AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8606 Spring 2020 Assignments 1& 2  Course:Citizenship and Community Engagement (8606) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Citizenship and Community Engagement (8606) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 1 a)Define the concept of social structure.

Social structure, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society.

Although it is generally agreed that the term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent. For example, the term is sometimes wrongly applied when other concepts such as custom, tradition, role, or norm would be more accurate.

Studies of social structure attempt

Studies of social structure attempt to explain such matters as integration and trends in inequality. In the study of these phenomena, sociologists analyze organizations, social categories (such as age groups), or rates (such as of crime or birth). This approach, sometimes called formal sociology, does not refer directly to individual behaviour or interpersonal interaction. Therefore, the study of social structure is not considered a behavioral science; at this level, the analysis is too abstract. It is a step removed from the consideration of concrete human behaviour, even though the phenomena studied in social structure result from humans responding to each other and to their environments. Those who study social structure do, however, follow an empirical (observational) approach to research, methodology, and epistemology.

Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities. The larger the social entity considered, the more abstract the concept tends to be. For this reason, the social structure of a small group is generally more closely related to the daily activities of its individual members than is the social structure of a larger society. In the study of larger social groups, the problem of selection is acute: much depends on what is included as components of the social structure. Various theories offer different solutions to this problem of determining the primary characteristics of a social group.

Social structure of any society

 

Before these different theoretical views can be discussed, however, some remarks must be made on the general aspects of the social structure of any society. Social life is structured along the dimensions of time and space. Specific social activities take place at specific times, and time is divided into periods that are connected with the rhythms of social life—the routines of the day, the month, and the year. Specific social activities are also organized at specific places; particular places, for instance, are designated for such activities as working, worshiping, eating, and sleeping. Territorial boundaries delineate these places and are defined by rules of property that determine the use and possession of scarce goods. Additionally, in any society there is a more or less regular division of labour. Yet another universal structural characteristic of human societies is the regulation of violence. All violence is a potentially disruptive force; at the same time, it is a means of coercion and coordination of activities. Human beings have formed political units, such as nations, within which the use of violence is strictly regulated and which, at the same time, are organized for the use of violence against outside groups.

Furthermore, in any society there are arrangements within the structure for sexual reproduction and the care and education of the young. These arrangements take the form partly of kinship and marriage relations. Finally, systems of symbolic communication, particularly language, structure the interactions between the members of any society.

 

 

SOCIAL STRUCTURE: THE MACRO LEVEL OF SOCIETY

 

When sociologists use the term “social structure” they are typically referring to macro level social forces including social institutions and patterns of institutionalized relationships. The major social institutions recognized by sociologists include family, religion, education, media, law, politics, and economy. We see these as distinct institutions that are interrelated and interdependent, and together help compose the overarching social structure of a society.

These institutions organize our social relationships to others, and create patterns of social relations when viewed on a large scale. For example, the institution of family organizes people into distinct social relationships and roles, including mother, father, son, daughter, husband, wife, etc., and there is typically a hierarchy to these relationships, which results in a power differential.

The same goes for religion, education, law, and politics.

These social facts may be less obvious within the institutions of media and economy, but they are present there too. Within these there are organizations and people who hold greater amounts of power than others to determine what happens within them, and as such, they hold more power in society. What these people and their organizations do act as structuring forces in the lives of all of us. The organization and operation of these social institutions in a given society results in other aspects of social structure, including socio-economic stratification, which is not just a product of a class system, but is also determined by systemic racism and sexism, as well as other forms of bias and discrimination.

The social structure of the U.S. results in a sharply stratified society in which very few people control wealth and power–and they tend to be white and male–while the majority has very little of either. Given that racism is embedded in core social institutions like education, law, and politics, our social structure also results in a systemically racist society. The same can be said for the problem of gender bias and sexism.

SOCIAL NETWORKS: THE MESO LEVEL MANIFESTATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Sociologists see social structure present at the “meso” level–between the macro and the micro levels–in the social networks that are organized by the social institutions and institutionalized social relationships described above. For example, systemic racism fosters segregation within U.S. society, which results in some racially homogenous networks. The majority of white people in the U.S. today have entirely white social networks. Our social networks are also a manifestation of social stratification, whereby social relations between people are structured by class differences, differences in educational attainment, and differences in levels of wealth. In turn, social networks act as structuring forces by shaping the kinds of opportunities that may or may not be available to us, and by fostering particular behavioral and interactional norms that work to determine our life course and outcomes.

  1. b) Analyze the cultural elements of Pakistani society.

Culture may be defined as an integral whole which affects human ideals, actions and modes of living. According to E.B. Taylor,

“Culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs and all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society.”

Every great nation enjoys its own culture. Similarly, Pakistani culture is very distinct due to its Islamic nature and rich historical background. Pakistani culture has the following characteristics:

i- Islamic values and traditions.

ii- National and regional languages.

iii- Mixed culture.

iv- Rich literature

v- Male dominated society.

vi- Variety of Dresses

vii- Fairs and Festivals.

viii- Sports

ix- Handicrafts.

i- Islamic Values:

Pakistani culture is actually a part of the contemporary Islamic civilization which draws its value and traditions from Islam and rich Islamic history. Majority of population comprises of Muslims and follows teachings of Islam, i-e., belief in one Allah, Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad P.B.U.H, brotherhood, equality and social justice etc. Islam is religion of peace and patience. Pakistani society is very cooperative. National calendar is marked by religious days which are observed with great devotion.

ii- National and Regional Languages:

Pakistan is a large country which comprises of four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA). All of these component parts have their own regional languages. As such Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi, Balochi, Barohi and Kashmiri are regional languages. However, Urdu is the national language which is spokin and understood in all parts of the country.

iii- Mixed Culture:

Practically speaking Pakistani culture is a beautiful blend of the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluchi, Barohi, Seraiki and Kashmiri cultures. In addition, the presence of Hindu community in Sindh gives touches of dance and music in the Sindhi region. The Hindus sing Bhejas but Pakistani culture has adopted Qawwali which is a praise of the Holy Propher P.B.U.H.

iv- Rich Literature:

Pakistani culture is rich in the literatures of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baruhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri languages. Urdu literature boasts of the masterpieces of Maulana Azad, Iqbal, Shibli, Hali, Ghalib, Agha Hashar, Manto and Faiz whereas the Punjabi literature stands out with great names like Waris Shah, Sultan Bahu, Ghulam Farid, Bulhay Shah and Shah Hussain etc. Similarly, Sindhi literature glitters with the masterpieces of Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Shah Qadir Bakhsh, and Faqir Nabi Bakhsh. The Pushto literature also boasts of names like Sheikh Saleh, Raghoon Khan, Akhund dardeeza, Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba. The Baluchi literature comprises of masterpieces of Jam Durk, Muhammad Ali, Zahoor Shah Hashmi, Ghani Parvez, Hasrat Baluch, Abbas Ali Zemi and Aziz Bugti etc.

v- Male Dominated Society:

Pakistani society is dominated by male members. Each family is headed by the senior most male member who is responsible for arranging the bread and butter of the family.

vii- Variety of Dresses:

Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses: The people of Punjab, the Pathans of NWFP, the Baluchi people and the Sindhis wear their own distinct dresses. These dresses are very colourful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals.

viii- Fairs and Festivals:

The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of Fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country. Moreover, annual urs of great saints are held to commemorate their anniversaries. On these occasions, fairs are also held in which people take part in great numbers. Out of these the Horse and Cattle shows of Lahore, Mianwali and Sibi are famous wheseas the Polo festival fo Gilgit is prominent at national and international level. Moreover annual urs of Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh, Madhu Lal Hussain, Baba Bulhay Shah, Baba Farid Gunj Shakar, Baba Gulu Shah, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Abdul Latif Bhitaii, Hazrat Noshah Ganj Bakhsh, Bari Imam, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, and Bahauddin Zakriya are celebrated with great fervour.

ix- Sports:

Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games. Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the coutnry. In addition wrestling, boxing, and athletics are also very popular among masses. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past. These include Bholu in Wrestling, Hanif, Miandad, Imran, Wasim Akram, and Inzamam in cricket, Shehnaz sheikh, Islahuddin, KHalid mahmood, Akhtar Rasool, and Munir Dar in hockey and Jahangir, Jansher in squash.

x- Handicrafts:

Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 2      a) Discuss the principles of group dynamics.

Bruce W. Tuckman was one of the first psychologists to study and define group dynamics. In 1965, he recognized and defined the stages of group development, suggesting that groups must experience all five stages of development to reach maximum effectiveness. These stages can help you understand other basic principles that come into play with group dynamics.

Group Development Stages

Tuckman first described four distinct stages but later added a fifth. Groups go through these stages subconsciously but the understanding of the stages can help groups reach the last stage effectively. The five stages are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Although groups go through these stages in the order listed, a group can be at a later stage and go back to a previous stage before continuing forward. For example, a group might be working efficiently in the performing phase, but the arrival of a new member might force the group back into the storming stage.

Communication

The communication network is another characteristic of group dynamics. An informal group uses communication processes that are simpler than those of the formal organization. In the informal group, the person who possesses the most amount of vital information frequently becomes the leader. Knowing about this group dynamic allows supervisors to provide this strategically placed leading individual with information that the group needs. Giving the group and its members relevant information encourages harmonious relationships between the supervisor and the informal group.

Rotational Leadership Dynamic

In informal group dynamics, rotational leadership is a specific attribute that is less common in formal organizations. An informal leader generally arises when a team member shows leadership qualities that others see as critical for a specific situation. Unlike a formally appointed group leader, the informal leader can only guide the group toward the completion of a project’s objectives. The informal leader does not possess any formal power, and the group can replace such a person if the need arises. This group dynamic phenomenon often happens subconsciously and constantly evolves during the lifetime of the group.

Group Norms

Another characteristic of group dynamics is the presence of group norms and values. Defined norms, established during the norming phase, assist the group in clarifying thinking and determining which behavior patterns are acceptable. Norms also keep the group functioning as a system and measure the performance of group members.

  1. b) What is the role of a teacher in molding the individual and group behavior in the classroom environment?

The relationships between and among institutions, participant’s behavior and economic and social performance are important in several academic disciplines, in the practical affairs of governments, and in the decisions of firms, households and individuals. The most basic generic paradigm in social science is that social and physical environments shape or at least influence human behavior and the resulting behavior of individuals interacting with the environment influences the performance of the unit of society under consideration. This essay is concerned with the problems of developing and using paradigms, theories, or simple beliefs about the relationships among institutions, behavior and performance, recognizing that behavior is never determined by institutions alone, but is always shaped and influenced by the environments of individual actors as well as by their physical makeup.

Understanding these relationships is useful in predicting the consequences of actions given the matrix of existing institutions and the related patterns of behavior and in predicting the consequences of changes in the matrix of institutions. In order to make sense out of the almost infinite set of possible relationships, theories are developed.

Three levels of theory are important in thinking about institutional analysis. There are meta paradigms which provided the basic framework for understanding political economic systems. These identify basic relationships, the questions which are appropriate to ask, and represent a general set of beliefs about how a system works and how it could work. Neoclassic economics could

be an important part of be such a system, providing a particular way of looking at the economy.

Third are the micro theories developed by all participants in the form of beliefs about reactions to and consequences of particular actions. For example, a Doctor might believe he would leave himself open to a malpractice suit unless he prescribed a number of screening tests. Data on the micro theories held by different classes of participants would be important empirical content of a theory of the case. Similarly theories of the case and meta paradigms influence the micro theories of individuals and thus influence their behavior.

Institutions

In this discussion institutions are taken to be the formal and informal rules which govern or at least influence the behavior of participants of a society as they interact in political and economic activities. The formal rules include laws and regulations as interpreted and enforced by political authority. The informal rules are the shared beliefs about acceptable and unacceptable behavior enforced by conscience, a result of socialization, based upon the actual and expected reactions of other members of the society. Both the formal and informal rules reflect or embody views about fairness, legitimacy, good and evil, right and wrong.

Institutions are the product of collective action. They are the result of cooperation. Institutions both constrain and liberate individual behavior, may promote cooperation or conflict and have varying levels of support of the polity.

A class of institutions provide order in every ones interest with little or no influence on the distribution of benefits and costs; for example, rules for driving on a particular side of the road. This illustrates one of the important general functions of institutions; they make the behavior of others more predictable and reduce mistakes and conflicts arising from unpredictable behavior. Many of the working rules for markets are similar to traffic regulations. They facilitate trade to both parties advantage. At the same time market rules defining property–rules which define what has to be taken into account in economic activity–greatly influence not only the organization of the economy, but also the distribution of benefits and costs from that economy.

Institutional analysis is concerned with effects on performance of both existing and missing institutions. Analysis is complicated by the fact that behavior is influenced by a matrix of institutions, some formal and some informal. Formal rule changes intended to change a particular performance may fail to produce expected results because of the informal institutions in the relevant matrix. It is generally the case that the political process is much more able to change the laws and regulations than to suppress or create customs and attitudes. The following is an example.

An Example Of An Economic Problem Involving A Matrix Of Institutions.

Like many countries, Tanzania is in the process of moving from a planned socialist economy to one much more directed by people interacting in markets. Laws have been changed making it legal to own and use resources for private enterprises. Taking advantage of the change in formal property law, the privatizing of some land, a budding business man acquired some land and is considering establishing a dairy. He would produce milk with three cows and sell the milk at retail. His business analysis, based upon expected prices of inputs and outputs shows potential profits of 10 times the government civil service salary for a middle manager with a masters degree. However, he is faced with a number of institution related problems. A number of inputs are required and their availability at the time they are needed is uncertain. For example the market for feed is unreliable and there is no tradition of contracting. He has to find farmers with reliable feed production and develop a personal relationship with them. Medical supplies required to maintain the cow’s health have to be imported. There is no firm with a reliable supply selling the needed inputs. He would have to make arrangements to have them imported.

This, he claims, would require a personal relationship with a customs official to assure timely delivery. It would be much more efficient to have a firm specialize in importing and distributing these need supplies. But potential farmers would be reluctant to rely on them fearing “hold up prices” dealing with the single supplier when the supplier knows the farmer has a sick cow. Marketing the milk also has many problems. The most important is that, lacking either regulation or custom to assure sanitation, the buyers would insist on knowing the dairyman personally. (In Cairo the extreme version of this problem is shown by observing herds of dairy cows in the streets moving to places where the buyers actually see their milk come from the cow.) This is just a sample of the problems faced by a potential private entrepreneur in a country without a supporting set of institutions. The budding business man, a Ph.D economist, after two years has not found ways to deal with the institutional barriers to developing a three cow dairy enterprise. This is not a unique case, but rather illustrates a common situation.

Behavior

The generic paradigm of institutional analysis is that institutions have a strong influence on participant behavior and that the resulting behavior has a strong influence on economic performance. More particularly each participant faces and responds to a changing opportunity set, with institutions important in structuring the opportunity sets. Performance is strongly influenced by the sum of interactions of participant responses. The paradigm is dynamic if changes in opportunity sets and learning are taken into account as consequences of previous patterns of behavioral responses.

This paradigm, taken at face value, would lead to the conclusion that institutional analysis is practically impossible. After all, the U.S economy alone is the result of the behavior of 260 million or so individuals, each reacting to their perceptions of their opportunity sets based upon a unique set of experiences. Each individual is unique.

Institutional analysis

The fourth approach to behavior in institutional analysis is more complex. The concept is to identify the relevant classes of participants, make informed assumptions about their behavior, testing the assumptions (propositions) to the extent possible both by direct observation and by inference from consequences of their behavior, and model the interactions among the participants and the pattern of institutions under consideration. In this approach knowledge of relevant classes of participants and their likely behavior becomes very important. For example, firms could be recognized as political and social organizations with internal interest groups with differing objectives, with ideologies, with standard operating procedures and with employees effort influenced by the political system of the firm. It would be recognized that individuals learn patterns of responses to similar situations. They develop techniques for coping with their uncertain world. The fact of limited information and general uncertainty would be recognized. It would not be

assumed that individuals necessarily act in their long run interest; interests are uncertain and preferences evolve. At the same time reasonable assumptions about incentives coming from the institutional situation, capacity to process information and behavior in general would be made based upon what ever knowledge about the culture and the situation is accessible to the analyst. The fact that all humans have some common needs and common experiences makes some predictions of behavior possible without detailed knowledge of each participant.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 3      a) Highlight the role of education in preserving and promoting the culture of a society.

Indigenous education has been misconstrued, misinterpreted, and miserably unsuccessful for many years in Canada. Western notions of education and of “educating the savage” were implemented with presumed supremacy while indigenous notions of community involvement and preservation of oral histories were considered by Western educators to be deficient. As a result, indigenous education has been presumed by Western standards to be about assimilation and segregation. In part, this discrepancy has been the result of the intellectual gap between indigenous scholars (elders and spiritual leaders) and Western scholars. With the presumed superiority of Western education by Western educators came the suppression of the role of traditional teachers in indigenous education.

In no small measure, the devastation of indigenous economies and the resulting impact on infrastructure and growth of key components of indigenous nations (such as the systematization of indigenous education principles and practices) has affected how indigenous education has been presented in and received by indigenous nations and the Canadian government. For many years, indigenous education has been mistaken by Western educators for a number of related concepts and undertakings. Native studies or indigenous content programs, university entry programs, and the inclusion of indigenous faculty and staff in schools are all pieces of a larger model of indigenous education. In the model we discuss here, indigenous education is education for and by indigenous people. This model is reliant upon.

Indigenous people in programming

The respectful inclusion of indigenous people in programming, course development, and staffing the reflective development of substantive and procedural inclusion of indigenous peoples based upon indigenous philosophies the creation of intellectual and institutional responsiveness to concerns and principles identified by indigenous peoples. This model is meant to operate in a community with a lack of infrastructure for university degree programming; indigenous participants who are willing to create alliances at the community, national, and institutional level; and an existing educational system that is willing to develop courses, programs, and processes which are based upon the principle of inclusivity and partnership.

A largely unspoken belief in Western institutions is that indigenous learners do not learn well in distance education models. At the Athabasca University, we have often heard that indigenous students do not perform well except in a classroom capacity, and then only once there is “hands on” experience in the classroom. To some degree there is a verbal shorthand developing, a sort of intellectual shortcut, that enables Western thinkers classify students’ behavior based soley upon observation—even if the observation is based on perceptions that are culturally influenced.1 The problem is, the behavior may not make sense without cultural or linguistic context. Indigenous learners are assessed by the measuring stick of culturally insensitive non-indigenous standards which will always find them coming up short.

 The stereotype that indigenous people cannot perform well except in a classroom setting presupposes an inherent inability of indigenous students to adapt to technology and perpetuates the false image of indigenous cultures frozen in the past. This belief, as many stereotypes, may have a grain of truth in it—without infrastructure and access to equipment and technology in the home, many learners will have to “catch up” to the technological advances being made. As well, the stereotype of indigenous learners as experiential has a grain of practical truth in it: many indigenous learners advance their learning and achievement if they are able to apply it to a concrete experience. But with a history objectifying and labelling their character as primitive, it is important to ensure that we separate fact from fiction as we identify which learning experiences are beneficial to indigenous people.

Challenges of Distance Education

A spring 1998 article in the Journal of American Indian Education describes how distance education can help overcome these challenges at the post-secondary level:

Under the right conditions, these barriers can be at least partially reduced through the technologies of distance learning. They are particularly appropriate for American Indian students, who are, on average, significantly older than traditional college students, likely have a history of dropping out and returning to school, and who suffer both financially and emotionally while in traditional colleges … The key is the availability of distance education that is culturally sensitive—that understands the individual as part of a cultural community, and that is sensitive to the parameters of that community, recognizing that “distance” can be both cultural and geographic, and that effective learning requires the reduction of both.

Indigenous education and distance education have two things in common. Both are often perceived as less credible than Western in-class educational programming, both models have struggled with issues of individuality and a lack of peer support for students. It is important to observe that successful learning situations, in which indigenous students complete programs of study successfully, are most often characterized by three factors:

  • a trust relationship with the instructor• a support system in place

    • a recognition of the value and merit of opposing or dissimilar worldviews, understandings, and philosophies

All three of these requirements can be achieved through distance education for and by indigenous peoples. The most challenging obstacle is the development of a trust relationship between a distance education instructor and an indigenous student. Studies demonstrate that indigenous students achieve success in environments where they have a personal relationship with their teacher or learning facilitator, regardless of the degree of autonomy or of self-determination.

“Tribal colleges and partner institutions face several hurdles when they design distance learning programs,” writes Deborah Westit in the spring 1999 Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education. Faculty must address the needs of various, specific cultural groups despite the physical distance between students and instructors that can foster a sense of disengagement or isolation. American Indian cultures represented in the Montana region remain relatively traditional in their cultural beliefs, values, ceremonies and traditions. … Tribal college faculty must learn to take tribal cultures into consideration, and this can be more challenging for faculty who are not based on reservations.

Relationships between instructors and students to facilitate learning

Distance learning researchers strongly advocate building relationships between instructors and students to facilitate learning. This is quite compatible with the goal of making the information in distance education courses available to indigenous students. It is not necessarily an issue of “indigenizing” teaching, texts, pedagogy and teaching tools. It is actually more like releasing the vice grip of colonization on education to allow other models and ways of knowing and understanding to permeate the educational system. Administrators, editors, information technology staff, and faculty members must at least be aware of the context within which indigenous people live to be able to present indigenous education in a viable form. One distance education team that Westit describes wrote: “In our experience, instructors must also consider the reservation context when developing the curriculum and presenting it. This helps students relate to the concepts and theories being taught.

  1. b) Suggest possible ways in which teachers may socialize with their students in school and classroom.

Socialization refers to the meaning of one being able to relate in a pleasant type of companionship with a friend or associate. Teachers are one of the most influential people regarding the philosophy and lessons of socialization. By teaching and modeling socialization to children, children will learn the meaning of kindness and generosity. They will then be able to eventually go out into society and contribute in a positive, meaningful and productive way. Teachers, in a sense are a child’s provider outside of the child’s home. The teacher has a very important role in the facilitation of socialization in a child’s life. Having said this, I would like to stress the importance of a teacher’s role to the effect a teacher has on children’s perception of the concept of socialization. One of the main roles a teacher plays in socialization in a child’s life is by direct examples set by the teacher in the classroom. A teacher has the responsibility to weave acceptance and care for one another within the curriculum. A child must feel accepted and cared for in order for that child to have healthy socialization skills and a chance of happiness and success in life. A teacher can provide that for children. A teacher must have the wisdom to guide children with compassion as well as teaching through play.

It is vital to keep the children busy and excited in what they are involved in. It is just as important for a teacher to be extremely organized. Children rely on the consistency of schedules. Children will be happier and feel safe and secure in their school surroundings when their daily schedule is better organized. Being organized creates a comfortable and social environment. It is the teacher’s responsibility to nourish a child’s cognitive and physical needs. Children need to run and play as well as learn the ability to sit and work. They need to know and understand boundaries and respect for others. Children also need time during their schedule where they have freedom to do what ever they choose to do without being told by a teacher. This is time allowed where children get to explore and play either by themselves, side by side with other children, or play by interacting with each other. Teachers must allow children to have this non-direction play time. All of these tools aid as in building structures for a healthy social life.

Just as important as the building structures mentioned in the previous paragraph, a teacher must be able to connect with the child’s family or caregivers. By reaching out to the family or caregivers, a teacher will understand the child more, and this will help the teacher to better provide and nourish the child. Knowing more about the child’s home life will enhance the knowledge the teacher has for the child as a whole.

Children observe, feel and see with their spirits, hearts and souls. No matter where a child comes from, what cultural background or difference in heritage or mental and physical state, a teacher holds the gift of kindness that will radiate outward to a child. This compassion will create a thriving atmosphere for children where he or she will get the chance to flourish socially, and be able to give back to others.

 

you’ll find out what role a teacher can play in encouraging students to move more. The lesson will present reasons why this topic is important and give teacher’s new ideas.

Impacting Health & Academic Success

Did you wake up feeling powerful today? Well, get ready to feel like you have the potential to make an impact on one of the biggest issues of our time.

Supporting students to be more physically active can have a ripple effect into their future. You’ve probably heard that physical activity has the potential to help people of all ages to live better, healthier lives. Did you also know that physical activity has the potential to improve students’ academic achievement? This lesson describes ways a classroom teacher can help socialize students to move more.

Be a Role Model

One place to start is for you to consider ways you can be a role model. This doesn’t mean you need to already be in great shape or have a rigorous exercise routine. Modelling this behavior could be as simple as finding ways to incorporate regular movement into everyday routines.

Perhaps you plan to take breaks in classroom time to encourage students to move a bit or to stretch or walk around yourself. If you have interests that relate to physical activity, share this with your students either in conversation or by bringing these interests into your lesson plans.

For example, let’s say you’re a math teacher, and you are trying to figure out how you could possibly play a role in encouraging physical activity. While developing a math problem, you could decide to replace the language of one of the problems with a story about students riding their bikes.

Let’s say you like to take after-dinner walks sometimes. You could use yourself as the participant in a math problem discussing how many miles are walked in a week. Any opportunity to bring up the topic in the classroom is a good way to subtly introduce a range of activities to your students.

Q 4      a)        Elaborate the process of socialization.

Schools serve a number of functions in our society beyond just transmitting academic knowledge and skills. In this lesson, we differentiate between manifest and latent functions of schools and discuss examples of each.

Functions of School

If I were to ask you ‘What did you learn in school?’ what would you say? Would you tell me about the subject knowledge you gained and the classes you attended? Would you talk about the time you spent with friends and your participation in extracurricular activities? Schools certainly act as a transmitter of knowledge and academic skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. But they also serve other functions in our society as well, and these can be categorized as manifest or latent functions. A manifest function of school is a function that people believe is the obvious purpose of school and education. Manifest functions of education are those that are intended and that most people think about. For example, in elementary school, parents expect their children to learn new information but also how to ‘get along’ with other children and begin to understand how society works. So, two of the most significant manifest functions of schools beyond teaching subject knowledge are socialization and the transmission of cultural norms and values.

Manifest Function: Socialization

Socialization refers to a process by which individuals acquire a personal identity and learn the knowledge, language, and social skills required to interact with others. Again, students don’t only learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. They also learn social rules and expectations from interactions with others. Students in America receive rewards for following schedules and directions, meeting deadlines, and obeying authority. They learn how to avoid punishment by reducing undesirable behaviors like offensive language. They also figure out that to be successful socially, they must learn to be quiet, to wait, to act interested even when they’re not, and to please their teachers without alienating their peers.

Manifest Function: Culturization

Besides socialization, another significant manifest function of school is the transmission of cultural norms and values to new generations, which is known as culturization. Schools help to mold a diverse population into one society with a shared national identity and prepare future generations for their citizenship roles. Students are taught about laws and our political way of life through civic lessons, and they’re taught patriotism through rituals such as saluting the flag. Students must also learn the Pledge of Allegiance and the stories of the nation’s heroes and exploits. Because America is a capitalist nation, students also quickly learn the importance of both teamwork and competition through learning games in the classroom as well as activities and athletics outside the classroom.

Latent Functions of Schools

As children grow they develop in many ways. They not only develop physically but also mentally. Each child also acquires a consistent personality structure, so that he or she can be characterized as shy, ambitious, sociable, or cautious to say the least. As children start to grow they move into a widening world of persons, activities, and feelings. Socialization can be defined as the process by which we learn the ways of a given society or social group so that we can function within it (Elkin & Handel, 1978).

When children enter elementary school they are going to be under the influence of two sets of socialization agents: the classroom teacher (and related school personnel) and peers. Classes in elementary school are usually organized with a single teacher who is in charge of 20 to 30 same-aged students. The role of the teacher is to necessitate less personal attention and nurturing than the child would receive from their parents and more peer socialization than at home (Hartup, Higgins, & Ruble, 1983). The socialization process involves learning how to be—with self, with others, with students and teachers, and with life’s adversities and challenges. The socialization outcomes of child-child interaction are constrained by numerous subject and situational conditions, that is, the characteristics of the children involved and the settings in which their interaction occurs.

Roles that Students Take in Socialization 

The formal social structure is associated with the school system and the informal social structure is associated with the peer culture. Status in both of these social structures is determined by the social skills and the child’s achievement rather than primarily by official status. Entry into elementary school introduces children to achieved roles as well.

From the beginning of elementary school, the major developmental task that children struggle to master is social interaction. They do so during incredible periods of personal and biological change. As individuals learn to adjust to their dynamic selves and the world around them, peers play a primary role for reflection. The school is a major institution for continuing children’s accreditation; its influence on the attitudes they develop is significant. Attitudes are developed according to the need people have to give meaning to relationships with others. One of the major functions of attitudes is knowledge seeking. Children’s attitudes toward learning are primarily characterized by knowledge seeking, and this attitude is frequently changed in the formal school situation. In many schools children are still expected to be inactive, to accept submissively what they are offered by the school, and to give up their own knowledge-seeking plan. Culture is a real and significant dimension of child socialization. Understanding various cultural styles of parenting and skills acquisition is critical to understanding how, why, and under what circumstances socialization occurs.

The Importance of the School

The importance of the school as an agency of socialization can be divided into three subtopics: the school and society, the classroom, and the teacher. When children begin school it is usually the first time that they come under the supervision of people who are not their relatives. It is likely that the school is the first agency that encourages children to develop loyalties and sentiments that go beyond the family and link them to a wider social order. The school as an agency of socialization should be recognized as the first organizer of social relationships (Elkin & Handel, 1978). The classroom is often seen as a place where the child is easily faced with socializing amongst peers. Since most of the things that children do in the classroom are done in the presence of their peers, they have to learn how to deal with a more formalized group situation. Parental expectations and perceptions of their children’s development of both cognitive and motor skills serve to affect the transition to the school environment.

Humor in the classroom touches on socialization, one of the major functions of schools: to acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathetic new members to our society (Freda & Pollack, 1997). The teacher also plays an important role in the social development of the child. If one of the tasks of adolescence is to achieve a balance between conformity and rebellion, then the role of the teacher is an important one in assisting children as they attempt that process. When teachers confront a negative student with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to diffuse the student’s anger and hostility. If a teacher and student can laugh together, they can most likely work together and also plan together.

The Effects of Socialization throughout Adolescent Ages

During the preadolescent and early adolescent period children are exposed to more socialization agents, whether from involvement in sports, music, or youth organizations. In elementary school preadolescents have a greater awareness that the power of the teacher is more circumscribed than the power of their parents. Structures of prestige and power emerge within the classroom and the informal peer groups during the preadolescent period. Socialization also continues throughout life, from childhood to adulthood. This is significant because there is reason to believe that childhood socialization sets limits to what may be accomplished through adult socialization. Children spend a large amount of time with other children and, in so doing, have extensive opportunities to influence one another. The same situation exists for adolescents, suggesting that peer relations contribute substantially to socialization from early childhood through second decade and beyond. Children and adolescents also make different attributions to themselves and others on the basis of age, and these attributions figure prominently in social comparisons and other social experiences.

Skills that Children Learn

Recent national standards presented by the American School Counseling Association emphasized that academic development and personal/social development should be equal and necessary components of recommended developmental school counseling programs. It is possible for children to unlearn inappropriate behaviors and learn new ways of relating more easily through interaction and feedback in a safe practice with their peers. The developmental needs of elementary aged children have expanded and are becoming more diverse. Personal and social needs form a large part of self-concept and provide the initial developmental path for adolescents. Children’s social interactions with their peers contribute to their cognitive development. Children’s play is considered a form of social behavior, and they engage in several social situations such as cooperation, assistance, sharing, and solving problems in appropriate ways. In these situations, children acquire social skills and learn about their social world, such as the adults’ and their playmates’ points of view, morals, social skills, and conceptions of friendship.

  1. b) Analyze the role of media in manipulating social opinion.

Media manipulation is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. Such tactics may include the use of logical fallacies, psychological manipulations, outright deception, rhetorical and propaganda techniques, and often involve the suppression of information or points of view by crowding them out, by inducing other people or groups of people to stop listening to certain arguments, or by simply diverting attention elsewhere. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes, Jacques Ellul writes that public opinion can only express itself through channels which are provided by the mass media of communication – without which there could be no propaganda. It is used within public relations, propaganda, marketing, etc. While the objective for each context is quite different, the broad techniques are often similar.

Hoaxing

A hoax is something intended to deceive or defraud. When a newspaper or the news reports a fake story, it is known as a hoax. Misleading public stunts, scientific frauds, false bomb threats and business scams are examples of hoaxes. A common aspect that hoaxes have is that they are all meant to deceive or lie. For something to become a hoax, the lie must have something more to offer. It must be outrageous, dramatic but also has to be believable and ingenious. Above all, it must be able to attract attention from the public. Once it has done that then a hoax is in full effect.

An example of a hoax was a fake viral video is one that happened in 2012. Greenpeace paid to have a video made by Yes Men and that Occupy Seattle posted on their website. The video then took off and a lot of companies and people shared it. The video was of a drink fountain that looked like an oil platform at a party for Shell  malfunctioning, and getting all over the party. The video then shows the a man  telling the person holding the phone camera to stop filming while they are rushed out the door. There were also fake legal messages sent out to make it look like Shell was threatening the people reporting the story. It was very widespread and believed by many.

Propagandising

 

Propagandizing is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda is commonly created by governments, but some forms of mass communication created by other powerful organizations can be considered propaganda as well. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes. While the term propaganda has justifiably acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples (e.g. Nazi propaganda used to justify the Holocaust), propaganda in its original sense was neutral, and could refer to uses that were generally benign or innocuous, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to the police, among others.

Propaganda uses societal norms and myths that people hear and believe. Because people respond to, understand and remember more simple ideas this is what is used to influence people’s beliefs, attitudes and values.

Technology as an Agent of Change in Teacher Practice

Students can often gain access to the same kinds of information available to practicing professionals. Moving outside a textbook to see subject matter in its more “private” form is liberating, but also dangerous. It puts a great deal of pressure on both teacher and student to make sense of data, to filter extraneous information, and to focus on important subject matter ideas. Further, this practice demands that both teacher and student become good “knowledge consumers.” We return to this notion of learning to be “knowledge consumers” in the next section.

Similar conclusions

Most teachers have come to similar conclusions as they consider ways to use the Web. Searching for worksheets and such only allows the Web to amplify current curriculum, thus not moving it beyond its “public” image. Teachers must begin to reconsider what course content is or should be. Couldn’t one teach a great portion of a weather unit using real-time weather data from CNN.com? Raw weather data is knowledge of a very different sort in comparison to the information found in a weather chapter in a textbook. Teachers must learn to first recognize this insight as useful and then learn to utilize it and other alternative resources in their efforts to facilitate learning. They must shift their thinking from boldfaced words and questions at the end of the chapter to situated activities and subject matter ideas, real-world tasks, and authentic performance tests.

Traditionally low-tech environments

In traditionally low-tech environments, students are often viewed as receivers of knowledge (in the worst case scenario) or constructors of knowledge (in the best case, constructivist fashion). We believe the unprecedented access to information that technology affords demands a shift to more forward-looking notions of students as consumers of knowledge (in addition to knowledge constructors). Teachers must model methods for judging the trustworthiness of information by checking it against other sources, executing mental experiments to investigate the logic of purported claims, and asking critical questions about the origins of claims. Students should be taught to scrutinize knowledge carefully and hold all information as suspect until a reasonable level of certainty can be established. This is difficult and time consuming for both teachers and students, as it demands skepticism first. However, becoming a good consumer of knowledge and information is a skill we’ll all need as the Web continues to expand. We recognize that this is not necessarily an issue limited to technology as the sheer volume of media messages continues to increase. We do believe, though, that the Web, with its complete lack of standards for integrity, serves to magnify this problem.

Technology asks teachers to view not only learners, but also learning tasks in new ways. Rather than asking students to complete pre-determined and well-defined tasks such as worksheets, step-by-step lab experiments, and projects designed with a single goal in mind, teachers must embrace learning activities that are ill-structured, ill-defined, and open-ended. Useful here is the concept of design – teachers must design learning activities and students must design learning projects that make use of technology resources and subject matter ideas. For example, rather than completing a set of worksheets on moon phases, students may be asked to investigate online tide tables and real-time video, to make sense of data and observations, and to express what they have learned using different media.

Ideas about the subject matter

Designing a project can help students bring together ideas about the subject matter, their own strengths and motivations and communicative principles. Design is inquisitive, as it challenges students to investigate phenomena in ways individually relevant and interesting. Design is expressive because it asks students to apply what they have learned to produce a product. Design is authentic because the intent of design-based activities is to communicate or persuade (Mishra and Girod 2000). It has been argued that design-based activities, afforded by expanded technology, have moved conversations about communications media and aesthetics to the foreground in many learning contexts (Ohler 2000). Teachers must come to embrace the act of design and design-based activities as important tasks to facilitate learning in technology-rich environments.

Social and Relational Changes

Related to the notion of facilitating learning rather than dispensing knowledge are issues of power and social politics. If, for instance, the teacher and text are displaced as the sole arbiters of subject matter knowledge, ramifications follow for power relationships in classrooms. Many students may feel empowered by the freedom to learn, explore, and critique knowledge as it comes to them (or is created) in new media. Students are often thrilled to realize that, perhaps for the first time, they know more about the topic at hand than their teacher. Whether true or not, topics defined by texts and teachers limit the potential for students to experience feelings of expertise beyond that of their peers and teachers. Arguably, students who feel empowered as learners are more highly motivated to learn and are generally more successful in their efforts to do so. A great example is the act of publishing written products to the Web. Upon realizing their work is now accessible to millions of people, students cannot help but feel a sense of pride, ownership, and expertise as their words and ideas are shared publicly. Teachers can capitalize on this power easily if goals are shifted to empowerment of the learner.

Cognitive attention

Finally, and also related to arguments made above, technology has the potential to dramatically alter learning contexts. It has been documented that most children do not view television as a media that demands much cognitive attention (Solomon 1997). As a result, when watching instructional television in school, children simply fail to engage their full cognitive capacities in efforts to learn. All technology has the potential to fail similarly. Teachers must first begin to define contexts for learning differently and then treat technology resources as serious contexts for stimulating learning. Using technology only for games, drill and practice activities and Web-browsing reinforces the notion that technology and alternative media are less valuable as sources for learning than textbooks, the teacher, and other more commonly used materials. Why do we place this argument in the category of social and relational change rather than psychological change? Because we believe that broadening contexts for learning undermines the power and authority of the teacher. We want students to view technology as being on an equal footing with the teacher and their textbooks.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8606 Spring 2020

Q 5      a)       Discuss the working of some major institutions of society?

Social Institutions

 

A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic societal value. Obviously, the sociologist does not define institutions in the same way as does the person on the street. Lay persons are likely to use the term “institution” very loosely, for churches, hospitals, jails, and many other things as institutions.

Primary Institutions

Sociologists often reserve the term “institution” to describe normative systems that operate in five basic areas of life, which may be designated as the primary institutions.

(1) In determining Kinship;

(2) in providing for the legitimate use of power;

(3) in regulating the distribution of goods and services;

(4) in transmitting knowledge from one generation to the next; and

(5) in regulating our relation to the supernatural.

In shorthand form, or as concepts, these five basic institutions are called the family, government, economy, education and religion.

The five primary institutions are found among all human groups. They are not always as highly elaborated or as distinct from one another as into the United States, but, in rudimentary form at last, they exist everywhere. Their universality indicates that they are deeply rooted in human nature and that they are essential in the development and maintenance of orders. Sociologists operating in terms of the functionalist model society have provided the clearest explanation of the functions served by social institutions. Apparently there are certain minimum tasks that must be performed in all human groups. Unless these tasks are performed adequately, the group will cease to exist. An analogy may help to make the point. We might hypothesize that cost accounting department is essential to the operation of a large corporation. A company might procure a superior product and distribute it then at the price which is assigned to it, the company will soon go out of business. Perhaps the only way to avoid this is to have a careful accounting of the cost of each step in the production and distribution process.

 

Institutions can be either formal or informal. Formal institutions are those that are created with the intention of governing human behavior. Examples include the United States Congress, an institution that is designed to create the laws of the United States. However, formal institutions do not have to have the force of the law at their disposal. Another example is the Roman Catholic Church. While violating the tenets of the Catholic Church is not in violation of law, the Church expects its members to adhere to its religious codes. Informal institutions are those that are not designed to regulate conduct, but often end up doing so as members seek to conform to communal standards. Institutions can also be abstract, such as the institution of marriage. This means that marriage has become a social expectation, with informal rules for how married people are expected to behave.

                                                                       

While institutions tend to appear to people in society as part of the natural, unchanging landscape of their lives, sociological studies of institutions reveal institutions a social constructs, meaning that they are created by individuals and particular historical and cultural moment. Sociology traditionally analyzes social institutions in terms of interlocking social roles and expectations. Social institutions are created by and defined by their own creation of social roles for their members. The social function of the institution is the fulfillment of the assigned roles. Institutionalization refers to the process of embedding something, such as a concept, a social role, a value, or a logic within an organization, social system, or society as a whole. The process of institutionalization elucidates how values, norms, and institutions are so closely intertwined.

 

Major institutional spheres

It is the basic “points of view” discussed above which have delineated the major institutional spheres or activities in all societies. Again, in the literature there seems to be a relatively high degree of consensus as to the nature of these spheres. There is the sphere of family and kinship, which focuses on the regulation of the procreative and biological relations between individuals in a society and on the initial socialization of the new members of each generation. The sphere of education extends from the family and kin relationships and deals with the socialization of the young into adults and the differential transmission of the cultural heritage of a society from generation to generation. The sphere of economics regulates the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services within any society. The political sphere deals with the control of the use of force within a society and the maintenance of internal and external peace of the boundaries of the society, as well as control of the mobilization of resources for the implementation of various goals and the articulation and setting up of certain goals for the collectivity. The sphere of cultural institutions deals with the provision of conditions which facilitate the creation and conservation of cultural (religious, scientific, artistic) artifacts and with their differential distribution among the various groups of a society. Last, there is the sphere of stratification, which regulates the differential distribution of positions, rewards, and resources and the access to them by the various individuals and groups within a society.

Institutional principles

Institutions are very close to, but not identical with, groups or roles that are organized around special societal goals or functions. Thus, not only are the principles of political regulation effective with regard to those groups whose major function is some kind of political activity—be it administration or mobilization of power—but they also regulate various aspects of groups whose predominant goal or function is economic, cultural, or educational. Similarly, principles of economic regulation also organize various aspects of groups or roles that are predominantly cultural or political. The same applies to any institutional sphere with regard to any other group or role within the society.

Institutional units and resources

However, there exist in each society definite groups and roles which deal predominantly with one of the major institutional problem areas. These groups tend to have some structural “core” characteristics, which are explainable in terms of their major institutional function or placement. Thus, for instance, small kinship-structured domestic groups with reproductive, sex-regulating, and socialization functions (which are not necessarily any particular type of the nuclear family) seem to constitute the basic units of the familial institutional sphere (see Levy & Fallers 1959). Similarly, each such institutional sphere has its own specific resources, such as labor, commodities, or money in the economic sphere or support and identification in The political sphere.

Explanation of institutionalized behavior

Although the basic institutions can be found in one form or another in every society, societies vary greatly in the concrete regulative principles upheld by any such institutions. They vary especially in the more specific “partial” institutional crystallizations, such as various ritual ceremonies or bodies of customs, on the one hand, and bodies of folkloristic traditions or styles of art, on the other. These concrete institutional principles and structures may vary in the extent of their universality; that is, the extent to which they can be found within a wide range of societies, the extent to which they are spread within any given society, and the extent to which they are institutionalized.

The existence of institutions, both as regulative patterns and as basic institutional spheres (but not necessarily of any specific type of institutional principle or organization), has been considered as given in the very nature of society. Institutions constitute a part of the basic definition of society and are concomitant with the very existence of ordered social life. Thus, institutionalized behavior can be seen as the most general evolutionary universal in the history of human society. It constitutes one of the basic emergent qualities of human, as distinct from prehuman, society. However, there are few adequate explanations of the ways in which these patterns of normatively regulated behavior first arose.

Functionalist explanations

The emergence of institutions in the history of human society, the presumed universality of some structural forms (for example, the incest taboo) as well as variations in the different concrete institutional forms in various societies (for example, the development of a market economy as compared with a barter economy) have been explained in several ways. One rather common explanation is in terms of the needs of individuals and of societies ( “societal needs”) and of their interrelations. Thus, institutions (both institutions in general and varying concrete institutional patterns in particular) are explained as providing for such presumed needs and assuring the survival of the society and the adequate functioning of individuals within it.

  1. b) How do recreational institutions influence socialization?

The primary function of the family is to reproduce society, both biologically through procreation and socially through socialization. Given these functions, the individual’s experience of his or her family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a family of orientation: the family functions to locate children socially, and plays a major role in their socialization. From the point of view of the parent(s), the family is a family of procreation: The family functions to produce and socialize children. In some cultures, marriage imposes upon women the obligation to bear children. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bridewealth, which is an amount of money, wealth, or property paid to the bride’s parents by the groom’s family, signifies a woman’s requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.

Producing offspring is not the only function of the family. Marriage sometimes establishes the legal father of a woman’s child; establishes the legal mother of a man’s child; gives the husband or his family control over the wife’s sexual services, labor, and/or property; gives the wife or her family control over the husband’s sexual services, labor, and/or property; establishes a joint fund of property for the benefit of children; establishes a relationship between the families of the husband and wife. None of these functions are universal, nor are all of them inherent to any one society. In societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between a husband and wife, is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household. In modern societies, marriage entails particular rights and privileges which encourage the formation of new families even when there is no intention of having children.

In most societies, marriage between brothers and sisters is forbidden. In many societies, marriage between some first cousins is preferred, while at the other extreme, the medieval Catholic Church prohibited marriage even between distant cousins. The present day Catholic Church still maintains a standard of required distance for marriage.

These sorts of restrictions can be classified as an incest taboo, which is a cultural norm or rule that forbids sexual relations between family members and relatives. Incest taboo may serve to promote social solidarity and is a form of exogamy. Exogamy can be broadly defined as a social arrangement according to which marriages can only occur with members outside of one’s social group. One exception to this pattern is in ancient Egypt, where marriage between brothers and sisters was permitted in the royal family, as it was also the case in Hawaii and among the Inca. This privilege was denied commoners and may have served to concentrate wealth and power in one family.

A neighborhood is a geographically localized community within a larger city, town, or suburb. Neighborhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. Neighborhoods are typically generated by social interaction among people living near one another. In this sense, they are local social units larger than households, but not directly under the control of city or state officials. In some preindustrial urban traditions, basic municipal functions such as protection, social regulation of births and marriages, cleaning, and upkeep are handled informally by neighborhoods and not by urban governments; this pattern is well documented for historical Islamic cities. In addition to social neighbourhoods, most ancient and historical cities also had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, and social control.

Specialization and Differentiation

Neighborhoods in preindustrial cities often had some degree of social specialization or differentiation. Ethnic enclaves were important in many past cities and remain common in cities today. Economic specialists, including craft producers, merchants, and others could be concentrated in neighborhoods. Other neighborhoods were united by religious persuasion. One factor contributing to neighborhood distinctiveness and social cohesion was the role of rural to urban migration. This was a continual process for preindustrial cities in which migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past.

On another level, a community is a group of interacting people, living in some proximity. Community usually refers to a social unit—larger than a household—that shares common values and has social cohesion. The sense of community and formation of social networks comprise what has become known as social capital.

School

Education is the process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another. Education is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people is transmitted from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another. The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is most concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, adult, and continuing education.

Fundamentally optimistic human endeavor

Education has often been seen as a fundamentally optimistic human endeavor characterized by aspirations for progress and betterment. It is understood by many to be a means of overcoming limitations, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and social status. Education is perceived as an endeavor that enables children to develop according to their unique needs and potential. It is also perceived as one of the best means of achieving greater social equality. Some take a particularly negative view, arguing that the education system is intentionally designed to perpetuate the social reproduction of inequality.

A systematic sociology of education began with Émile Durkheim’s work on moral education as a basis for organic solidarity. It was after World War II, however, that the subject received renewed interest around the world: from technological functionalism in the US, egalitarian reform of opportunity in Europe, and human-capital theory in economics. These all implied that, with industrialization, the need for a technologically-skilled labor force undermines class distinctions and other ascriptive systems of stratification, and that education promotes social mobility.

Structural functionalists believe

Structural functionalists believe that society leans towards social equilibrium and social order. Socialization is the process by which the new generation learns the knowledge, attitudes and values that they will need as productive citizens. Although this aim is stated in the formal curriculum, it is mainly achieved through “the hidden curriculum”, a subtler, but nonetheless powerful, indoctrination of the norms and values of the wider society. Students learn these values because their behavior at school is regulated until they gradually internalize and accept them. For example, most high school graduates are socialized to either enter college or the workforce after graduation. This is an expectation set forth at the beginning of a student’s education.

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