AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8606 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course:Citizenship and Community Engagement (8606) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Citizenship and Community Engagement (8606) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 1.  a)Explain the forms of social control.

Social control, within sociology, refers to the many ways in which our behavior, thoughts, and appearance are regulated by the norms, rules, laws, and social structures of society. Social control is a necessary component of social order, for society could not exist without it.

Overview of the Concept

Social control is achieved through a variety of means, including through social norms, rules, laws, and social, economic, and institutional structures. In fact, there would be no society without social control, because society cannot function without an agreed upon and enforced social order that makes daily life and a complex division of labor possible. Without it, chaos and confusion would reign.

The primary way through which social order is produced is through the ongoing, lifelong process of socialization that each person experiences. Through this process, we are taught from birth the norms, rules, and behavioral and interactional expectations that are common to our family, peer groups, community, and greater society. Socialization teaches us how to think and behave in accepted ways, and in doing so, effectively controls us our participation in society.

The physical organization of society is also a part of social control. For example, paved streets and traffic signals control, at least in theory, the behavior of people when they drive vehicles.

Sidewalks and crosswalks control foot traffic, for the most part, and aisles in grocery stores control how we move through the space.

When we fail to conform to norms, rules, and social expectations, we suffer sanctions that remind us of their social importance, and that serve to control our behavior.

These sanctions take many forms, from confused and disapproving looks to conversations with family, peers, and authority figures, to social ostracization, among others.

The Two Types of Social Control

Social control tends to take one of two different forms: informal or formal. Informal social control refers to our conformity to the norms and values of the society, and adoption of a particular belief system, which we learn through the process of socialization. This form of social control is enforced by family, primary caregivers, peers, other authority figures like coaches and teachers, and by colleagues.

Informal social control is enforced by rewards and sanctions. Reward often takes the form of praise or compliments, but also takes other common forms, like high marks on school work, promotions at work, and social popularity. Sanctions used to enforce informal social control, like those discussed above, tend to be social in form and consist mainly in communication or lack thereof, but can also take the form of the ending of a relationship, teasing or ridicule, poor marks in school, or being fired from work, among others. Formal social control is that which is produced and enforced by the state (government) and representatives of the state that enforce its laws like police, military, and other city, state, and federal agencies.

In many cases, a simple police presence is enough to create formal social control. In others, police might intervene in a situation that involves unlawful or dangerous behavior in order to stop it–to “arrest” literally means to stop–in order to ensure that social control is maintained.

Other government agencies enforce formal social control as well, like those that regulate which substances or foods can be legally sold, and those that enforce building codes, among others.

It is up to formal bodies like the judiciary and the penal system to dole out sanctions when someone fails to comply with the laws that define formal social control.

Q 1. b) What is social deviance? Differentiate between formal and informal deviance.

Deviance are social control is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. Deviance can be criminal or non‐criminal. The sociological discipline that deals with crime (behavior that violates laws) is criminology (also known as criminal justice). Today, Americans consider such activities as alcoholism, excessive gambling, being nude in public places, playing with fire, stealing, lying, refusing to bathe, purchasing the services of prostitutes, and cross‐dressing—to name only a few—as deviant. People who engage in deviant behavior are referred to as deviants.

The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places. In other words, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. Termed clitoridectomy and infibulation, this process involves cutting off the clitoris and/or sewing shut the labia — usually without any anesthesia. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions that often lead to infections, is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure.

Psychological and Biological Explanations

While the focus of this chapter is on sociological explanations of deviance, there are explanations from other disciplines as well. For instance, recent research in neurology and psychology finds that boys with conduct disorder have differences in their brain structure and that those differences exist during childhood and adolescence. These differences likely contribute to their deviant behavior, but whether or not these differences exist before deviant activities is widely debated.

Some biologists have also explored the possibility that the human tendency to follow norms may have evolved as it facilitates group cohesion. In simulations, individuals who did not conform to social norms were typically punished by others in the group, leading to substantial pressure to conform to social norms. This research raises the possibility that humans have evolved – due to selection pressures – to more readily accept social norms and avoid deviance. Part of the reason why biological and evolutionary explanations for conformity to social norms seems somewhat compelling is because of the extreme length to which some people are willing to conform, including causing themselves physical harm in order to avoid breaking the norms of some groups.

Formal Social Control:

Formal social control is implemented by authorized agents including police officers, employers, military officers, and others. It is carried out as a last option at some places when the desired behavior is not possible through informal social control. The situations and severity where formal control is practiced varies with countries.

This is practiced through law as statutes, rules, and regulations against deviant social behavior. For example, certain laws like prohibition of murder can be directed at all members of a society. Fishing and hunting regulations are made for certain groups. Corporate laws are laid for governing the behavior of social institutions. Formal control is conducted by government and organizations through law enforcement mechanisms. It can also be conducted through some formal sanctions including fines and imprisonment. Processes of formal control in democratic societies are determined and designed through legislation by elected representatives.

Courts or judges, military officers, police officers, school systems or teachers, and government agencies or bureaucrats, enforce formal control.

Informal Social Control:

It is exercised by a society without stating any rules or laws. It is expressed through norms and customs. Social control is performed by informal agents on their own in an unofficial capacity. Traditional societies mostly embed informal social control culture to establish social order.

Shame, sarcasm, criticism, ridicule and disapproval are some of the informal sanctions. Social discrimination and exclusion are included in informal control at extreme deviant cases. Self-identity, self-worth and self-esteem are affected in informal control through loss of group approval or membership. The severity and nature of informal control mechanisms differ from varied individuals, groups, and societies.

Informal is effective in small group settings including friends, family, neighborhood, work group and others. However, in some large and complex societies, informal social control and disapproval is ignored easily. At such situations, it is necessary to follow the formal one.

Some of the differences of formal and informal social control are:

  • Formal social control includes written, formalized and codified statements in laws, rules, and regulations. Whereas informal control does not contain any written rules.
  • Formal control agencies are authorized ones created by government and informal control agencies are created by social networks and organizations but not by government.
  • Formal control is much effective and stronger than informal social control. Any situations which cannot be handled by informal control are subjected to formal one.
  • Formal control is effective for even large groups of population but informal control is effective only for a small group of people.

Social control, formal or informal, thus helps in regulation of society. The study of social control includes disciplines of sociology, anthropology, psychology, law and political science.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 2  a) Discuss different types of school and community relationships.

According to the recent MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, teachers, parents and students all agree that parent engagement in schools has increased over the past 25 years. Given the role that family engagement plays in not only academic success, but life success, that is great news. However, the survey also noted that parent engagement remains a challenge for many schools.

Last weekend, at the Celebration of Teaching and Learning, surrounded by educators, representatives from the nonprofit and business worlds, global education experts, academics, and education advocates of all stripes, I found it inspiring how committed the group as a whole was to not just improving family engagement in schools, but expanding engagement beyond the family, to the community in general. Two featured initiatives in particular seemed to embody it: Reconnecting McDowell and Cincinnati’s Community Learning Centers.

Linking Schools and Communities

McDowell County, West Virginia, has ranked last in education in the state for most of the past decade. But it is not just educational challenges that the community faces. The area was once a booming coal community, with over 100,000 residents. Today, there are just 22,000. Many are unemployed (72 percent of students live in a household without gainful employment). McDowell has limited medical services, inadequate access to technology, and substantial drug and alcohol abuse.

Yet those in the community care deeply about it. And everyone agrees that McDowell’s children deserve every opportunity for success. So under the leadership of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the West Virginia State Board of Education, a public/private partnership was born. Reconnecting McDowell is a long-term effort to make educational improvements while addressing all of the community’s complex problems. The project launched in December. So far, the AFT has already begun providing professional development to teachers. The West Virginia state legislature has passed an “innovation zone” bill that allows McDowell County to participate in a teacher-in-residence program with a local university, allowing promising young talent to enter the teaching workforce. The schools have begun comprehensive breakfast and lunch programs; they are hoping to start a dinner program as well. First Book has donated an age-appropriate book for each child in the school system, and Imagination Library is providing books for younger children in the community. The West Virginia AFL-CIO has provided funds to help run water lines to a new housing development.

While the work has just begun, this engagement effort is already showing what can happen when schools and the community commit to working together.

Coordinating Resources

In the early 2000s, Cincinnati Public Schools learned that they had the worst school buildings in the nation. They needed to pass a levy to raise money for improvements, but one hadn’t passed in a number of years. To garner community support, they proposed that the renovated schools would serve as centers of the community, remaining open on nights and weekends to provide services. The levy passed, and the Community Learning Centers (CLCs) began.

Bogenschutz offers some additional thoughts as to what is necessary to start the work:

 

A culture shift. Those on staff must sincerely recognize the value of the partnership, or it will never succeed.

A third party. In Cincinnati, each school has a lead partnering agency to assist in connecting with the community. She believes that third party helps ensure the community is comfortable sharing its true hopes and concerns about a school.

Meeting the community where it is. If you send home a flyer asking the community to come to a meeting at the school, it won’t show up. Ask the “neighborhood grandmother” where the meeting should be held — a church, a restaurant, wherever the community gathers — and go to it.

The bottom line: Family and community engagement is a vital part of a truly successful school. But it rarely just happens — it must be intentionally designed. When it is present, we should take the time to celebrate it and learn from it.

What is the difference between a professional learning community and a school learning community? A professional learning community emphasizes the teamwork of principals, teachers, and staff to identify school goals, improve curriculum and instruction, reduce teachers’ isolation, assess student progress, and increase the effectiveness of school programs. Professional teamwork is important and can greatly improve teaching, instruction, and professional relationships in a school, but it falls short of producing a true community of learners. In contrast, a school learning community includes educators, students, parents, and community partners who work together to improve the school and enhance students’ learning opportunities.

One component of a school learning community is an organized program of school, family, and community partnerships with activities linked to school goals. Research and fieldwork show that such programs improve schools, strengthen families, invigorate community support, and increase student achievement and success.

Pipe Dream or Possibility?

Is it a pipe dream to think that every school can become a true learning community, or is it really possible? During the past eight years, more than 1,000 schools, districts, and state departments of education in the National Network of Partnership Schools at Johns Hopkins University have worked with researchers to develop and implement programs of school, family, and community partnerships. Their efforts have produced not only many research publications but also research-based materials that elementary, middle, and high schools can use to customize and continually improve their programs of family and community involvement.

Research-Based Approaches

A well-organized partnership program starts with an Action Team for Partnerships. Made up of teachers, administrators, parents, and community partners, the Action Team is linked to the school council or school improvement team. With a clear focus on promoting student success, the team writes annual plans for family and community involvement, implements and evaluates activities, and integrates the activities conducted by other groups and individual teachers into a comprehensive partnership program for the school.

Focusing on Achievement

A school learning community puts a laserlike focus on student learning and success. Schools in the National Network of Partnership Schools have implemented many family and community involvement activities to support and extend students’ reading, writing, math, and goal-setting skills. The home, school, and community connections make school subjects more meaningful for students. Reading. Many schools engage parents and community partners by offering workshop sessions on reading, by organizing reading volunteers, and by helping parents strengthen students’ reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure at home (Baker & Moss, 2001; Sheldon & Epstein, in press-a). For example, Clara E. Westropp School in Cleveland, Ohio, conducted monthly family reading nights. The school librarian identified age-appropriate books for students from kindergarten through grade 4. Parents came to school with their children, selected books from the library, asked teachers questions about reading, and learned strategies to increase children’s reading at home.

All students in grades 1–3 participated in the Book Check program at Ladysmith Elementary School in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Parents, teachers, retired teachers, and high school students performing community service volunteered to listen to children retell the stories they had read and to discuss plots, settings, and characters. The students took tests on the books they had read and then moved on to new reading. The program expanded from a pilot project to a whole-school activity, creating an active reading community.

 

b) What strategies can the administration of the school apply in order to strengthen its relationship with the community?

A school community is and the different members of the school community – parents and caregivers, students, administrative staff, teachers, and community members.

What is a School Community?

Jake’s mother was helping with him with homework one night they came across a question: what does school community mean to you? Confused by the question, Jake looked to his mother for the answer. Before answering, his mother suggested they brainstorm people Jake sees at school everyday:

Students, Teachers, Parents, Staff members

His mother told him that a school is considered a community because these people: teachers, parents and staff, have common values and standards for the education of the students who attend the school. These members of the school community share responsibility for one another, provide an environment for intellectual learning and create a healthy social atmosphere where all the members of the community are supported.

Jake’s mother went on to explain that in a broader sense, businesses, individuals, elected representatives, charitable organizations and neighborhoods that are invested in the well being of the school could also be considered as being a part of the school community.

Members of a school community Teachers

To learn more about the school community, Jake interviewed some of the teachers in his school. He learned from Mrs. Smith, his math teacher, that teachers are collectively responsible for all the students that attend the school. Teachers are professionals who have a goal within the school community to work towards improved education for all the students. Teachers help students attain their educational goals, act as mentors and provide a supportive atmosphere where the students can grow and develop.

Parents and Caregivers

Jake followed up his interview with his friend’s father who was a member of the parent-teacher association to learn more about how parents impact the school community. Parents, and caregivers, Jake learned, are critical components of the school community. They try their best to provide a balanced family life and ideal conditions at home to help support learning. They help students with homework assignments and setting academic goals. Sometimes they work in collaboration with the teachers for curriculum planning, school decisions and governance.

Students

Being a student himself, Jake already knew that students were the most important components of any school community. Without students there would be no school! Students transform the school community into a group of engaged learners. Learning for students includes learning in the classroom as well as learning from activities organized by the school.

Importance of a school community

Jake then met with the school principal to learn her perspectives about the community atmosphere in his school. His principal Dr. Jones, told him that she believes a school community helps teachers and parents to work together to create a safe and enriched environment where the students can grow and develop, and achieve higher achievement standards. A strong community environment in the school helps students in the following ways:

Living Under a Rock

English poet John Donne said, ‘no man is an island’, and this has been interpreted to mean that humankind is interdependent on each other, we influence each other, and we survive in groups that represent different spheres of influence. Unless a child has been living under a rock, they have been influenced in some way by a variety of societal factors. By taking a deeper look into the influence of social factors and trends, we will be better prepared to address the needs of those students who are impacted.

Ecological Systems Theory

Ecological systems theory, also known as the social ecological model, is a theory that explains the outside influences on an individual. This model places the individual at the center of a series of concentric circles. These circles represent different spheres of influence from increasingly larger and more powerful groups and institutions. For example, the family and peers are the closest sphere of influence and are the smallest circles. The next larger circles would be the school and community. The largest circles represent the broad societal forces and institutions.

Let’s take a look at the influence that trends within each of these larger social systems can have on children. Some of these larger systemic forces that impact a child’s life can be in the media, technological developments, changing demographics and precarious economic conditions.

Media Influence

Children have increased exposure to media such as television, film, internet videos and music. As such, it is important to understand that what children are exposed to may have an impact on their well-being.

For example, a student who watches the news may feel like the world is a scary, dangerous and hopeless place. A student who watches videos on YouTube might be exposed to gratuitous language or dangerous stunts.

Another problem with the media’s influence is on body image where a student may develop an eating disorder or body dysmorphic disorder based on a perception of perfection that is unattainable.

Changing Demographics

Our world is becoming increasingly smaller as we develop global relationships, and people can travel throughout the world, by one’s free choice or by necessity in seeking safety. Such migration patterns have created an increasingly more diverse student population.

Some of the students can be impacted by this immigration trend in that they may have relocated to a place that has less diversity and less acceptance of those who are different. As long as there is war, there will be refugees from war. Some students facing these demographic changes are refugees from war or natural disaster and may have similar symptoms to soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Another problem for which students may seek counseling or guidance is the ongoing problem of race relations in the United States. The ‘black lives matter’ movement has brought attention to the genocide of African Americans, while alternatively the ‘all lives matter’ countermovement has brought racists out into the open. This long history of racial tension can result in an intergenerational trauma that is passed on from parents to children for centuries and manifested at school.

Economic Conditions

Because the minimum wage has been unable to keep up with inflation and because many people making minimum wage are working parents, economic conditions for many students are precarious at best and impoverished for too many. One in five children in the United States live in poverty, and that is the highest rate of child poverty for any developed nation.

Students who are struggling with difficult economic conditions might need behavioral, developmental, or counseling assistance. Additionally, they may need things many students wouldn’t need, like clothing appropriate for the weather, shoes, school supplies, toiletries or even food.

Considering that these are fundamental needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it might be critical to provide for these most basic fundamentals before addressing psychosocial issues. A cold or hungry child is unable to think about how to improve their emotional state of mind, prosocial behavior, or academic focus.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 3.  a) Explain the role of communication skills in teaching learning process.

Have you ever wondered why almost all job listings in any field require good communication skills? Effective communication is crucial, as without it companies will not be able to succeed and may even cease to function.

Many marketers have experienced the bad consequences of poor communication in the workplace. When information is not transferred in the right way and at the right time, workplace productivity can go down. Even more, tasks may can be incomplete and, as a result, goals will not be met. However, the opposite is also true: Effective communication in the workplace can have a positive effect on the performance of employees by increasing the employee morale, retention rate and the overall productivity of the working environment. Here we present five ways that workplace communication effectiveness can increase the overall productivity of your company.

  1. Less misunderstanding

When the information is not transferred correctly to the right people, there might be some miscommunication and misunderstanding which can be a reason for downfall of companies. When there is lack of effective communication in the workplace, confusion is always present. Some employees think managers said one thing, others think that they said something completely different. In this case, how can everyone work for the same goal and increase the productivity? It’s important to have a good communication system, so that everyone understands what the goals are and can work towards them together. For example, if you create a new Facebook promotion strategy for your company, you should clearly communicate new tasks and goals with your employees. If they don’t have a clear understanding of what they should exactly do, such as posting, liking, sharing and so on, then your strategy will probably end up in a mess. Another way that communication can improve productivity is with the help of empowerment. If your employees have more information, they will feel more empowered to complete their tasks with confidence and direction. Those employees who have more information about specific tasks and know how to complete them, are more motivated to get it done effectively. In addition, according to the case study of HEC. prof. Charles-Henri. Besseyre des Horts, it is proven that those companies that are transparent and employees have more empowerment, are usually more productive.

  1. Healthy culture

Healthy and productive cultures within organizations are based on effective communication. If employees and managers in the company have good working relationships with each other, the culture of the company improves and becomes a healthy one. For example, how do you imagine a perfect working atmosphere? Of course, in such companies, there exists respect, empowerment, thankfulness and so on. These are the main things that create the culture within a company. If the communication is bad, for example, if managers are not able to speak with their workers in a respectful way, if workers are afraid of asking questions and so on, then the culture of such companies is a weak one. This is the proof of the fact that communication forms culture of the company. As a result, in those companies where there is a healthy culture, people feel respected and understood, which in turn increases morale and enhanced productivity.

4.Increased accountability

When good communication skills are present in a company, workers tend to keep one another accountable. Just because effective communication in the workplace provides clear instructions, workers know exactly what is expected from each of them. This helps improve accountability, which in turn increases the productivity. If there is no accountability in the workplace, there will be no incentive to get improved.

Real life example:

Matt Mclntyre, owner of Marketing Mediators LLC, a local marketing strategy agency in Indianapolis, US on accountability and productivity:

“My company conducts on-demand, industry leading marketing for small business, As you can imagine that means a lot of projects at once that need to be kept track of. EPN allows us to do that while keeping all staff accountable for their time. They say creative people aren’t always the most timely and project management software fixes that instantly!”

Clear direction

With the help of good communication among managers and employees, it becomes clear where the company is, where it needs to be in the future and which steps need to be taken to get there. All this information provides clear directions for all employees, which increases productivity and decreases uncertainty. Giving exact direction to employees makes their works less stressful, faster, more efficient and enjoyable.

Now you see how effective communication can help your company increase productivity, but you might think that establishing good communication inside the company can be costly and difficult. However, there are a few non-costly ways. Here are some methods to easily improve the internal communication in your company and to stay engaged with your team:

  • Newsletters: One of the ways to improve the communication is to make your employees read the company newsletter once a week. This document should list all of the achievements during the week/month and show how much company values the dedication and motivation of its workers. For example, if your Twitter campaign was successful because of so much of your employee, then you should mention this in your newsletter to make him/her and other employees more motivated.
  • Intranet: There are many companies which don’t use this channel and really miss a great chance to stay connected with their employees. A company intranet may create two sided communication between the managers and employees. Make sure to share some questions, interesting tips, planned marketing campaigns, videos, designs and other important and useful information to improve employee engagement.
  • Face-to-face: The methods mentioned above are, of course, effective, but nothing is more effective than face-to-face interactions. Instead of directly entering your room in the mornings, make sure to chat with your employees,discuss their problems, give them advice, feedback and clear instructions.

So, next time you prepare for a meeting with your team, make sure you do everything to enhance clear and effective communication with them. When everyone understands what you’re trying to say clearly, you will see that your work processes become much smoother and your company becomes more productive.

Keep a Communication Log

One of the most important aspects of communication is to keep a communication log of all contacts that you have with the parents. This will show that the teacher has reached out and is getting the parents involved or informed. If problems continue the teacher wants to show that they have taken these steps to help the students, or attempted to correct behavior.

The Power of Word Choice

 

Teachers need to be mindful of the words they choose when communicating with parents, through telephone, email, and in person.  As mentioned earlier using words like they are causing problems or they are disrespectful can lead to tensions in the communication.  Using these phrases sets a negative tone for the conversation with the parent, again keeping it positive through saying instead “I am concerned about the lack of focus in class.” This phrase will show parents that you care about the student, but you are not being negative about it. As I mentioned earlier, it will have more impact if the teacher can tie it to academics.  A teacher may need to make a call because a student is disrupting class or causing problems, turn it to academics, for example.  “The lack of focus is impacting her grade, she received a 58% on the last quiz, or she currently has a 61% in class. If I could get her to focus more in class…” Teachers will see more willingness from parents when it is academic based and not based on behavior.

  1. b) How can effective communication create an environment that is conducive for learning.

When communication is effective, both the student and the teacher benefit. Communication makes learning easier, helps students achieve goals, increases opportunities for expanded learning, strengthens the connection between student and teacher, and creates an overall positive experience.

Self Esteem

In general, people want to be heard. If a teacher shows interest in a student’s opinions, that student will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated. This increases self esteem and confidence. A confident student is less likely to second guess his answers on tests, and a self-assured student is more likely to speak up in class. Class participation leads to increased learning for the entire class.

Class Performance

Teachers who reward student communication and class participation will notice an improvement in overall class performance. A teacher can gauge the effectiveness of a lecture by student feedback. By asking questions, a teacher can determine if students were able to retain the imparted information. If there are a lack of responses from the class, it is likely that the students were unable to understand the lecture. This can lead to poor performance on exams.

Professional Growth

A degree of communication is required in every profession, and communication skills are necessary at even the most preliminary stages of career growth. For example, an applicant must be able to communicate her skills and abilities during an interview in order to acquire a job.

 

Communication skills are essential for the successful future career of a student. In todays competitive world, communication skills in business are the most sought after quality of an educated person. Reading, writing and listening carefully are the three most important communication skills for students. These skills like most of the communication skills sounds too familiar as a result of which we take them for granted. As regards reading and writing, the only thing that we need to tackle is to adapt with our growing age and concentration. With these two qualities, it is possible to develop reading, oral communication skills and writing skills. Apart from reading and writing presentations, reports and speeches are a part of school curriculum. This has been introduced in schools and colleges for the overall development of students. This makes expressive skills and managing skills also important for a student. It is also important to develop communication skills in relationships.

What deserves more attention is that most of the students do not feel confident to make presentations and speeches. But realizing the importance of these skills in modern day life, most good schools have made it a regular part of their curriculum. Here comes the role of expressive skills and managing skills.

Conversation in every sphere of life

Also, students should be taught as to how to show the other person respect when the other person is speaking. Such etiquette is a part of conversation in every sphere of life, be it professional or personal. Now that we have learned as to what specific communication skill a student must have, it is important to learn how to develop communication skills in a student. The first activity to develop communication skill in students is group activities. Teachers should limit group activities not only in the classroom but also ask students to complete assignments in equally divided groups. Also the teacher should continuously change the groups. This is so that there is more interaction among the students. This process helps a lot in the long run. The next activity is to develop communication skills for students. This is to put in the habit of active listening. For this, the teacher should continuously read out something from newspapers magazines and other sources in order to ask questions from that. Also the teachers should make it a point to encourage active participation of the students. By infusing a healthy feeling of competition and curiosity in students, it would become possible to develop communication skills for students. With these tips, go ahead with confidence and put them into practice..

  1. 4 a) Compare the theories of motivation from different school of thought.

Motivation is our drive or willingness to do something. In the workplace, things like achievement, power, social status, growth and even fear motivate employees to perform. Harpo worked as a stable hand at Happy Corral Horse Farm. There wasn’t much about his work that would motivate most people to wake up in the morning. Harpo was responsible for shoveling the stalls, brushing the horses and walking them to their trough several times a day. There was not much growth at Happy Corral either.

What motivated Harpo to go to work was the horses, but that only took him so far. As he watched the jockeys receive handsome rewards for winning races, he daydreamed about someday being in the winner’s circle. The only problem – Harpo never attended jockey school. Harpo wanted to ride the winning horse past the finish line, but his job didn’t motivate him to reach his goal. Harpo began calling in sick as often as a few times a week. This didn’t sit well with the boss, Jack ‘Horseneck’ McCoy. Horseneck threatened Harpo with termination all the time.

Needs-Based Theory of Motivation

What Horseneck didn’t know was that employees are highly productive when their needs are being met or when they are treated with respect and given opportunities to achieve goals. Needs-based theory of motivation contends that employees have needs and will perform when their primary and secondary needs are met. In the absence of need satisfaction, satisfaction with work will decline, and they will no longer be motivated to work. Primary needs are physiological in nature, like food, water, shelter and sleep. In the workplace, this translates to good working conditions, a safe work environment free from threats, salary and job security. Harpo had some primary needs met. The stables were clean and safe. But his wages were low, and he had no health insurance. The threats of termination didn’t make him feel safe either.

  1. Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance occurs when there is an unresolved conflict in our mind between two beliefs, thoughts or perceptions we hold about a given subject. The level of tension resulting from such conflict will be a function of:

  • How strong the conflict is between the two dissonant thoughts;
  • How important the issue they relate to are to  a specific individual or group;
  • How difficult it is to rationalize (justify through logical or pseudo-logical reasoning) the dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which, as I shall discuss in a future post, is often used in transformational change programs both in the business and educational world. The reason why it is so powerful is because, when used effectively, Cognitive dissonance creates a sense of discomfort in an individual which in order to be resolved results in one of two outcomes:

  • The individual changes behavior (possibly replacing the existing behavior with the newly modelled one);
  • The individual does not adopt the new behavior and justifies his/her behaviour by changing the conflicting cognition created by the new information, instead.
  1. Drive reduction theory

This theory is centred on the notion that we all have needs that we attempt to satisfy in order to reduce the tension or arousal they cause. The internal stimuli these needs produce are our main drives in life. There are Primary drives which refer to basic needs (food, sleep, procreation, etc.) and Secondary drives which refer to social identity and personal fulfillment.

As we act on our needs we are conditioned and acquire habits and subconscious responses. So, for example: when a child needs to feel good about himself, he may recite a poem, sing a song, perform a dance or other ‘feats’ to his parents knowing he is going to get some recognition. Whenever he needs recognition in other contexts, this individual will possibly use the same tactics in order to get the same response from any other figure of authority – including teachers.

When the driven action does not satisfy his needs or the enacting of drives is frustrated, negative emotions (e.g. anxiety) arise. To go back to the previous example: if the boy is looking for a chance to show off to an authority figure his ‘skills’ but he is not given the opportunity to do so, he will feel frustrated, angry and/or unappreciated – a very common scenario in school, often dismissed as the child being ‘naughty’ or ‘unruly’.

Implications for the classroom: find out what drives your students, especially the difficult ones. Instead of approaching the problem by ‘punishing’ them, have a one-on-one chat with them and try to discover what is that they find fulfilling and see if you can find opportunities in your lessons for them to enact their drives. For instance, if you have a student passionate about drama who does not seem to enjoy language learning, ask them to contribute their acting skills by myming vocabulary or sentences in lessons or setting up a mini-production in the target language.

  1. Attribution theory

When we make a mistake or ‘fail’ at something we tend to go through a two-step process. We first experience an automatic response involving internal attribution(i.e. the error is our fault); then a conscious, slower reaction which seeks to find an alternative external attribution (e.g. the error is due to an external factor). This is because we all have a vested interest in ‘looking good’ in our own eyes – a sort of survival mechanism. This type of response, however, is unlikely to lead to self-improvement, as it results in an individual not addressing the real cause of their error/bad performance in the future. Roesch and Amirkham (1997) found that more experienced and successful athletes made more self-serving attributions which lead to identifying and addressing the internal causes of their performance errors.

  1. Endowed progress effect

When people feel they have made some progress towards a goal, they will feel more committed towards its achievement. Conversely, people who are making little or no progress are more likely to give up early in the process. In my work with very low achieving ‘difficult’ students when I operated in challenging inner-city-area schools,sitting with them at the beginning of a task and guiding them through open questioning often ‘did the trick’ where threatening them with sanctions had failed miserably.

Implications for the classroom: Whatever the task you engage your students in, ensure that they all experience success in the initial stages. This may call for two approaches which are not mutually exclusive: (1) design any instructional sequence in a ‘stepped’ fashion, with ‘easy’ tasks that become gradually more difficult; (2) provide lots of scaffolding (support) at the initial stages of teaching.

  1. Cognitive Evaluation Theory

When looking at a task, we assess it in terms of how well it meets our need to feel competent and in control. We will be intrinsically motivated by tasks we believe fall in our current level of competency and ‘put off’ by those which we deem we will do poorly at. This issue is often more about self-perception of one’s levels of competency than objective truth.

Implications for the classroom:  we need to ensure that before engaging students in challenging tasks that they may perceive as being beyond their levels of competence we prepare them adequately, cognitively and emotionally. For instance, in language learning, before carrying out a difficult listening comprehension task, students should be exposed several times to any unfamiliar vocabulary or other language item contained in the to-be-heard recording so as to facilitate the task.  Moreover, modelling strategies that may facilitate the tasks and giving them the opportunity to experience some success in similar tasks through those very strategies may increase their sense of self-efficacy; this will give them greater expectancy of success and a feeling of empowerment which will feed into their sense of competency and control.

Another important implications relate to the way we design the curriculum and assessment. For effective progression from a lower level to a higher one to be possible, students must be given plenty of opportunities to consolidate the material processed at the lower level before moving on. This does not often happen in courses which rely heavily on textbooks. For instance, in most of the institutions I have worked in over 25 years of teaching, I was asked to teach a unit of work every six-seven weeks, a totally unrealistic pace when contact time is limited to one or two hours a week. The result: the weaker children are usually left behind. 

  1. Self-determination theory; Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation.

Individuals differ from one another in terms of PLOC (personal locus of causality). Some will feel that their behavior is self-determined; they are the initiators and sustainers of their actions and their PLOC will be internal. Others will see external forces as determinants of their lives; coercing them into actions. These people’s PLOC will be external. The internal locus is connected with intrinsic motivation, whilst the external locus is connected with extrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by external factors, such as rewards, social recognition or fear of punishment. This kind of motivation focuses people on rewards rather than action.

Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand, refers to the desire to do things because we enjoy doing them, hence it is a stronger motivator than Extrinsic motivation. Three needs lead to intrinsic motivation:

  • Being successful at what we do (i.e. I enjoy French because I am good at it);
  • Being connected with others (i.e. I love my French class because I have bonded well with the rest of the class)
  • Having autonomy (see below)

An important factor leading to Intrinsic Motivation creation is providing learners with the oppportunity to develop effectance. Effectance refers to one of the 3 points made above (being successful at what we do) and is given rise to when the learner accomplishes success at something that they perceive challenging and falling in what Deci (1997)  terms ‘Optimal zone of development’ – i.e.: a task that it is perceived as difficult enough to be challenging but within the stretch of the learner’s ability. Effectance does not arise when we simply give students ‘easy’ work; that is why the ‘easy wins’ strategy often fails with students with poor intrinsic motivation; students are not stupid, they know you are dumbing down the work to make them feel good and the ensuing praise will not affect their self-regard as learners of your subject.

Self-determination theory assumes that there are individuals for whom a feeling of being in control of their life and responsible for their actions is very important for their personal fulfillment and, consequently, for their motivation.

Implications of Self-Determination theory for the classroom: it may be useful to identify which students in your classes have an internal or external PLOC. In my experience this is not difficult. Once identified the internal PLOC of the target individuals, it is very important to cater for their self-determination needs and grant them a degree of autonomy in and ownership over their learning. E.g.: when staging a reading session in the classroom;  carrying out a project; asking students to practise vocabulary online, let them choose how to go about it (whilst setting some guidelines for the sake of consistency). People with high internal PLOC thrive in self-directed learning tasks and contexts; teachers must endeavour to exploit to the fullest this personality trait’s greater potential for autonomy in L2 learning. People with a high external PLOC will need more praise, direction from and a sense of accountability to teachers and caretakers.

b) Develop a yearly plan for the collaboration among community, school and local bodies.

According to the recent MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, teachers, parents and students all agree that parent engagement in schools has increased over the past 25 years. Given the role that family engagement plays in not only academic success, but life success, that is great news. However, the survey also noted that parent engagement remains a challenge for many schools.

Last weekend, at the Celebration of Teaching and Learning, surrounded by educators, representatives from the nonprofit and business worlds, global education experts, academics, and education advocates of all stripes, I found it inspiring how committed the group as a whole was to not just improving family engagement in schools, but expanding engagement beyond the family, to the community in general. Two featured initiatives in particular seemed to embody it: Reconnecting McDowell and Cincinnati’s Community Learning Centers.

Linking Schools and Communities

McDowell County, West Virginia, has ranked last in education in the state for most of the past decade. But it is not just educational challenges that the community faces. The area was once a booming coal community, with over 100,000 residents. Today, there are just 22,000. Many are unemployed (72 percent of students live in a household without gainful employment). McDowell has limited medical services, inadequate access to technology, and substantial drug and alcohol abuse.

Yet those in the community care deeply about it. And everyone agrees that McDowell’s children deserve every opportunity for success. So under the leadership of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the West Virginia State Board of Education, a public/private partnership was born. Reconnecting McDowell is a long-term effort to make educational improvements while addressing all of the community’s complex problems. The project launched in December. So far, the AFT has already begun providing professional development to teachers. The West Virginia state legislature has passed an “innovation zone” bill that allows McDowell County to participate in a teacher-in-residence program with a local university, allowing promising young talent to enter the teaching workforce. The schools have begun comprehensive breakfast and lunch programs; they are hoping to start a dinner program as well. First Book has donated an age-appropriate book for each child in the school system, and Imagination Library is providing books for younger children in the community. The West Virginia AFL-CIO has provided funds to help run water lines to a new housing development.

While the work has just begun, this engagement effort is already showing what can happen when schools and the community commit to working together.

Coordinating Resources

In the early 2000s, Cincinnati Public Schools learned that they had the worst school buildings in the nation. They needed to pass a levy to raise money for improvements, but one hadn’t passed in a number of years. To garner community support, they proposed that the renovated schools would serve as centers of the community, remaining open on nights and weekends to provide services. The levy passed, and the Community Learning Centers (CLCs) began.

Bogenschutz offers some additional thoughts as to what is necessary to start the work:

 

A culture shift. Those on staff must sincerely recognize the value of the partnership, or it will never succeed.

A third party. In Cincinnati, each school has a lead partnering agency to assist in connecting with the community. She believes that third party helps ensure the community is comfortable sharing its true hopes and concerns about a school.

Meeting the community where it is. If you send home a flyer asking the community to come to a meeting at the school, it won’t show up. Ask the “neighborhood grandmother” where the meeting should be held — a church, a restaurant, wherever the community gathers — and go to it.

The bottom line: Family and community engagement is a vital part of a truly successful school. But it rarely just happens — it must be intentionally designed. When it is present, we should take the time to celebrate it and learn from it.

What is the difference between a professional learning community and a school learning community? A professional learning community emphasizes the teamwork of principals, teachers, and staff to identify school goals, improve curriculum and instruction, reduce teachers’ isolation, assess student progress, and increase the effectiveness of school programs. Professional teamwork is important and can greatly improve teaching, instruction, and professional relationships in a school, but it falls short of producing a true community of learners. In contrast, a school learning community includes educators, students, parents, and community partners who work together to improve the school and enhance students’ learning opportunities.

One component of a school learning community is an organized program of school, family, and community partnerships with activities linked to school goals. Research and fieldwork show that such programs improve schools, strengthen families, invigorate community support, and increase student achievement and success.

Pipe Dream or Possibility?

Is it a pipe dream to think that every school can become a true learning community, or is it really possible? During the past eight years, more than 1,000 schools, districts, and state departments of education in the National Network of Partnership Schools at Johns Hopkins University have worked with researchers to develop and implement programs of school, family, and community partnerships. Their efforts have produced not only many research publications but also research-based materials that elementary, middle, and high schools can use to customize and continually improve their programs of family and community involvement.

Research-Based Approaches

A well-organized partnership program starts with an Action Team for Partnerships. Made up of teachers, administrators, parents, and community partners, the Action Team is linked to the school council or school improvement team. With a clear focus on promoting student success, the team writes annual plans for family and community involvement, implements and evaluates activities, and integrates the activities conducted by other groups and individual teachers into a comprehensive partnership program for the school.

Focusing on Achievement

A school learning community puts a laserlike focus on student learning and success. Schools in the National Network of Partnership Schools have implemented many family and community involvement activities to support and extend students’ reading, writing, math, and goal-setting skills. The home, school, and community connections make school subjects more meaningful for students. Reading. Many schools engage parents and community partners by offering workshop sessions on reading, by organizing reading volunteers, and by helping parents strengthen students’ reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure at home (Baker & Moss, 2001; Sheldon & Epstein, in press-a). For example, Clara E. Westropp School in Cleveland, Ohio, conducted monthly family reading nights. The school librarian identified age-appropriate books for students from kindergarten through grade 4. Parents came to school with their children, selected books from the library, asked teachers questions about reading, and learned strategies to increase children’s reading at home.

All students in grades 1–3 participated in the Book Check program at Ladysmith Elementary School in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Parents, teachers, retired teachers, and high school students performing community service volunteered to listen to children retell the stories they had read and to discuss plots, settings, and characters. The students took tests on the books they had read and then moved on to new reading. The program expanded from a pilot project to a whole-school activity, creating an active reading community.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 5. a)Explain the technological change which has taken place in the last decade.

In economics, a technological change is an increase in the efficiency of a product or process that results in an increase in output, without an increase in input. In other words, someone invents or improves a product or process, which is then used to get a bigger reward for the same amount of work.

The telephone is an example of a product that has undergone a technological change. It has undergone many different changes over the years that have made it more efficient. Processes or products, such as the telephone, move through technological change in three stages:

  • Invention– the creation of a new product or process
  • Innovation– the application of the invention for the first time
  • Diffusion– how fast others begin to adopt the innovation

Impacts of Technological Change

We have all likely experienced the impact of technology. Let’s take a look at the ways, both good and bad, technological change has impacted our world:

  • Creates new products and processes

When telephones were first invented, the object was to be able to verbally communicate with someone. Due to technological changes, we have multiple ways to communicate using our phones, such as text, email, or talk.

  • Increases efficiency, lower costs

Technology makes it possible to perform everyday tasks faster and with less energy on our part. For instance, some people have a vacuum cleaning robot. Instead of spending 30 minutes vacuuming, they push a button and go do something else. That’s efficiency.

Helps economies evolve

People are able to increase the ways in which they create wealth. It also has a ripple effect. When one technological change occurs, it changes how we live. With the integration of technology, societies evolved from traditional hunting and gathering to industrialized. So that fewer people are growing crops and more are moving into other industries.

But what is technology exactly? Most people probably picture computers and cell phones when the subject of technology comes up, but technology is not merely a product of the modern era. However, technology is any tool created from scientific knowledge that serves a particular function.

It should be noted that the word ‘scientific’ referenced here is used somewhat loosely, as not all cultures are conducting formal experiments. For example, fire and stone tools were important forms of technology developed during the Stone Age. Just as the availability of digital technology shapes how we live today, the creation of stone tools changed how pre-modern humans lived and how well they ate. The effect that technology has had, over time, on both local and global cultures has been significant.

Impact on Local Cultures

All aspects of our lives today are influenced by technology. In agriculture, the introduction of machines that can till, thresh, plant, and harvest greatly reduced the need for manual labor, which, in turn, meant there were fewer rural jobs, which led to the urbanization of society, as well as lowered birthrates because there was less need for large families to work the farms. In the criminal justice system, the ability to ascertain innocence through DNA testing has saved the lives of people on death row. The examples are endless. Technology plays a role in absolutely every aspect of our lives.

However, as technology becomes more and more pervasive, the amount of inequality to access that technology also increases. There are two forms of stratification, or division, that unequal access to technology creates. The first is known as the digital divide, which is a class-based division in which higher-income people have greater access to technology than lower-income people.

As the digital divide has grown, it has created a second division called the knowledge gap, which is an increasing gap in information for those who have less access to technology. For example, if you went to a school that had the latest and greatest computer labs, chances are you would gain proficiency in how to use those computers, thus making you more marketable in a technology-based job market. On the other hand, if you went to a school with less technology resources, your knowledge of how to use technology to solve problems may not grow quickly enough for you to be as marketable in the job market.

Impact on Global Cultures

Technology has a pretty strong impact on a global scale as well. One way technology impacts global cultures is through media globalization. One of the biggest ways to influence people worldwide is through media technology. As we mentioned in our example at the beginning, people are able to get information almost immediately because of things like cell phones and the Internet. One of the biggest positives of this technological advancement is that it has led to an increased sense of globalization, or the bringing together of people across national boundaries. Now with technology, a person in Japan can watch the news of what is happening in Chicago, Illinois, with the click of a mouse. This type of technology was unheard of years ago.

b) Explain how technology has influenced the international labour market?

As a set of tools that amplify or extend what we currently do (make it better, faster and stronger), or as something with the potential to radically change what we do and how we do it. For example, the technology of a better saddle allowed riders to travel further and longer, but the technology of a car completely revolutionized the way we even conceive of travel. Perhaps the argument is one of quality and not quantity. A similar argument exists in describing educational technology. Extending what we currently do as teachers only amplifies our current practices, while using technology qualitatively affords radical change in the work of teachers and the learning of students. The fact remains that many educators use technology to amplify what is currently done. Common amplifications, such as the ones that follow, are often described as excellent uses of instructional technology.

  • Using a laserdisc to supplement information and images from text.
  • Using the Web to find interesting facts to spice up existing curricula.
  • Using online or networked grading programs.
  • Using computer assisted instruction to supplement traditional instructional practices.

 

Using desktop publishing to make more aesthetically pleasing class materials and handouts.

Technology can act as an agent of significant, and perhaps radical, change in teacher practice – significantly altering the way teachers, pupils, and schools operate. We are not stating that amplification uses of technology are poor uses. We are simply stating that amplification uses do not capitalize on the full potential and power of most technology resources. Considering how technology can radically change what we do as teachers pushes our thinking to new levels and challenges us to reorganize, reinvent, and rebuild our pedagogical practices, routines, and thinking in ways that reflect the changing technological and sociological climate in which our children are learning.

Our discussion of technology as an agent of change in teacher practice is organized into three areas: changes in epistemology, changes in psychology as applied to learning, and social and relational change. Each section discusses these changes and provides examples from our own experiences, as well as others, which exemplify these new ways of thinking and acting.

Technology as an Agent of Change in Teacher Practice

Students can often gain access to the same kinds of information available to practicing professionals. Moving outside a textbook to see subject matter in its more “private” form is liberating, but also dangerous. It puts a great deal of pressure on both teacher and student to make sense of data, to filter extraneous information, and to focus on important subject matter ideas. Further, this practice demands that both teacher and student become good “knowledge consumers.” We return to this notion of learning to be “knowledge consumers” in the next section.

Similar conclusions

Most teachers have come to similar conclusions as they consider ways to use the Web. Searching for worksheets and such only allows the Web to amplify current curriculum, thus not moving it beyond its “public” image. Teachers must begin to reconsider what course content is or should be. Couldn’t one teach a great portion of a weather unit using real-time weather data from CNN.com? Raw weather data is knowledge of a very different sort in comparison to the information found in a weather chapter in a textbook. Teachers must learn to first recognize this insight as useful and then learn to utilize it and other alternative resources in their efforts to facilitate learning. They must shift their thinking from boldfaced words and questions at the end of the chapter to situated activities and subject matter ideas, real-world tasks, and authentic performance tests.

Traditionally low-tech environments

In traditionally low-tech environments, students are often viewed as receivers of knowledge (in the worst case scenario) or constructors of knowledge (in the best case, constructivist fashion). We believe the unprecedented access to information that technology affords demands a shift to more forward-looking notions of students as consumers of knowledge (in addition to knowledge constructors). Teachers must model methods for judging the trustworthiness of information by checking it against other sources, executing mental experiments to investigate the logic of purported claims, and asking critical questions about the origins of claims. Students should be taught to scrutinize knowledge carefully and hold all information as suspect until a reasonable level of certainty can be established. This is difficult and time consuming for both teachers and students, as it demands skepticism first. However, becoming a good consumer of knowledge and information is a skill we’ll all need as the Web continues to expand. We recognize that this is not necessarily an issue limited to technology as the sheer volume of media messages continues to increase. We do believe, though, that the Web, with its complete lack of standards for integrity, serves to magnify this problem.

Technology asks teachers to view not only learners, but also learning tasks in new ways. Rather than asking students to complete pre-determined and well-defined tasks such as worksheets, step-by-step lab experiments, and projects designed with a single goal in mind, teachers must embrace learning activities that are ill-structured, ill-defined, and open-ended. Useful here is the concept of design – teachers must design learning activities and students must design learning projects that make use of technology resources and subject matter ideas. For example, rather than completing a set of worksheets on moon phases, students may be asked to investigate online tide tables and real-time video, to make sense of data and observations, and to express what they have learned using different media.

Ideas about the subject matter

Designing a project can help students bring together ideas about the subject matter, their own strengths and motivations and communicative principles. Design is inquisitive, as it challenges students to investigate phenomena in ways individually relevant and interesting. Design is expressive because it asks students to apply what they have learned to produce a product. Design is authentic because the intent of design-based activities is to communicate or persuade (Mishra and Girod 2000). It has been argued that design-based activities, afforded by expanded technology, have moved conversations about communications media and aesthetics to the foreground in many learning contexts (Ohler 2000). Teachers must come to embrace the act of design and design-based activities as important tasks to facilitate learning in technology-rich environments.

Social and Relational Changes

Related to the notion of facilitating learning rather than dispensing knowledge are issues of power and social politics. If, for instance, the teacher and text are displaced as the sole arbiters of subject matter knowledge, ramifications follow for power relationships in classrooms. Many students may feel empowered by the freedom to learn, explore, and critique knowledge as it comes to them (or is created) in new media. Students are often thrilled to realize that, perhaps for the first time, they know more about the topic at hand than their teacher. Whether true or not, topics defined by texts and teachers limit the potential for students to experience feelings of expertise beyond that of their peers and teachers. Arguably, students who feel empowered as learners are more highly motivated to learn and are generally more successful in their efforts to do so. A great example is the act of publishing written products to the Web. Upon realizing their work is now accessible to millions of people, students cannot help but feel a sense of pride, ownership, and expertise as their words and ideas are shared publicly. Teachers can capitalize on this power easily if goals are shifted to empowerment of the learner.

Cognitive attention

Finally, and also related to arguments made above, technology has the potential to dramatically alter learning contexts. It has been documented that most children do not view television as a media that demands much cognitive attention (Solomon 1997). As a result, when watching instructional television in school, children simply fail to engage their full cognitive capacities in efforts to learn. All technology has the potential to fail similarly. Teachers must first begin to define contexts for learning differently and then treat technology resources as serious contexts for stimulating learning. Using technology only for games, drill and practice activities and Web-browsing reinforces the notion that technology and alternative media are less valuable as sources for learning than textbooks, the teacher, and other more commonly used materials. Why do we place this argument in the category of social and relational change rather than psychological change? Because we believe that broadening contexts for learning undermines the power and authority of the teacher. We want students to view technology as being on an equal footing with the teacher and their textbooks.

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