AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8610 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course: Human Development and Learning (8610) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Human Development and Learning (8610) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q1. a. According to you which factors affecting on emotional development of child ?(10)

The expression and experience of emotion develops and changes throughout the lifespan. This lesson will examine this process, and end with a short quiz to test what you have learned.

What are Emotions?

Describe what it feels like to be happy. How about sad, or bored, or excited? It’s tough to explain emotions, isn’t it? We could ask ten different people to describe the experience of feeling happy and we would probably get ten different answers.

Emotions are internal feelings that are demonstrated outwardly by behaviors. Feeling happy is something that happens inside. The smile that results from the feeling of happiness is a behavior that is shown on the outside. As we grow and develop, we experience and demonstrate emotions differently.

What causes emotions? They may be triggered by internal or external events. For example, if you have a big test coming up (an external event), you may feel anxious or nervous. Emotions can be confusing because sometimes we feel a certain way and aren’t sure why. This is often the result of internal physiological changes taking place inside your body such as a fluctuation in blood sugar or hormone levels.

There are countless emotions that people experience, ranging from overwhelming joy to despair and everything in between. Let’s take a closer look at how emotion develops and changes throughout the lifespan using the example of John.

Emotional Development Through the Lifespan

Infancy: Birth through 24 Months

Have you ever spent any time with an infant? If so, you know that initially they communicate mainly through crying. This tells caregivers that the baby is hungry or wet, or uncomfortable in some way that needs attention. For example, baby John is hungry. He does not yet have any way of understanding or expressing the uncomfortable feeling of hunger. His cry tells his mother or father that it is time to feed him.

Ever wonder why you cry at the end of ‘Old Yeller’? Or why you get so mad when your favorite football team loses? It’s based on emotions, and those responses you have come from your childhood development. This lesson will cover emotions, how they develop, and how they can be used!

What Are Emotions?

Happy. Sad. Anxious. Angry. What do these words mean? Most people would call them feelings, perhaps emotions. But you do you actually know what emotions are? Better yet, do you know how you developed your emotions? Over the course of this lesson, we’ll briefly discuss how your childhood interactions helped you develop your emotional reactions and introduce you to the concept of emotional intelligence.

Emotional Growth

First, let’s start with the basic definition of emotions. An emotion is a subjective response to an experience. When a situation arises, your brain takes in information about what is happening, known as perception, which triggers the internal part of the brain where your emotions are created, known as the limbic system. While this is a very simplistic and basic description of how it works, the point is to note that emotional responses are based on how the person views the situation, which does not always include thinking clearly or including all the possible facts.

Research suggests that all species are born with basic or primary emotions: fear, joy, anger, and surprise. Within humans, baby humans specifically, a lot of these emotions can be seen through their reflexes or the best form of communication: crying! In fact, it is a lot easier to tell if a baby is upset or angry than if they are happy.

But these are just our basic responses; emotions eventually become way more complex and complicated. How does that happen? It goes back to our childhood interactions and how parents influence our emotional development and help to regulate our emotions. As infants and toddlers, we look at our immediate models, our parents or caregivers, to see how to react to various situations. We store those experiences and refer to them as we encounter new experiences.

When dealing with emotions, children use social referencing to learn how to react to unfamiliar situations. If a baby watches her mother say, ‘Yuck!’ to a piece of fruit, what do you expect the baby to do when presented with a similar situation? Just like parents can model behaviors for their children, they too can model emotions.

Parents are also crucial in helping children understand their feelings. Parents need to be patient and calm when helping children identify the physical symptoms they are experiencing, such as getting warm when angry, and help them name what they are experiencing to improve their knowledge. Often times children may have temper tantrums because they are unhappy and do not know how to express it.

  1. Describe emotional characteristic’s of learners at pre-school and elementary (10)

As children get older and have more social interactions, their knowledge of emotions will increase. With this knowledge also comes the ability to regulate these emotions. Emotional regulation refers to the ability to control an emotional response.

To many people, terms like development, growth, maturation, and learning all mean the same thing. In this lesson, we’ll learn the subtle differences between each of these terms and how they apply to human life.

Development

Keisha is a college student who is taking a developmental psychology class. She’s learned a lot about development, or the way that people grow and change as they age. She thinks about her life so far and realizes that she’s developed quite a bit! As a baby, she couldn’t walk or talk or do much of anything.

Then, as she grew into a kid, she learned how to walk, run, and jump rope. She was able to talk and learned how to express her thoughts and tell people what she wanted. She learned how to recognize when she was feeling sad or lonely and how to deal with those emotions.

As a teen, Keisha learned more complex things, like algebra and critical thinking. She also learned how to think about others’ needs, as well as her own, and to recognize that just because she wants something, it doesn’t mean that she’ll get it.

As Keisha now transitions into adulthood, she realizes that there’s still a lot of development for her to do. She will learn how to be in a healthy, romantic relationship. She’ll become a mom and grow into the role of caretaker. Her career will take off as she navigates more and more complex and demanding roles at work.

Eventually, Keisha will find that her life changes even more. Her children will move out and have children of their own. She will retire and learn to garden and skydive in her spare time. She’ll also learn how to deal with physical frailty as her eyesight starts to go and she develops arthritis in her joints.

All of these are examples of development, and Keisha recognizes that development happens at all stages of a person’s life. There are many aspects of development: physical (like when Keisha learned how to jump rope), emotional (like when she learned how to deal with feeling sad), social (like when she learned how to recognize others’ needs), and intellectual (like when she learned algebra). Let’s look closer at three components of development: growth, maturation, and learning.

Growth & Maturation

Many people use the words growth and maturation interchangeably. Someone might say, ‘You know, so-and-so used to throw temper fits when she didn’t get her way, but she’s matured, and now she just goes with the flow. She’s really grown up.’

In psychology, though, growth and maturation are a little different. Growth is the physical process of development, particularly the process of becoming physically larger. It is quantifiable, meaning that it can be measured, and it is mostly influenced by genetics. For example, the year that she was 11, Keisha got taller by two inches. This is an example of growth because it involves her getting physically taller and is quantifiable (two inches).

On the other hand, maturation is the physical, intellectual, or emotional process of development. Maturation is often not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics. For example, as Keisha became older, her brain developed in a way that meant she was able to handle more complex tasks than she could before.

Notice that, while growth is physical, maturation is physical, intellectual, or emotional. Often, maturation involves two or even all three. Keisha’s brain physically developing allowed her to intellectually understand complex matters better. In fact, the emotional component of empathy is sometimes affected by physical and intellectual maturity. As a person’s brain physically develops, they are able to understand intellectually what others are going through and how they might feel, and that allows them to emotionally feel empathy for others.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q2. What is moral development? Explain with the help of examples. Also discuss why the development of morality is essential for an individual’s success in society? (20)

Moral development refers to the ways we distinguish right from wrong as we grow and mature. Very young children generally do not have the same level of moral development as adults.

Think about your behavior as a young child. How did you decide if something was right or wrong, or good or bad? Did you follow what your parents did? Did you copy the behavior of your friends? At one time or another, you probably did both. When were you able to decide for yourself what was right and what was wrong? Do you currently base your decisions on societal or cultural laws? For example, is it wrong to steal because the law says it is wrong? Do you ever feel that the morally correct decision conflicts with the law?

Let’s say that your mother is dying and needs a specific medicine to be cured. That medicine costs thousands of dollars that you and your mother do not have. Would it be okay to steal the medicine to save her life? These are the types of questions that Lawrence Kohlberg asked while studying moral development in human beings.

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

Kohlberg based his theory on a series of moral dilemmas were presented to these participants and they were also interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario.

One example was “Heinz Steals the Drug.” In this scenario, a woman has cancer and her doctors believe only one drug might save her. This drug had been discovered by a local pharmacist and he was able to make it for $200 per dose and sell it for $2,000 per dose. The woman’s husband, Heinz, could only raise $1,000 to buy the drug. He tried to negotiate with the pharmacist for a lower price or to be extended credit to pay for it over time. But the pharmacist refused to sell it for any less or to accept partial payments. Rebuffed, Heinz instead broke into the pharmacy and stole the drug to save his wife. Kohlberg asked, “Should the husband have done that?”

Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to questioning whether Heinz was wrong or right but in the reasoning for each participant’s decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development.

Level 1. Preconventional Morality

The earliest stage of moral development, obedience, and punishment is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, Kohlberg says, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.

At the individualism and exchange stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral development, but only if it serves one’s own interests.

Level 2. Conventional Morality

Often referred to as the “good boy-good girl” orientation, the interpersonal relationships stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being “nice,” and consideration of how choices influence relationships.

This stage is focused on maintaining social order. At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty and respecting authority.

Level 3. Postconventional Morality

The ideas of a social contract and individual rights cause people in the next stage to begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.

Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based on universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.

Criticisms

  • Kohlberg’s theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions. Moral reasoning, therefore, may not lead to moral behavior. This is just one of the many of the criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory.
  • Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg’s theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept of justice when making moral choices. Factors such as compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.
  • Does Kohlberg’s theory overemphasize Western philosophy? Individualist cultures emphasize personal rights while collectivist cultures stress the importance of society and community. Eastern, collectivist cultures may have different moral outlooks that Kohlberg’s theory does not take into account.
  • Were Kohlberg’s dilemma’s applicable? Most of his subjects were children under the age of 16 who obviously had no experience with marriage. The Heinz dilemma may have been too abstract for these children to understand, and a scenario more applicable to their everyday concerns might have led to different results.
  • Kohlberg’s critics, including Carol Gilligan, have suggested that Kohlberg’s theory was gender-biased since all of the subjects in his sample were male. Kohlberg believed that women tended to remain at the third level of moral development because they place a stronger emphasis on things such as social relationships and the welfare of others.
  • Gilligan instead suggested that Kohlberg’s theory overemphasizes concepts such as justice and does not adequately address moral reasoning founded on the principles and ethics of caring and concern for others.

Stages of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg, building upon Jean Piaget’s cognitive theory of development, developed three levels with six stages to reflect our progression through moral development. These levels and stages describe how our ideas of right and wrong change as we grow. However, Kohlberg did admit that not all people progress through these changes at the same age due to differences in cognitive functioning. In fact, he stated that some people never reach full moral development.

Level 1: Pre-conventional Moral Development

The first level in Kohlberg’s theory is the pre-conventional level of moral development. This level of development has two stages and is based on punishments and rewards. In other words, people who are functioning at the pre-conventional level of development make decisions on right and wrong to earn rewards or avoid punishments.

Stage 1 is all about the rules. Moral decisions are based on either being good by following the rules or being bad by breaking them. For example, a child may think, ‘I don’t want to be spanked so I’m not going to hit my brother!’

Stage 2 is about self-reward. Moral decisions in this stage are based on getting a reward that is personally meaningful. For example, a child may think, ‘I want dessert, so I will eat all of my vegetables.’

Level 2: Conventional Moral Development

The second level, the conventional level of moral development, also has two stages, but focuses more on parental rules and societal laws. People at this level of moral development base their decisions on what their parents and/or law enforcement says is right.

Stage 3 is about social conformity. For example, a student may think, ‘Students who cheat on tests are bad, so I will not cheat.’

Stage 4 is all about law and order for all. For example, someone may think, ‘If I steal, I will break the law and breaking the law is wrong.’

How do people learn to make morally sound decisions? To illustrate Kohlberg’s levels of moral development, we’ll follow Lauren as she makes difficult decisions.

Moral decision

At some point in your life, you’ve probably been faced with a moral dilemma. Consider this example: a father tells his daughter, Lauren, that she can have a bike if she saves enough money from her weekly allowance to pay for half of it. Then, when Lauren tells her father she’s saved up all the money, her father reverses his decision and tells Lauren to give him the money because he wants to use it to buy beer. On the one hand, Lauren wants to obey her father; on the other, she doesn’t want to support his destructive drinking habits. Lauren is torn about giving her father the money.

Lawrence Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Development

Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg was especially interested in how children develop their ability to make moral decisions like this one. He came up with several stages of moral development, which, though not without criticism from other psychologists, form a good starting point to think about these questions. It is important to remember that not everyone, even adults, necessarily make it into all of the higher stages.

Pre-conventional Level

People first pass through two stages known collectively as the pre-conventional level. In the first stage, people are motivated by trying to avoid punishment; their actions are bad if they get punished and good if they don’t. In this stage, Lauren would give her father the money because she doesn’t want him to punish her. At the second stage, people are motivated purely by self-interest. Lauren at this stage would likely keep the money, thinking that, even if she can’t afford a bike, she can use it to buy something else good for herself.

The way people think about what is right and what is wrong changes as they grow up. Watch this lesson to find out about Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, including what it is and its main stages of morality.

Moral Development

Kat is 14, and she really likes hanging out with her friends. Last week, they were at the store together, having a good time, when something happened. Kat noticed that her friend Patty stole a granola bar from a store. It wasn’t a big thing that Patty stole, but Kat wasn’t sure what to do. On one hand, she loves Patty, but on the other hand, Patty did something wrong. Should Kat turn her in?

Kat is in adolescence, or the time of life between childhood and adulthood, usually lasting from age 13 to age 20. During adolescence, people begin to think differently. They are able to solve more complex problems, like the algebra problems Kat faces in school.

Along with the ability to solve more complex math problems, the cognitive (or thinking) abilities that develop in adolescence allow people to solve more complex social problems. As this happens, the moral development, or the way that people make judgments about what’s right and wrong, also changes. Let’s look at the most famous theory of moral development and the way that adolescents’ morality develops.

Moral Dilemma

Kat is changing the way she thinks about morality. A few years ago, she wouldn’t hesitate to turn Patty in to the authorities. After all, right is right and wrong is wrong, and if someone does something wrong, they should be punished. But now Kat isn’t so sure. Patty is very poor, and Kat knows that Patty stole the granola bar because she couldn’t afford to pay. Is it wrong to not turn her in?

Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg was interested in the way people, like Kat, develop their ideas about what the moral thing to do in a difficult situation is. He told people a story similar to that of Patty’s. He said that there was a husband whose wife was dying. A local drug store owner had developed a drug that could save the wife’s life, but he was selling it for a lot of money. The drug only cost the drug store owner $200 to make, but he was charging $2000 for it.

The husband borrowed from everyone he knew but was only able to scrape together $1000. He told the pharmacist that his wife was dying and begged the man to sell him the drug for $1000 or let him pay the rest later, but the drug store owner stood firm. He said that he had invented the drug and it was his right to make money on it. At night, the husband broke into the drug store and stole the drug to save his wife’s life.

Kohlberg wasn’t interested as much in whether people thought that what the husband did was right or wrong. He was interested in why they believed what they believed. How did they approach the moral dilemma?

Stages

Based on the answers he saw, Kohlberg identified several stages of moral development. They are:

  1. Preconventional Morality: This is how children think of morality. There is a right and wrong answer, and decisions about morality are made based on punishment or reward. For example, a child might say that what the husband did was wrong because he will be punished.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

 Q3. What do you understand  by language development and how environment , influence on language development . Illustrate with the help of examples. (20)

How does language expression emerge in children? Learn about the development of syntax in children through the pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language development in this lesson.

Syntax: Definition and Developmental Stages

What image do you have in your mind when I say the following words: Venetian blind? You picture a common window covering, right? Now, what happens to that image when I switch up the order of the words: blind Venetian? It creates a completely different idea, doesn’t it? As this example shows, the order in which we use words can be very important! The term that refers to the order or sequencing of words in a language is syntax.

Studies show that syntax is learned as young children are exposed to speech with proper, complex sentence structure. So, how does this process take place? Before babies say their first word, they have made a lot of progress towards understanding language and speech. A young child listens and attempts to imitate the sounds it hears. In turn, we respond to and reinforce these attempts at speech. A young child does not develop this ability all at one time. Instead, the process consists of a series of developmental stages. These stages are typically divided into two categories: pre-linguistic and linguistic.

Pre-Linguistic Language Development

Pre-linguistic language development is when a child is learning to control the sounds he can produce and to string these sounds together in vocal play. In this stage, the child is not yet able to manipulate these sounds into proper words.

There are four categories of pre-linguistic development that can be distinguished. Vegetative sounds occur at 0-2 months of age and include the natural sounds that babies make, such as burping or crying. Cooing and laughter occur at 2-5 months of age. These are vocalizations that the baby makes when it’s happy or content and can be made up of vowel or consonant sounds. Vocal play begins around the ages of 4-8 months. During vocal play, the baby begins to string together longer vowel or consonant sounds. Finally, babbling occurs around the ages of 6-13 months. At this time, the child begins to produce a series of consonant-vowel syllables and may develop utterances, such as ma-ma and da-da.

Linguistic Language Development

Linguistic language development is the stage of language development signaled by the emergence of words and symbolic communication. Prior to this stage, most of the sounds a child produces are no more than the practice of sound manipulation and sound sequencing in order to gain the motor skills necessary to create words. There are six periods of linguistic language development.

Before a child masters the ability to form words, they will first begin to use specific sound combinations consistently with specific meaning. This is the early one-word period that begins around 12-19 months of age. An example of this would be a child saying ‘baba’ every time he wants a bottle of milk. Even though this is not the exact same as the word ‘bottle,’ the child is using ‘baba’ in the same manner as you would use the word ‘bottle.’

The later one-word period begins around 14-24 months of age. In this stage, the words used by the child are readily identifiable, and he begins to name and label people and objects in his environment. A child’s typical vocabulary during this period will consist of words like ‘dog,’ ‘go,’ ‘daddy’ and ‘bye-bye.’

Next comes the two-word period of language development. As the name implies, this is when he will begin to combine two words together to make simple phrases, such as ‘mommy go’ or ‘shoe on.’ The two word period typically begins from 20-30 months of age.

The three-word period begins around the ages of 28-42 months of age. During this period, a child adds at least one more word to their phrases and begins to use pronouns. They may also begin to use articles and simple prepositions. Examples would be: ‘me go daddy,’ ‘you on chair’ or ‘he kick a ball.’

Both environmental and cultural factors have an impact on early language development. This lesson will provide examples to consider and discuss possible reasons for this impact.

Experiences, Culture and Language Development

Imagine the following three children: Katie, Billy and Kim. First, let’s meet Katie. Katie’s environment is full of stimulation. She has two older siblings who interact with her regularly, and Katie’s mother is at home with her during the day. They often go on outings together. Katie also attends an educational daycare program three mornings a week.

Now, let’s meet Billy. Billy’s environment is less stimulating. He’s an only child, and his mother suffers from depression. No extended family lives in the area, and he does not attend a daycare program. Billy’s basic needs are met, but he has very little interaction with others. Most of Billy’s day is spent in front of a TV.

Finally, we are introduced to Kim. Katie and Billy are growing up in the United States, but Kim lives in China. Kim has loving parents and grandparents who give him lots of attention. He does not attend daycare, but time is spent teaching him daily at home, and he often interacts with other children in his neighborhood. Katie, Billy and Kim are all of the same age and ability, but their experiences and culture are different. Do you think that this might have an effect on their language development?

The answer to this question is yes! While we may not be able to completely predict future outcomes for each child, we do know that the rates and styles of language development and language acquisition will be different. Since most researchers believe that language acquisition is learned, the different environments and cultural circumstances will be a factor in their individual language development.

The Behaviorist Perspective

One theory that explains the impact of environment and culture on language development is the behaviorist theory. One of the main proponents of this theory, B.F. Skinner, proposed that language is acquired in the same way as any other behavior, through operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, learning is defined as changes in behavior as a result of experiences that occur after a response.

Skinner said that operant conditioning occurs in language development when sounds are made by a child and then reinforced by their parents’ reactions. An example of this reinforcement would be an excited smile, hugs and attention whenever a sound resembling a word is made. This makes the child more likely to repeat the word and associate it with a corresponding object or event. This operant conditioning combines with imitation to allow rapid language development to occur.

Remember Katie? According to the behaviorist perspective, her language acquisition would look something like this: Katie begins babbling something similar to ‘cawa-cawa-rrrr-caw-carrr-aaa.’ She does this one day while watching her father pull the car into the driveway. Katie’s mother becomes excited. She points to the car and says ‘car.’ Katie imitates her mother and repeats ‘carrr-aaa.’ Soon, Katie is saying ‘carrr-aaa’ every time she sees a car to get attention and begins to associate the word ‘car’ with the object.

The Interactionist Perspective

Now that you know a little about the behaviorist perspective, let’s look at language development through the interactionist perspective. This point of view emphasizes the interactions between innate ability and environmental influences. Two main subgroups exist within the interactionist perspective: the information-processing perspective of language development and the social interaction perspective of language development.

Some information-processing theorists assume that children make sense of complex language through instinctive cognitive abilities combined with their environmental experiences. They agree with the biological theories that infants are born with an amazing ability to analyze language. However, they also argue that these capabilities are probably not sufficient to account for all of their language development.

Proponents of social interaction theories emphasize that social skills and language experiences are essential to language development. According to this view, any active child with the ability to develop language will attempt to communicate. When the child makes these attempts at language development, caregivers will begin to provide experiences that will assist the process. In this way, the child learns to relate language development to its social meaning.

Language Styles

Another interesting fact is that young children learn language development in two distinct styles: referential style and expressive style. In referential style language learning, vocabularies consist mainly of words that name objects. Expressive style language learning produces many more social formalities and pronouns.

Which style a child uses to learn language is dependent upon their beliefs about the purpose of language. Referential style children understand the purpose of language to be naming things. Expressive style children understand the purpose of language to be talking about people’s feelings and needs.

These ideas are largely determined by cultural teachings. For example, object words are particularly common in the language of toddlers who speak English, but toddlers who speak Chinese or Japanese have more words for actions and social routines in their vocabulary. Let’s use Katie and Kim again to illustrate the different language learning styles.

Katie is a referential style learner. Her environment is full of stimuli that she wants to label. The people she interacts with in her environment actively participate in showing her new objects and encouraging her in attempts at learning the name of these objects. Katie’s vocabulary is growing quickly!

Kim is an expressive style learner. His environment is full of social interaction, and importance is placed on activities associated with social routines. Even though his vocabulary is smaller, Kim excels at proper social protocol. Phrases such as ‘thank you’ and ‘excuse me’ were learned very quickly by Kim.

develop language according to the nativist perspective. Discover Noam Chomsky’s idea of the language acquisition device (LAD) and its role in this process.

Introduction and Definition

Imagine a young child just beginning to talk. Let’s call this child Will. At first, Will could only make sounds, but he soon learned to form those sounds into meaningful words. Now he’s starting to put the words together to form sentences and communicate in a more complex way. What processes are driving Will’s language development?

In this lesson, we’ll consider how language development occurs according to the nativist theory. The nativist perspective is a biologically based theory, which argues that humans are pre-programmed with the innate ability to develop language. In other words, Will was born with the ability to develop language.

Noam Chomsky’s Ideas

The main theorist associated with the nativist perspective is Noam Chomsky. Chomsky is a strong advocate for the nativist theory of language development. Before Chomsky’s time, language development was largely accepted as being purely a cultural phenomenon that is based solely on imitation.

To illustrate this let’s think about Will again. Will has learned to make sounds, associate sounds with words that have specific meaning, and is beginning to put the words together to form sentences. According to the popular belief during Chomsky’s time, he has accomplished all of this by imitating the speech of those around him.

Chomsky felt differently. He believed that greater attention should be given to children’s innate ability to learn language. He came up with the idea of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). The LAD is a language organ that is hardwired into our brains at birth. Because of this, we are born with the ability to understand and develop language. Once a child is exposed to language, the LAD activates. It allows them to understand the rules of whatever language they are exposed to.

Let’s consider Will’s language development using Chomsky’s theory. Will was born with an ability to understand language. He begins to form sounds in an attempt to communicate with those around him and his LAD activates. Words and sentences follow quickly because he already has an innate knowledge of the basic rules of language.

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q4. Differentiate between associative learning theory and cognitive learning theories. (20)

Explore the cognitive processes your brain is going through right now to learn information. We’ll define key terms and discuss the two leading theories.

What Is Cognition?

We’ve all seen a classroom of students sitting and watching their teacher impart upon them the ancient wisdom of their elders (or teaching them state capitals; both are important). Did you ever wonder what was going on inside their heads? Just how does the information they are taking in become actual knowledge? Well, wonder no more, because today we’re going to walk through the process of how we learn through cognition.

The first thing we need to do is define two key words: cognition and learning. Cognition is the process of acquiring and understanding knowledge through our thoughts, experiences, and senses. Learning involves acquiring knowledge through experience, study, or being taught. If you think that these two concepts are awfully similar, you’re right. Both are inexorably linked – learning requires cognition and cognition involves learning. Whenever you see or hear something new, you go through a series of cognitive processes, which are the processes that result in learning.

The Different Cognitive Processes

The first step in the cognitive learning process is attention. In order to begin learning, a student must be paying attention to what they are experiencing. As anyone who has been in a class full of children knows, attention isn’t unlimited and can be quite fleeting. Educational psychologists have come to the conclusion that the average person can hold approximately two or three learned tasks in their attention at the same time. This means that if you are trying to dust and vacuum simultaneously you may be able to pull it off, but throw in eating a sandwich and odds are good you’ll take a bite out of your duster and smear lunch meat on the walls.

We also know the average person can only attend to one complex task at a time. Trying to drive and do long division? Not going to happen. Talk on the phone while waltzing? Unlikely. In case you’re wondering, this is also a compelling reason to not talk on the phone and drive – you just don’t have enough attention to do each task completely.

Next, the information that you are paying attention to has to be put into memory in a process called storage. There are three levels of memory through which information must travel to be truly learned. Let’s say that for the first time you hear that the capital of the state of Oregon is Salem. This information is now in your sensory register, which holds everything you are exposed to for just a second or two. By the end of this sentence, you may have already forgotten the capital of Oregon.

If you pay attention and reread the sentence, however, that information will move from the sensory register into short-term memory. This area of your memory will hold information anywhere from 20 seconds up to a minute. If you rehearse the information, such as repeating it to yourself, taking notes or studying it, it has the chance to move to your long-term memory. This area will hold information indefinitely and has an unlimited capacity. The challenge, as we shall see, can be in finding things in there.

Now that you’ve paid attention and moved the information into memory, it’s important that your brain organize this information so it can be retrieved later. Encoding can work through a number of processes, such as developing verbal mnemonics or the delightfully named method of loci, but the ultimate goal is to assign a specific meaning to something you have learned. The mnemonic for remembering the planet’s order comes to mind: ‘My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos.’ Remember this and you can quickly recall the names and order of all the planets. Retrieval goes hand-in-hand with encoding by simply reversing the process of encoding. If you want to remember which planet is fourth from the sun, just run through your mnemonic and you have your answer. Since the fourth word is mother, the fourth planet is Mars!

Cognitive Learning Theories

No discussion of cognition and learning would be complete without at least a brief mention of two of the main theories behind cognition in learning. One of the oldest theories comes from psychologist Jean Piaget, who based much of his work on studying his own children as they developed.

Problem-solving skills are one of the chief aspects of a strong education. Learning ways to think and resolve issues and complex problems will help students with different facets of life. Read on to learn about a few cognitive learning activities you can use in the classroom.

Objectives Of Cognitive Learning Activities

All cognitive learning activities are geared towards pushing students to work through different problems and stimuli. The goal is to get them thinking and applying problem-solving strategies without the use of preparation or steps that lead to an answer. You want to craft activities that will make your student apply logic, creativity, and close examination on the spot to produce an answer. Cognitive learning essentially relies on five principles: remembering, understanding, applying, evaluating, and creating. Below is a breakdown of each principle and some activities students can do that correspond to each.

Remembering

Activities that rely on remembering ask for the student to recall previously learned information to complete the task at hand. This might be a great review for the beginning of class to see if students are comprehending previous lessons. A couple of activities might be:

  • Creating a timeline of important events from memory
  • Make a game of reciting poetry or important writings
  • Writing a paragraph or blurb detailing what they remember from last class

Understanding

Understanding activities directly engage students to see how they interpret information. This is a particularly broad category that draws on students being able to analyze information from different angles and to recognize, interpret, and classify it. Here are a few activity ideas:

  • Defending a point of view, or debate
  • Creating a list of examples
  • Classifying types of processes or events

Applying

Part of problem-solving has to do with applying specific skills and knowledge to produce the proper result. Push your students to rely on what they’ve learned and figure out ways to succeed through fun activities:

  • Have the students create an effective learning game themselves
  • Solve problems or answer questions listed on the board
  • Have students demonstrate procedures in front of class

Evaluating

This principle focuses on analyzing information and making judgments based on it. Students will weigh information based on criteria previously learned. A few activities for your students can include:

  • Constructing a graph to illustrate certain information
  • Having students develop a questionnaire to group or gather information at hand
  • Creating a pros and cons list

Creating

Cognitive learning is centered on adapting to new stimuli and constructing methods to solve problems or address needs. Creative activities rely on students to produce original ideas to address prompts, organize thoughts, and devise a means of their own invention that will help them answer problems. These are just a few creating activities:

  • Write an original poem
  • Perform or write a scenario demonstrating themes or illustrating specific ideas
  • Write a manual or guidebook demonstrating important information

Teacher Resources

Study.com offers additional resources to help you implement cognitive learning into your lesson plans. The Developing Critical Thinking Skills lesson will give you some context on how to approach problem solving and critical thinking skills with students. This is a great way to begin formulating your own cognitive learning activities. You can also check out the Authentic Learning Activities lesson for some ideas on developing classroom activities that will keep your students eager to learn and engaged!

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q5. Explain the concept of individual differences and its importance in education with the help of suitable examples. (20)

Meaning of Individual Differences:

Dissimilarity is principle of nature. No two persons are alike. All the individuals differ from each other in many a respects. Children born of the same parents and even the-twins are not alike. This differential psychology is linked with the study of individual differences. Wundt, Cattel, Kraepelin, Jastrow and Ebbing Haus are the exponents of differential psychology.

This change is seen in physical forms like in height, weight, colour, complexion strength etc., difference in intelligence, achievement, interest, attitude, aptitude, learning habits, motor abilities, skill. Each man has an intellectual capacity through which he gains experience and learning.

Every person has the emotions of love, anger, fear and feelings of pleasure and pain. Every man has the need of independence, success and need for acceptance.

Broadly individual difference may be classified into two categories such as inherited traits and acquired traits:  

Causes of Individual Differences:

There are various causes which are responsible in bringing individual differences.

They are narrated below:

  1. Heredity:

Some heretical traits bring a change from one individual to other. An individual’s height, size, shape and color of hair, shape of face, nose, hands and legs so to say the entire structure of the body is determined by his heretical qualities. Intellectual differences are also to a great extent influenced by hereditary factor.

  1. Environment:

Environment brings individual differences in behaviour, activities, attitude, and style of life characteristics. Personality etc. Environment does not refer only physical surroundings but also it refers the different types of people, society, their culture, customs, traditions, social heritage, ideas and ideals.

iii. Race and Nationality:

Race and Nationality is one cause of individual difference. Indians are very peace loving, Chinese are cruel; Americans are very frank due to race and nationality.

  1. Sex:

Due to sex variation one individual differs from other. Men are strong in mental power. On the other hand women on the average show small superiority over men in memory, language and aesthetic sense. Women excel the men in shouldering social responsibilities and have a better control over their emotions.

  1. Age:

Age is another factor which is responsible in bringing individual differences. Learning ability and adjustment capacity naturally grow with age. When one grows in age can acquire better control over our emotions and better social responsibilities. When a child grows then this maturity and development goes side by side.

  1. Education:

Education is one major factor which brings individual differences. There is a wide gap in the behaviors of educated and uneducated persons. All traits of human beings like social, emotional and intellectual are controlled and modifies through proper education.

This education brings a change in our attitude, behaviour, appreciations, Personality. It is seen that uneducated persons are guided by their instinct and emotions where as the educated persons are guided by their reasoning power.

Educational Implications of Individual Differences:

Educational implications of Individual differences are listed below:

  1. Aims of education, curriculum, method of teaching should be linked with individual differences considering the different abilities and traits individual.
  2. Curriculum should be designed as per the interest, abilities and needs of different students.

iii. The teacher has to adopt different types of methods of teaching considering individual difference related to interest, need, etc.

  1. Some co-curricular activities such as Drama, music, literary activities (Essay & Debate Competition) should be assigned to children according to their interest.
  2. Teacher uses certain specific teaching aids which will attract the children towards teaching considering their interest and need.
  3. Various methods such as playing method, project method, Montessori method, story telling methods are to be used considering/discovering how different children respond to a task or a problem.

vii. The division of pupils into classes should not be based only on the mental age or chronological age of children but the physical, social and emotional maturity should be given due consideration.

viii. In case of vocational guidance the counselor is to plan the guidance technique keeping in view the needs and requirements of the students.

Another factor to consider in relation to development is the concept of individual differences. Children develop at different rates. This, in turn, creates variations among individuals (i.e., individual differences). Again, these differences can be either qualitative or quantitative. For children in any preschool classroom setting, the differences in temperament, personality, intelligence, achievement, and physical factors such as height and weight, are noteworthy and reflect a wide range of normal variation. Some children grow rapidly and others grow more slowly. There also are racial and gender developmental variations. During the fetal stage, for example, females mature faster than males do. Further, at birth, the skeletal development of females is about 4 weeks ahead of that of males, and African American children show more rapid skeletal maturation than white children do.

Concept of individual differences

It is important to understand that the concept of individual differences is the basis upon which one child is compared to another. Also, the existence of these differences constitutes the fundamental premise underlying the development of standardized educational and psychological tests. An understanding of individual differences provides the foundation for recognizing normal variations as well as extreme differences among children and, thus, for identifying those who may have special needs. In general, understanding of the various developmental levels is enhanced by familiarity with the concept of individual differences. As illustrated in the case vignette, Denise has observed some distinct developmental differences between Nathaniel and her other two children. She is worried that these differences could represent developmental delays or deficits.

Where Does Intelligence Come From?

What is the basis of intelligence? Where does it come from? Is it a product of parents (and all your ancestors) or does it more to do with environment? The answers to these questions are murky. Although a great deal of research has been done, scientists still do not know all of the answers. However, they have made some exciting discoveries. Research has progressed to the point that scientists now understand more about how individual and group influences affect and individual’s ability with regard to intelligence.

What are Individual and Group Influences?

A myriad of factors influence intelligence; some of which are due to the groups to which the individual belongs and others they are subject to as a discrete individual. Group factors can relate to qualities within the group, but can also be caused by the environment within which the group operates. Individual differences in intelligence can relate to a group the individual belongs to, but can also relate to something that effects only that person. Intelligence is a complicated issue.

How do Individual Influences Affect Intelligence?

Individual differences in intelligence can come from sources that at first seem innocuous. Unfortunately, factors that seem unrelated to intelligence can have a great effect.

Diet: the brain needs a well-balanced set of nutrients to operate at peak efficiency. Unfortunately, not every person is able to acquire these nutrients. If the brain is undernourished for a length of time, intelligence is affected negatively. This speaks to the need for proper nutrition and a clean source of drinking water.

Peers: Peer influences have been found to have an effect on how teenagers process information, but it has little effect on adults. It seems that when peers are present, individuals decision-making is affected to a negative degree. Teens take more chances and are less likely to make intelligent decisions when peers are around.

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