AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8615 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course:Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  2
Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615) B.Ed (2/5, 1/5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020 

Q1. Elaborate the significance of management in education. Discuss models of management that can be used in education sector.

Max Weber defined, power as, “the probability that one actor, within a social relationship, will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance.”

Walternord defined power as, “the ability to influence flow of available energy and resources towards certain goals as opposed to other goals. Power is assumed to be exercised only when these goals are at-least partially in conflict with each other.”

The essential features of this model are as follows:

(i) Organisation with an autocratic environment is authority oriented. This authority is delegated by the right of command over the people to whom it applies. The management believes that it is the best judge to determine what is better for the health of both the organisation and its participants and that the employees’ obligation is to follow orders. It assumes that the employees have to be directed, persuaded and pushed into performance. Management does the thinking and employees obey the orders. This view of managing organisations has been developed by D. McGregor in his theory X. This conventional view leads to tight control of employees at work.

(ii) Under autocratic model, the employee’s orientation is obedience to the boss; they need not be respectful to him. The bosses have absolute power to hire fire and perspire employees. The employees depend upon the boss and are paid minimum wages for minimum performance. This theory of scientific management was developed by F.W. Taylor as the conventional view of management. The employees sometimes give minimum performance, though reluctantly because they have to satisfy the subsistence needs of themselves and their families. Some employees give higher performance because of a drive to overcome challenges. According to the research of David C. McClelland of Harvard University, “some people like to work under strong authority because they feel that their boss is a natural born leader.”

(iii) The autocratic model has been successful in some situations where the workers are actually lazy and have a tendency to shirk work. It is also required in the situation? where the work to be done is time bound. The threat generally used by the managers is that the reward or wages will be withheld if the workers do not obey them.

(iv) The leadership in an autocratic model is negative because the employees are uninformed, insecure and afraid.

(v) Nowadays, this model is not applicable in strict sense because there are minimum wages laws in most of the countries. Thus, the managers cannot threaten to cut down the wages or rewards of the workers. Moreover, the workers are educated and organised, thus they cannot be dictated to by the managers all the time.

2. The Custodial Model:

To overcome the shortcomings of the Autocratic model, the custodial model came into existence. The insecurity and frustration felt by the workers under the autocratic model sometimes led to aggression towards the boss and their families. To dispel this feeling of insecurity and frustration, the need was felt to develop a model which will improve the employer-employee relations. The custodial model was used by the progressive managers.

Some of the important features of this model are as explained below:

(i) The success of the Custodial Model depends upon the economic resources because this model emphasizes the economic rewards and benefits. Since employee’s physiological needs are already met the employer looks to security needs as a motivating force.

(ii) The employees under Custodial Model depend upon organisation rather than their boss. If the organisation has got good welfare and development programmes for the employees, they cannot afford to leave the organisation.

(iii) Under this model, the employees are satisfied and happy and they are not strongly motivated. So they give only passive cooperation. They do not work more vigorously than under the autocratic approach.

(iv) The main benefit of this model is that it brings security and satisfaction to the employees.

(v) The difficulty, with this model is that it depends upon material rewards only to motivate the employees. But the workers have their psychological needs also.

Due to the drawbacks of this method, a search began to find out the best way to motivate the workers so that they produce with their full capacity and capabilities.

3. The Supportive Model:

The supportive model has originated from the ‘Principles of Supportive Relationships.” According to Rensis Likert, “The leadership and other processes of the organisation must be such as to ensure a maximum probability that in all interactions and all relationships with the organisation, each member will, in the light of his background, values and expectations, view the experience as supportive, and one which builds and maintains his sense of personal worth and importance.”

The main features of this model are as follows:

(i) The Supportive Model depends on leadership instead of power or money. Management, with the help of leadership try to create a favourable organisational climate in which the employees are helped to grow to the greater capacities and achieve things of which they have the capability, in compliance with the goals of the organisation.

(ii) The leader assumes that the worker will take responsibility, make their contributions and improve themselves, if given a chance. It is assumed that the workers are not lazy and work shirkers by nature. If properly motivated, they can be self directed and creative to the organisation.

(iii) It should be the orientation of the management to support the employees’ job performance, rather than simply giving them payments and benefits as in the custodial approach.

(iv) This model takes care of the psychological needs of the employees in addition to their subsistence and security needs. It is similar to McGregor’s theory and the human resources approach to people.

(v) This model is an improvement over the earlier two models. Supportive behaviour helps in creating friendly superior-subordinate interaction with a high degree of confidence and trust. This model has been found to be effective in affluent countries where the workers are more concerned about their psychological needs like high self esteem, job satisfaction etc. But it has limited application in India, where the majority of the workers are below the poverty line. For them, the most important requirement is the satisfaction of their physiological needs and security. They are not much concerned about the psychological needs.

4. The Collegial Model:

The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. The Dictionary meaning of collegial is a body of persons having a common purpose. As is clear from the meaning, this model is based upon the partnership between employees and the management.

The features of this model are as follows:

(i) This model creates a favourable climate in the organisation as the workers feel that they are the partners in the organisation. They don’t see the managers as their bosses but as joint contributors. Both the management and workers accept and respect each other.

(ii) The collegial model inculcates the team spirit in an organisation. The workers accept responsibilities because they find it their obligation to do so, not because that they will be punished by the management. This helps in developing a system of self discipline in the organisation.

(iii) In this kind of collegial environment, the workers have job satisfaction, job involvement, job commitment and some degree of fulfillment.

(iv) The collegial model is especially useful in research laboratories and similar work situations.

After studying all the four models it becomes very clear that there is no single model which is best suited to the requirements of all the organisations. The managers will have to make use of a combination of models depending upon the circumstances of the case. But keeping in view the emergence of professional management, we can say that the use of Supportive and Collegial will be more as compared to the Autocratic and Custodial Models.

5. Other Models:

Some models of organisational behaviour can also be classified by a number of approaches.

A few of these models are as explained below:

(i) Normative Models:

The normative models seek to find out that what should be done to produce optimum results. These models are concerned with the determination of optimum actions. Most of the management theories are comprised of the normative models, because while preparing the plans and policies the management is more concerned with what should be done or what should not be done by the managers and the employees.

(ii) Empirical Models:

While the normative models are concerned with what should be done, the empirical models describe the activities the employees actually perform. This model becomes an integral part of organisational behaviour because organisational behaviour is concerned with what is actually taking place in the organisations and how do people actually behave.

(iii) Ecological Models:

No business enterprise can exist in a vacuum. It has to continuously interact with the environment. All the functions of the organisation are affected by the environment as the environment supplies the inputs which are converted by the organisation into outputs. Through a process of feedback output causes the emergence of new inputs.

This interaction between the organisation and environment is known as ecological interaction and this is the crux of ecological approach. Models which deal with the changes which take place in the environment and which understand the complexities of environment are ecological models.

(iv) Non-Ecological Models:

As the name suggests this model is the opposite of ecological model. Whereas the ecological model accepts that the environment is complex and changes keep on taking place, the non-ecological models assume stability in the environment and that everything will remain the same. This model does not help in generalizing that what will happen in future. In the modern day world, when the environmental factors are assuming a lot of importance, this model is not very useful.

(v) Ideographic Models:

The models that are developed to deal with specific cases or unique situations are called ideographic models. This model deals with situations like single nation, single organisation, single group, individual, biography, historical episode etc. When the organisational behaviour is concerned with micro-level analysis this model is generally used.

(vi) Nomothetic Models:

These models deal with general situations. These are concerned with theory building on the macro level basis. These are concerned with generalizations, laws, hypothesis which indicates regularity of behaviour and correlation between variables. These models deal with situations like cross country, cross organisation, cross group, cross individual analysis of organisational system. To summaries, we can say that organisational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within an organisation and then the results of the investigations are applied to make organizations work more effectively.

Organisational behaviour uses systemic studies to improve predictions of behaviour that would be made from instructions of the management alone. But, because each organization is different from the other one, we have to find organizational behaviour model which will suit that particular organisation. Organizational behavior offers both challenges and opportunities for the managers and it also offers guidance to the managers in creating an ethically healthy working environment.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q2. Discuss contribution of different theories of management.

The overall approach to management has evolved over time, and so has the way managers communicate in the workplace. This lesson reviews the evolution of managerial communication as a response to changing management theories.

Management Theories Over Time

Imagine that you are a new manager. You want to learn from the past in order to do a great job. To that end, you build a time machine and travel back to study past managerial approaches. What stops in history should you make and what will you learn?

There have been three major managerial theory categories spanning from the late 1800s to the present. They are:

  • Scientific Management Theory – late 1800s to mid-1900s
  • Behavioral Management Theory – early 1900s to late 1900s
  • Modern Management Theories- mid-1900s to the present

The theories overlap because managerial theory is simply an effort to find the most effective way to use the resources available in an organization and this is an ongoing endeavour. Managers are always looking for a better way so managerial theory is dynamic; evolving as research gives new information to managers.

As you travel through time to get first-hand knowledge of these theories, you will also notice the different styles of managerial communication. You will notice that managerial communication, the way in which managers communicate interpersonally and organizationally with employees, changes as the main theory changes. Let’s go.

Scientific Management Theory

Your first stop is 1911 in the home of Frederick Taylor who had just published his ground breaking work titled The Principles of Scientific Management. Mr. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management Theory, tells you that this form of management works toward a single ‘right way’ to do tasks. Taylor noticed that companies were inefficient, machinery was ineffective and workers were not given information needed to perform their jobs. He proposed that scientific procedures should be used to ensure that all work followed a single path that was effective and efficient.

In Scientific Management Theory workers are trained using scientifically sound procedures to do their specific job (and nothing else). Managerial communication is truly a one-way street after initial interviews with workers allow managers to assign workers to jobs that the manager feels is the best fit for the worker and the company. After task assignment, employees must follow specific instructions based on scientific research communicated by managers.

In this theory, there is a severe lack of social context in the workplace. There also seems to be a lack of understanding human uniqueness in the process of work. Scientific Management Theory strictly adheres to scientifically backed procedures but lacks latitude and flexibility for worker/management communication.

Behavioral Management Theories

Your next stop is just in time to witness the Hawthorne study live. The Hawthorne study showed that workers perform better when they believed they are being watched. This led to an understanding that interpersonal relationships and human psychology are integral to the workplace. Management must communicate interpersonally with workers, not just in strict scientific ways. This worked marked the beginning of Behavioral Management theories.

Frederick Herzberg conducted work on motivation in the workplace in the late 1950s. His theory, Motivation/Hygiene Theory was a major contribution to the Behavioral Management Theory movement. The belief is that happy workers are more productive. Managers must understand what motivates workers. During this time, managerial communication focussed on individual needs and making the workplace a place for humans to find satisfaction and self-actualization (the highest level of needs as determined by Maslow).

The overall approach to management has evolved over time, and so has the way managers communicate in the workplace. This lesson reviews the evolution of managerial communication as a response to changing management theories.

Management Theories Over Time

Imagine that you are a new manager. You want to learn from the past in order to do a great job. To that end, you build a time machine and travel back to study past managerial approaches. What stops in history should you make and what will you learn?

There have been three major managerial theory categories spanning from the late 1800s to the present. They are:

  • Scientific Management Theory – late 1800s to mid-1900s
  • Behavioral Management Theory – early 1900s to late 1900s
  • Modern Management Theories- mid-1900s to the present

The theories overlap because managerial theory is simply an effort to find the most effective way to use the resources available in an organization and this is an ongoing endeavour. Managers are always looking for a better way so managerial theory is dynamic; evolving as research gives new information to managers.

As you travel through time to get first-hand knowledge of these theories, you will also notice the different styles of managerial communication. You will notice that managerial communication, the way in which managers communicate interpersonally and organizationally with employees, changes as the main theory changes. Let’s go.

Scientific Management Theory

Your first stop is 1911 in the home of Frederick Taylor who had just published his ground breaking work titled The Principles of Scientific Management. Mr. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management Theory, tells you that this form of management works toward a single ‘right way’ to do tasks. Taylor noticed that companies were inefficient, machinery was ineffective and workers were not given information needed to perform their jobs. He proposed that scientific procedures should be used to ensure that all work followed a single path that was effective and efficient.

In Scientific Management Theory workers are trained using scientifically sound procedures to do their specific job (and nothing else). Managerial communication is truly a one-way street after initial interviews with workers allow managers to assign workers to jobs that the manager feels is the best fit for the worker and the company. After task assignment, employees must follow specific instructions based on scientific research communicated by managers.

In this theory, there is a severe lack of social context in the workplace. There also seems to be a lack of understanding human uniqueness in the process of work. Scientific Management Theory strictly adheres to scientifically backed procedures but lacks latitude and flexibility for worker/management communication.

Behavioral Management Theories

Your next stop is just in time to witness the Hawthorne study live. The Hawthorne study showed that workers perform better when they believed they are being watched. This led to an understanding that interpersonal relationships and human psychology are integral to the workplace. Management must communicate interpersonally with workers, not just in strict scientific ways. This worked marked the beginning of Behavioral Management theories.

Frederick Herzberg conducted work on motivation in the workplace in the late 1950s. His theory, Motivation/Hygiene Theory was a major contribution to the Behavioral Management Theory movement. The belief is that happy workers are more productive. Managers must understand what motivates workers. During this time, managerial communication focussed on individual needs and making the workplace a place for humans to find satisfaction and self-actualization (the highest level of needs as determined by Maslow).

For eliminating this problem, Taylor developed the principles of scientific management, mainly emphasizing on the five important issues shown in Exhibit 2.2.

Principles of Scientific Management

The five important issues of the theories of scientific management formalized by Taylor:

  1. Emphasize on organized knowledge rather than relying on the rule of thumb
  2. Obtain harmony in group ation
  3. Achieve cooperation
  4. Work for maximum output rather than restricted output
  5. Develop all workers for their self-development as well as for organizational plicy.

In essence, Taylor emphasized on the following points to achieve organizational efficiency:

  1. Develop a scientific way to perform jobs.
  2. Train and develop workers to perform the job.
  3. Establish harmonious relations between the management and the workers.

In order to ensure that such objectives are achieved, Taylor suggested two important managerial practices—the piece-rate incentive system and the time and motion study. The piece-rate incentive system rewards the worker who produces maximum output. The existence of such incentive systems obvi­ously motivates workers to work more to maximize their earnings.  This sys­tem requires the workers to perform at some pre-decided standard rate to earn their base wages. Standards are decided using the time and motion study. If workers are able to produce more, then in addition to their base rate, they get incentives on the number of extra units produced over and above the standard minimum units. This serves the interest of the workers as well as the management, as the workers feel motivated to maximize their earnings, while the management gets the benefit of increased productivity.

The time and motion study facilitates the determination of a standard time for performing a job. Time study helps in the determination of time required, duly defining the art of recording, analysing, and synthesizing the time ele­ments of each operation. Motion study, on other hand involves the study of movements while doing a job, in parts, and eliminates the wasteful move­ments and retains only the necessary movements. It makes a job simpler, easier, and better.

In fact, the time and motion study concept was developed by Taylor in association with Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Like Taylor, Frank Gilbreth is also known as the father of motion study. Lillian Gilbreth conducted research on motion studies. Both of them explored the ways of reducing fatigue.

They classified seventeen basic hand motions like search, select, position; hold, etc., which they called therbligs (spelling the word Gilbreth backward with t and h mutually transposed and retaining s at the end). Their research has helped to analyse the exact elements of a worker’s hand movements. A simple modification of the bricklaying movements, following Gilbreth’s approach, helped to increase the hourly output from 120 to 350 bricks. Henry Laurence Gantt also worked as a close associate of Taylor at Midvale and subsequently at Bethlehem Steel. His contributions to the scientific management school of thought are the introduction of the task and bonus system and a chart commonly known as the Gantt chart.

As per his incentive plan, workers receive their day wages even when they do not perform their jobs completely, but they get bonus when they complete the work earlier than the normal standard time. Gantt and Taylor also recommended payment of bonus to foremen, based on the incremental improvements in the performance of workers under them.

The Gantt chart is used for production planning and to compare the planned and actual performances. It is a visual device used for production control, indicating the progress of production in terms of time rather than quantity. In fact, the programme evaluation and review technique (PERT) concept was subsequently developed and is based on the Gantt chart.

Gantt or Bar Charts Illustration:

Introduced in 1917, the Gantt chart is the oldest and most extensively used method for planning, scheduling, and controlling the production. It shows the relationships between different activities over a given time frame. The time frame, expressed either in hours, days, weeks, or months, is shown on the horizontal or x-axis and activities are plotted against the y- axis. The time frame or time scale would depend on the nature of the operations and activi­ties, which may be determined by past experiences or by an approximation based on which activities may be scheduled and monitored.

The charts may be in the form of any of the following:

(a) Scheduling or progress charts, which show the sequence of job progress

(b) Load charts, which show the work assigned to a work group or allocated to machines

(c) Record charts, which track the actual time spent and delays, if any.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q3. Define pert 7 for the project of’ construction of a science lab in high school ‘prepare a pert  diagram it’s process step wide including all activities in details.

A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project. PERT stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique, a methodology developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. A similar methodology, the Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed for project management in the private sector at about the same time.

A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labelled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. The direction of the arrows on the lines indicates the sequence of tasks. In the diagram, for example, the tasks between nodes 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 must be completed in sequence. These are called dependent or serial tasks. The tasks between nodes 1 and 2, and nodes 1 and 3 are not dependent on the completion of one to start the other and can be undertaken simultaneously. These tasks are called  parallel or concurrent tasks. Tasks that must be completed in sequence but that don’t require resources or completion time are considered to have event dependency. These are represented by dotted lines with arrows and are called dummy activities. For example, the dashed arrow linking nodes 6 and 9 indicates that the system files must be converted before the user test can take place, but that the resources and time required to prepare for the user test (writing the user manual and user training) are on another path. Numbers on the opposite sides of the vectors indicate the time allotted for the task.

The PERT chart is sometimes preferred over the Gantt chart, another popular project management charting method, because it clearly illustrates task dependencies. On the other hand, the PERT chart can be much more difficult to interpret, especially on complex projects. Frequently, project managers use both techniques.

PERT is a planning and controlling tool for the management that provides the complete roadmap of activities involved in the completion of a project, along with the estimated time required for the completion of each task and the minimum time needed for the whole project to get completed.

PERT is used majorly for analyzing the project scheduling problems, wherein the time needed for the completion of each task and the whole project as a whole is uncertain. Thus, PERT lays emphasis on the uncertainty of completion time of the activities involved in the project. It is probabilistic in nature and hence is much used in the research and development projects.

PERT Chart is created to represent a set of activities along with the estimated time (generally, in weeks) for its completion on a graph. It shows that for a completion of activities in the series the predecessor activities must be completed before beginning a new activity. The activity is a task, and the event is the milestone. In the chart, the activity and task are represented by arcs and nodes as shown in the figure below:

In the graph, the milestones are numbered so that it is easily identifiable that the last node has a higher number than the beginning node. The activities are shown by the letters along with the expected time required for the completion of each activity. In this way, the management plots a graph and plan about the activities involved in a project and estimate the time needed for its completion.

An activity is represented by a line or arrow. This line or arrow connects two events. Each event is a specific point in time, marking the beginning and/or end of an activity. Artificial dummy events may be included to ensure that all activities have a unique pair of event numbers. Also network dummy activities, (shown by dashed line) which take no time but indicate dependence. Dummies are particularly necessary in computerised CPMs. The network may also include time/calendar information (including boundaries) and hence deadline data.

PERT was developed during the 1950s through the efforts of the U.S. Navy and some of its contractors working on the Polaris missile project. Concerned about the growing nuclear arsenal of the Soviet Union, the U.S. government wanted to complete the Polaris project as quickly as possible. The Navy used PERT to coordinate the efforts of some 3,000 contractors involved with the project. Experts credited PERT with shortening the project duration by two years. Since then, all government contractors have been required to use PERT or a similar project analysis technique for all major government contracts.

NETWORK DIAGRAMS

The chief feature of PERT analysis is a network diagram that provides a visual depiction of the major project activities and the sequence in which they must be completed. Activities are defined as distinct steps toward completion of the project that consume either time or resources. The network diagram consists of arrows and nodes and can be organized using one of two different conventions. The arrows represent activities in the activity-on-arrow convention, while the nodes represent activities in the activity-on-node convention. For each activity, managers provide an estimate of the time required to complete it.

The sequence of activities leading from the starting point of the diagram to the finishing point of the diagram is called a path. The amount of time required to complete the work involved in any path can be figured by adding up the estimated times of all activities along that path. The path with the longest total time is then called the “critical path,” hence the term CPM. The critical path is the most important part of the diagram for managers: it determines the completion date of the project. Delays in completing activities along the critical path necessitate an extension of the final deadline for the project. If a manager hopes to shorten the time required to complete the project, he or she must focus on finding ways to reduce the time involved in activities along the critical path.

The time estimates managers provide for the various activities comprising a project involve different degrees of certainty. When time estimates can be made with a high degree of certainty, they are called deterministic estimates. When they are subject to variation, they are called probabilistic estimates. In using the probabilistic approach, managers provide three estimates for each activity: an optimistic or best case estimate; a pessimistic or worst case estimate; and the most likely estimate. Statistical methods can be used to describe the extent of variability in these estimates, and thus the degree of uncertainty in the time provided for each activity. Computing the standard deviation of each path provides a probabilistic estimate of the time required to complete the overall project.

PERT ANALYSIS

Managers can obtain a great deal of information by analyzing network diagrams of projects. For example, network diagrams show the sequence of activities involved in a project. From this sequence, managers can determine which activities must take place before others can begin, and which can occur independently of one another. Managers can also gain valuable insight by examining paths other than the critical path. Since these paths require less time to complete, they can often accommodate slippage without affecting the project completion time. The difference between the length of a given path and the length of the critical path is known as slack. Knowing where slack is located helps managers to allocate scarce resources and direct their efforts to control activities.

For complex problems involving hundreds of activities, computers are used to create and analyze the project networks. The project information input into the computer includes the earliest start time for each activity, earliest finish time for each activity, latest start time for each activity, and latest finish time for each activity without delaying the project completion. From these values, a computer algorithm can determine the expected project duration and the activities located on the critical path. Managers can use this information to determine where project time can be shortened by injecting additional resources, like workers or equipment. Needless to say, the solution of the algorithm is easy for the computer, but the resulting information will only be as good as the estimates originally made. Thus PERT depends on good estimates and sometimes inspired guesses.

PERT offers a number of advantages to managers. For example, it forces them to organize and quantify project information and provides them with a graphic display of the project. It also helps them to identify which activities are critical to the project completion time and should be watched closely, and which activities involve slack time and can be delayed without affecting the project completion time. The chief disadvantages of PERT lie in the nature of reality. Complex systems and plans, with many suppliers and channels of supply involved, sometimes make it difficult to predict precisely what will happen. The technique works best in well-understood engineering projects where sufficient experience exists to predict tasks accurately in advance.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q4. Define strategic management. Explain the process of strategic management.

Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness of an activity that would finally prompt a judgment regarding the progress made in relation to the goals of a firm. Evaluation consists in estimating the value of something. It involves the process of finding the facts.

Evaluation can also be explained as the study of past experience when it comes to the performance and implementation of the project. Unlike Evaluation, Monitoring does not take into account the past experience involved in the performance of a project. In short it can be said that evaluation aims at the submission of the valid information on the conduct and impact of the project.

Differences between monitoring and evaluation

The common ground for monitoring and evaluation is that they are both management tools. For monitoring, data and information collection for tracking progress according to the terms of reference is gathered periodically which is not the case in evaluations for which the data and information collection is happening during or in view of the evaluation. The monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which also assesses the outcomes and sometime longer term impact. This impact assessment occurs sometimes after the end of a project, even though it is rare because of its cost and of the difficulty to determine whether the project is responsible of the observed results.

Importance of monitoring and evaluation

Although evaluations are often a retrospective, their purpose is essentially forward looking. Evaluation applies the lessons and recommendations to decisions about current and future programmes. Evaluations can also be used to promote new projects, get support from governments, raise funds from public or private institutions and inform the general public on the different activities.

It is also very important as monitoring team give the recommendation to the school visited. (E.g K.H.S and G.S.G ) The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in February 2005 and the follow-up meeting in Accra underlined the importance of the evaluation process and of the ownership of its conduct by the projects’ hosting countries. Many developing countries now have M&E systems and the tendency is growing.

Performance measurement

The credibility of findings and assessments depends to a large extent on the manner in which monitoring and evaluation is conducted. To assess performance, it is necessary to select, before the implementation of the project, indicators which will permit to rate the targeted outputs and outcomes. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), an outcome indicator has two components: the baseline which is the situation before the programme or project begins, and the target which is the expected situation at the end of the project. An output indicator that does not have any baseline as the purpose of the output is to introduce something that does not exist yet.

Evaluation consists in making a study about the effectiveness of the projects. The purpose of evaluation lies in bringing about the process of accounting close to perfection. It also consists in making the best possible use of the available funds, methods to stop the probability of mistakes, testing the efficacy of the new techniques employed in the completion of the projects, verifying the real benefits of the projects and understanding the participation of the people in the project by means of surveysinterviews and the like. It is true that evaluation aims for the future. This emphasizes that in conducting projects both monitoring and evaluation have a specific role to play. The difference between the two roles in project management can be summarized as follows.

Strategic Decisions

Geared for the long haul, strategic decisions point the company in the direction management wants to take it. These are more general, taking on all operations as a whole. Top management usually makes strategic decisions with or without input from department heads or key employees. Strategic decisions cover the “what” and “why” of a business. Without strategic decision-making, all operational decisions become a mass of procedures and projects without anything to tie them into a cohesive whole. Ideally, strategic decisions are the first to be made in any new business. However, poorly made strategic decisions affect future operational decisions, and if the future doesn’t match up with projections new strategies must be made to adjust.

Strategic Applications

Mission statements and business plans form the cornerstone of strategic thinking, and all other decisions flow from those. To a lesser extent, strategic thinking paints a general picture of what kind of line employee a company wishes to hire. Strategic decisions help a company decide which direction to expand, what new products or services to introduce, and whom it envisions as the typical customer.

Operational Decisions

Unlike strategic planning, operational decisions deal with the ground-level tactics of putting plans into action. Operational decisions get down to specifics of how to get things done. Because of this, operational decisions lean more toward the short term. Without operational thinking, strategy becomes little more than a dream with little to make it happen. On the other hand, operational decisions made without strategic planning become more random and lack a central theme to determine an organization’s direction.

Operational Applications

Examples of operational planning include scheduling employees and allocating resources on the departmental level. Most hiring decisions come from this level, along with designating key employees and managing a department. Protocols for customer service and shipping the product or service also come from the operational side.

The Administrative Bridge

A third level of decision-making — administrative — usually serves as a bridge between the strategic and operational sides. If operational thinking is concerned with how to get things done, administrative thinking fleshes out top-level strategic plans and breaks them down to actionable chunks for the operational decision makers.

Strategic Decisions

Strategic decisions consider the entire organization and represent a complex aspect of business planning. Strategy entails making major changes for the organization and recognizing that the business environment is not static and will continue to evolve. The goal of making strategic decisions is to implement policy that aims to move the organization toward its long-term goals. Strategy takes into account an organization’s resources, threats to it and available opportunities.

Risk of Strategic Decisions

A business always assumes risk when deciding to change its methods. Strategic decisions always represent a risk because these decisions deal with the future. While a company can make strategic decisions based on relevant information, the organization can never predict the future with certainty. Because of this, a business must take precautions when implementing strategic decisions.

Operational Decisions

Operational decisions relate to the daily operations of an organization. The countless interactions that take place on a daily basis represent the result of operational decisions. These decisions, therefore, can bog down an organization and make it ineffective. To prevent this, operational decisions should be consistent with strategic decisions. Good operational decisions will have measurable results such as higher revenues, increased profits, increased productivity and customer satisfaction.

Decisions

A business does not make frequent decisions regarding operations because of constraints of time, resources and the workforce. Instead, a business should make operational decisions after key personnel agree on an overall strategic plan for the organization. In many organizations, operational decisions result from strategy related to production and growth. The operational decisions then help the organization to bring about changes that move the business toward its strategic goals.

Q5. Describe concepts of performance appraisal. Explain process of performance appraisal used in government schools in your province.

A performance appraisal is a systematic general and periodic process that assesses an individual employee’s job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives. Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such as organizational citizenship behavior, accomplishments, potential for future improvement, strengths and weaknesses, etc.

To collect PA data, there are three main methods: objective production, personnel, and judgmental evaluation. Judgmental evaluations are the most commonly used with a large variety of evaluation methods. Historically, PA has been conducted annually (long-cycle appraisals); however, many companies are moving towards shorter cycles (every six months, every quarter), and some have been moving into short-cycle (weekly, bi-weekly) PA. The interview could function as “providing feedback to employees, counseling and developing employees, and conveying and discussing compensation, job status, or disciplinary decisions”. PA is often included in performance management systems. PA helps the subordinate answer two key questions: first, “What are your expectations of me?” second, “How am I doing to meet your expectations?”

Performance management systems are employed “to manage and align” all of an organization’s resources in order to achieve highest possible performance “How performance is managed in an organization determines to a large extent the success or failure of the organization. Therefore, improving PA for everyone should be among the highest priorities of contemporary organizations”.

Some applications of PA are compensation, performance improvement, promotions, termination, test validation, and more. While there are many potential benefits of PA, there are also some potential drawbacks. For example, PA can help facilitate management-employee communication; however, PA may result in legal issues if not executed appropriately, as many employees tend to be unsatisfied with the PA process. PAs created in and determined as useful in the United States are not necessarily able to be transferable cross-culturally.

Potential benefits

There are a number of potential benefits of organizational performance management conducting formal performance appraisals (PAs). There has been a general consensus in the belief that PAs lead to positive implications of organizations. Furthermore, PAs can benefit an organization’s effectiveness One way is PAs can often lead to giving individual workers feedback about their job performance. From this may spawn several potential benefits such as the individual workers becoming more productive.

Other potential benefits include:

  • Facilitation of communication: communication in organizations is considered an essential function of worker motivation. It has been proposed that feedback from PAs aid in minimizing employees’ perceptions of uncertainty. Fundamentally, feedback and management-employee communication can serve as a guide in job performance.
  • Enhancement of employee focus through promoting trust: behaviors, thoughts, and/or issues may distract employees from their work, and trust issues may be among these distracting factors. Such factors that consume psychological energy can lower job performance and cause workers to lose sight of organizational goals. Properly constructed and utilized PAs have the ability to lower distracting factors and encourage trust within the organization.
  • Goal setting and desired performance reinforcement: organizations find it efficient to match individual worker’s goals and performance with organizational goals. PAs provide room for discussion in the collaboration of these individual and organizational goals. Collaboration can also be advantageous by resulting in employee acceptance and satisfaction of appraisal results.
  • Performance improvement: well constructed PAs can be valuable tools for communication with employees as pertaining to how their job performance stands with organizational expectations “At the organizational level, numerous studies have reported positive relationships between human resource management (HRM) practices” and performance improvement at both the individual and organizational levels.
  • Determination of training needs: “Employee training and development are crucial components in helping an organization achieve strategic initiatives”. It has been argued that for PAs to truly be effective, post-appraisal opportunities for training and development in problem areas, as determined by the appraisal, must be offered. PAs can especially be instrumental for identifying training needs of new employees. Finally, PAs can help in the establishment and supervision of employees’ career goals.

Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:

  1. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc.
  2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job.
  3. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development.
  4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
  5. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
  6. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.
  7. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.

Advantages of Performance Appraisal

It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company which can be justified by following advantages:

  1. Promotion: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion programmes for efficient employees. In this regards, inefficient workers can be dismissed or demoted in case.
  2. Compensation: Performance Appraisal helps in chalking out compensation packages for employees. Merit rating is possible through performance appraisal. Performance Appraisal tries to give worth to a performance. Compensation packages which includes bonus, high salary rates, extra benefits, allowances and pre-requisites are dependent on performance appraisal. The criteria should be merit rather than seniority.
  3. Employees Development: The systematic procedure of performance appraisal helps the supervisors to frame training policies and programmes. It helps to analyse strengths and weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient employees. It also helps in framing future development programmes.
  4. Selection Validation: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to understand the validity and importance of the selection procedure. The supervisors come to know the validity and thereby the strengths and weaknesses of selection procedure. Future changes in selection methods can be made in this regard.
  5. Communication: For an organization, effective communication between employees and employers is very important. Through performance appraisal, communication can be sought for in the following ways:
    1. Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept skills of subordinates.
    2. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in superiors.
    3. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management relationship.
    4. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees.

All the above factors ensure effective communication.

  1. Motivation: Performance appraisal serves as a motivation tool. Through evaluating performance of employees, a person’s efficiency can be determined if the targets are achieved. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve his performance in the future.

Opposition

Not everyone is in favor of formal performance appraisal systems. Many employees, especially those most affected by such ratings are not very enthusiastic about them. There are many critics of these appraisals including labor unions and managers.

Labor Unions

Labor unions represent 11% (7% in the private sector) of the work force in the United States. In some cases they may require that seniority be taken as one of the main criteria for promotion. However, length of job experience may not always be a reliable indication of the ability to perform a higher level job. That is why some employers give senior people the first opportunity for promotion, but the employer may seek to further qualify the employee for that promotion because of their abilities (not solely because of length of service). Performance appraisals may provide a basis for assessment of employee merit as a component of these decisions. 

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