are important to keep for future reference? Keeping your child’s school records can help you see trends and patterns over time. These records can also provide specific details and documentation when you’re talking about the resources he needs to succeed in school. Here are the types of records to keep—and why they’re important.

Records That Paint a Fuller Picture

The communications you receive from teachers and the school can paint a fuller picture of how your child is doing in school. For example:

  • Graded tests and homeworkcan show where your child is struggling or improving in different subjects.
  • Report cardsprovide a snapshot of how well your child is doing academically.
  • Standardized test scoresshow you how well your child is doing compared to other kids in his school and your state. This is also a report on how well the school is performing.
  • Notes or emails about classroom behavior, social skills or attendance issuesmay be red flags you need to talk over with your child and his teacher. These items are informative the day you receive them. But keeping them on file at home will let you look back to see patterns or trends in how your child—and the teacher or school—are doing over time.

Reports on the Efforts of School Personnel

Be sure to keep any progress reports and communication about what teachers and other school staff are doing for your child. When you can point to specific information, you can better ensure your child’s rights are being protected. Consider keeping a log of all communication between you and school officials. This can help you document patterns—such as the school repeatedly scheduling and canceling meetings.

Official School Records to Keep

It’s a good idea for you to have copies of everything that’s in your child’s official school records. Not every school uses the same organization system, so ask your school administrators how their system is set up. Here are common groups of records kept by schools. Cumulative file: This may be little more than a profile card with personal identification data, standardized test scores and report cards. Confidential file: This is often kept in the school district’s central administrative office, where the special education program offices are located. The file typically includes:

  • All of the reports written as a result of the school’s evaluation for special education andrelated services
  • Records ofindependent educational evaluations, if your child was evaluated this way
  • Medical records you’ve agreed to release to the school
  • Results of vision and hearing tests done by the school
  • Summary reports of the evaluation team and eligibility committee meetings
  • Your child’sIndividualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 plan
  • Correspondence between you and school personnel

Compliance file: This file shows that the school system has met the timelines, notification and consent regulations required by federal law. The records in this may include:

  • Reports of eligibility determination meetings for children being considered for special education services
  • Correspondence between school officials, including notifications ad consent

Discipline file: This may include notes about behavior and discipline issues that involve long-term suspension or expulsion. If a student has a behavior intervention plan (BIP), it may be filed here. Attendance file: This contains a record of a student’s school attendance. It might also include notes from parents regarding excused absences.

How to Get Started

First, start keeping what the school sends home. Next, request a copy of your child’s school records. Set up an organization system that works for you. Here are some general tips to keep in mind:

  • Think about how you’re most likely to refer back to the records, and set up your files accordingly. For example, if your child has an IEP, you’ll want to have quick access to certain documents to prepare for an IEP meeting.
  • Be sure all the correspondence you keep is marked with the date you received it. Any time you send a form or letter to the school or the district office, first make a copyfor your files.
  • Err on the side of saving more documents than you think you might need to keep. You can always reevaluate them later.
  • Periodically go through your child’s files. Add new papers or weed out those you no longer need.
  • By taking the time to organize your child’s school records now, you’ll streamline your search for records in the future. You’ll have access to valuable records whenever you need them to advocate for your child.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

Q4    Discuss the functioning of provincial department of education.(20)  An official transcript is an official document that lists all the approved courses a student has been enrolled in with the marks the student has received, and the credits that were earned.  If a course has been taken more than once, only the best mark will appear.  Any failed course attempts will not be listed. Transcripts are frequently requested by graduates or current students who are applying for Colleges, Universities, scholarships and some jobs. What is a validation statement? A validation statement is an unofficial document that lists a breakdown of all required credits for graduation (see graduation requirements), the credits earned to date, the credits that are still required to graduate and in which subject or classification area, the courses taken (successfully completed and failed courses) and marks received (including Grade 12 Alberta Diploma Exam marks), and the marks that would be transferred to a transcript.  These statements are mainly used to ensure that schools, parents, and students have accurate information as a student progresses through high school. Students and parents can request a validation statement directly from the school.

The characteristic of… Means that systems should…
Reliability ·                     routinely capture all records ·                     organise records appropriately ·                     provide adequate information about the records within them ·                     provide ready access to records and make records of system operation
Integrity ·                     prevent unauthorised access, destruction, alteration or removal of records
Compliance ·                     be managed in compliance with all requirements that apply to the business documented within them
Comprehensiveness ·                     manage all records resulting from the business activities that are documented or managed by the system
Fixity ·                     store records in ways that mean they cannot be tampered with, deleted inappropriately or altered
Accessibility ·                     allow records to be shared as information resources across a work space, business unit or organisation

  Don’t underestimate the importance of system useability When you are designing and implementing recordkeeping systems and considering the functionality they should possess, it is important to consider the overall useability of the system. Many systems with recordkeeping capacities have great strength in relation to record creation and capture, but do not necessarily enable the search paths or retrieval flexibility that may be required by system users. Recordkeeping systems have to be useable and it’s important not to overlook this key requirement.

Records That Paint a Fuller Picture for local government

The communications you receive from teachers and the school can paint a fuller picture of how your child is doing in school. For example:

  • Graded tests and homeworkcan show where your child is struggling or improving in different subjects.
  • Report cardsprovide a snapshot of how your child is doing academically.
  • Standardized testscores show you how your child is doing compared to other kids in your school and state. This is also a report on how well the school is performing.
  • Notes oremails about classroom behavior, social skills or attendance issues can indicate issues you may need to talk over with his teacher. These items are informative the day you receive them. But keeping them on file at home will let you look back to see patterns or trends in how your child—and the teacher or school—are doing over time.

You may want to print and fill out a school contact list showing who to call at your child’s school. It’s helpful to keep on hand in case issues arise.

Reports on the Efforts of School Personnel

Be sure to keep any progress reports and communication about what teachers and other school staff are doing for your child. You may even want to download a parent-school communication log to keep a record of conversations between you and school officials. This can help you document patterns and keep track of what you talked about and the decisions that were made. When you can point to specific information, you can better ensure your child’s rights are being protected.

Official School Records

It’s a good idea for you to have copies of everything that’s in your child’s official school records. In fact, there’s a federal law called Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) that gives you rights around your child’s educational records, including the right to see and photocopy them all. Not every school uses the same organization system, so ask your school administrators how their system is set up. Here are common groups of records kept by schools. Cumulative file: This may be little more than a profile card with personal identification data, standardized test scores and report cards.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020

Q5    Why evaluation in management is necessary? How management can be improved through evaluation?  

It focuses on both the processes and products of education. Responsibility is assigned to individuals or groups, including educational leaders, administrators, teachers, other school staff, and students themselves. Measures are used to determine whether the process or products meet the desired goals, and criteria are set for whether the targets are met. The consequences attached to the accountability systems may be simply labels assigned to the individual or group to which responsibility has been assigned, or they can involve withdrawal of funding or removal of the individual or group from continuing in the same role.

Definition

Accountability and improving monument through evaluation is the assignment of responsibility for conducting activities in a certain way or producing specific results. A primary motivation for increased accountability is to improve the system or aspects of it. To have a workable accountability system, there must be a desired goal (e.g., compliance with legal requirements, improved performance), ways to measure progress toward the goal (e.g., indicators of meeting legal requirements; indicators of performance), criteria for determining when the measures show that the goal has or has not been met, and consequences for meeting or not meeting the goal. Each of these aspects of an accountability system can vary in a number of ways.  Educational Accountability Educational accountability targets either the processes or results of education. A desired goal is identified (e.g., compliance with the legal mandates of providing special education, highly qualified teachers, improved student performance), and measures are identified for determining whether the goal is met (e.g., a checklist of indicators that the legal mandates have been met, a target of 90% correct for teachers taking a test of current knowledge and skills, a target of 60% of students performing at grade level by the end of each school year). Criteria for determining whether the goal has been met can involve specific determinations of ways that the goal may and may not be met (e.g., deciding how many indicators in the checklist must be marked to be considered meeting the legal mandates, determining the specific content that does or does not count for specific types of teachers, determining how to calculate the percentage of students performing at a proficient level, and how to define grade level performance). Accountability occurs in many ways in educational systems. One type of educational accountability system is that in which the school is held responsible for the performance of its students. Another type of educational accountability is a system in which teachers or administrators are individually held responsible for the performance of their students. Accountability systems in which schools or individual school personnel are held responsible for aspects of the educational process are most often used as ways to adjust the processes of education. Whether the school or individual teachers or administrators are held responsible, the educational accountability approach is termed system accountability. Educational accountability may also hold individuals responsible for their own performance. For example, students may be held responsible for their performance in school (such as through promotion tests or graduation exams). Teachers may be held responsible for their performance on content and pedagogy through entry examinations or periodic tests of knowledge and skills. System Accountability Educational accountability in which the system is held responsible for the results of its students gained popularity in the early 1990s. Although some school districts and some states had their own accountability systems, the first use of this type of accountability across the United States was the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) known as Improving America’s Schools. Accountability consequences were increased significantly in the 2001 reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). NCLB required that schools, local education agencies, and states be held accountable for the performance of all students in the public education system. The accountability system focused on school responsibility for student achievement, as in No Child Left Behind, demonstrates the components of educational accountability systems. The desired goal is improved student achievement. It is measured in terms of increases in the reading and math performance of groups of students. Measurement occurs through the administration of state assessments of reading and mathematics (such as compliance with legal requirements, improved performance), and ways to measure progress toward the goal (such as indicators of meeting legal requirements; indicators of performance). The criteria for determining when the measures show that the goal has or has not been met are defined in terms of benchmarks toward an ultimate target for performance, with specific rules for how the performance is aggregated and counted. The consequences for not meeting the goal include requiring schools that do not meet benchmarks to offer students the opportunity to attend a school that did meet benchmarks, requiring schools that did not meet benchmarks to provide additional educational services to students, and eventually closing schools that do not meet benchmarks for a certain number of years in a row.
Common form of educational accountability Accountability for the process of education is a common form of educational accountability. Schools are required to meet accreditation criteria. Special education programs must demonstrate that they have provided services and maintained Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) in a manner consistent with the law. The desired goal of educational accountability focused on process is to improve the process that is targeted. Special education IEPs are an example of a process targeted for accountability. Meeting the process requirements means demonstrating compliance with a number of requirements in the law and in regulations for IEPs. Measurement occurs through the completion of a checklist, for example, that identifies the requirements (such as providing notice within a certain period of time, having specific signatures on the IEP document, and so on). The criteria for determining when the measures show that the goal has or has not been met are defined in terms of numbers of elements that must be checked. The consequences for not meeting the goal generally include a letter identifying the problems in the process. In some cases, repeated failure to meet the criteria results in penalties, such as reduction of funding, to the educational system.

Individual Accountability and evaluation Student accountability implemented via promotion or exit exams is a common type of individual accountability in schools. Students are required to pass a test to demonstrate that they are ready to move either from one grade to the next (promotion) or leave the educational system with a credential certifying successful completion (exit). The tests that are administered to students generally cover those topics that the school system or its public have deemed important for individual students to demonstrate at a certain point in time. The criteria for determining when the measures show that the goal has been met (for instance, that the student is ready to move from one grade to the next) are defined in terms of passing scores on the test. In some cases alternative criteria are available to certain students who either are not able to pass the tests or who need to demonstrate that they have met criteria through other means. Individual accountability for the adults in the education system include such variations as teachers being held responsible for passing tests to obtain or keep jobs, or principals and educators receiving salary bonuses on the basis of student achievement. This type of accountability includes the same components as other educational accountability systems, with goals, measures, and other criteria for determining when the goal has been met, and rewards and sanctions for meeting or not meeting the criteria.

ACCOUNTABILITY MEASURES The most common forms of educational accountability use measures such as checklists of the process or assessments of student performance. The content of measures of educational accountability for process typically focus on resources (such as number of teachers or teacher-student ratio) or elements of a process (such as the elements of an Individualized Education Program). The content of measures of student performance focus on various student outcomes (such as what students should know and do at various grade levels, or percentage of students graduating with a standard diploma). States have defined content standards that identify what students at various grade levels should know and be able to do. Reading/English language arts and mathematics are common content areas in which standards have been set and assessments developed to measure student performance.   The measures of student achievement are nearly always large-scale assessments. These assessments are data collection instruments that usually have multiple-choice items in which students select from a list of answer choices, and also may have extended response items in which students write a response to a question. To lessen the unintended exclusion of some students from the accountability system because of their inability to be assessed on typical large-scale assessments, the assessments are designed to be widely inclusive of students of all characteristics. When the regular large-scale assessment cannot include all students, even with accommodations provided for students with disabilities and English language learners, alternative forms of measurement usually are provided (such as requiring students to demonstrate that they have the required knowledge and skills). Results of the large-scale assessments and alternatives, if available, are aggregated (added together) to produce a school score. This is the objective assessment of an ongoing or recently completed project, program or policy, its design, implementation and results. It answers the question “What has happened as a result?” Evaluation Analyzes why intended results were or were not achieved, Assesses specific casual contributions of activities to results, Examines implementation process, Explores unintended results, Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishments or program potential and offers recommendations for improvement Evaluation looks at the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of an intervention. It will provide evidence of why targets and outcomes are or are not being achieved and addresses issues of causality.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING & EVALUATION Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) helps those involved with any type of projects to assess if progress desired is beingachieved. M&E benefits the key actors involved in community development in the following ways: For project executors (i.e., a company Community Relations Team, a company/NGO partnership, or a company foundation), M&E can improve management. By monitoring progress against defined goals, a project manager can assess what is working and what is not, and from there can determine what changes should be made to a project. This inturn makes it possible to improve the way things are being done in the project organization.

Evaluation plan for a school/institution     

   Evaluation Plan Reflection Questions: ·                 

    Describe how school improvement goals and objectives are measured. ·                  

   Describe how the Action Plan implementation is assessed.    

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