AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8615 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course: Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615) B.Ed (2/5, 1/5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020 

Q1. Define organizational behavior. How different elements contribute in organizational behavior.

Organizational behavior is concerned with predicting, controlling and explaining the behavior of individuals and groups pertaining to a collective whole. For example, a company of any size is a social structure involving people. Organizing their behavior and assigning specific tasks to accomplish a specific goal is “organizational behavior” at work. In an organizational model, individuals and groups are categorized as parts of a whole and conceptualized in a context of an agenda larger than them.

Types of organizational behavior addresses particular behaviors a manager wishes to modify, regulate and optimize for the purpose of achieving an end objective. For example, “Incentive Theory” is concerned with predicting, controlling and explaining behavior by means of providing a reward; determining exactly what reward best sparks the impulse to participate with someone else’s agenda is the art behind the science.

The Industrial Revolution gave rise to increasing specialization and division of labor. At the same time, it spawned new forms of human organization. Research into how humans behave in organizations has revealed that there are hard and soft dimensions to organizational performance, and that the quality of organizational outputs is in no small measure dependent on the quality of the work force and how effectively it is utilized.

Scientific Leadership

This early theory of organizational behavior focused on how jobs could be done more efficiently. The first task in scientific leadership was to determine the objectives of the organization. Next, performance standards were defined to replace the older rules of thumb. Workers were assigned to specialties, and managers believe that there was “one best way” to perform any given job, as determined by time and motion studies. Once the optimum method was determined, a standard time for job performance could be defined. Organizations then selected workers based on their fit to these new job requirements and trained them in the standard work methods. Managers carefully planned work to optimize the new processes and methods. Scientific Leadership required little thought on the part of the workers.

Human Relations Approach

This approach was developed after a lengthy study of the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company by a team of Harvard researchers. Although they had intended to study the effects of varying levels of plant illumination on worker productivity, the researchers soon concluded that significant human factors were also at work. The mere act of studying the workers produced an increase in productivity known as the “Hawthorne Effect.” These studies identified formal and informal organizations, and determined that group norms exert significant impact on worker performance.

Decision-Making Approach

The decision-making approach focuses on the importance of decision making, which is a defined as a compromise between goal-oriented behavior and behavior that does not optimize goal achievement. Decision makers are bound by restrictions in the environment and often “satisfied”, choosing alternatives that meet only their minimum criteria for success rather than seeking an optimal solution.

For a group of people to be an organization rather than just a random collection of individuals, they need to communicate with each other and coordinate their activities. The more effective the communication, the more efficient and productive the activities will be. A well-organized workplace features transparency through hierarchies so that everyone is clear about his role and purpose at work.

Hierarchy

In a hierarchical organization, communication runs up and down chains of command between management and labor. The larger a company is, the more complex the hierarchy is likely to be, with a CEO, CFO, board of directors, vice presidents and regional managers. All of these people need to know who they report to and who they manage. When these roles and channels of communication aren’t clear, the result is inefficient operations and lost profits. Good leadership is responsive to the needs of employees but also unambiguous about its own role at the top.

Cooperation

The smooth functioning of a workplace is dependent on cooperation between coworkers. In order to cooperate well, coworkers need to be able to communicate effectively. In a cooperative team that is pursuing a particular project, tasks are delegated to different individuals to get everything done with maximum efficiency. Good communication prevents people from duplicating their efforts, and allows all of the different delegated tasks to be fitted together into a completed project. Good communication must also exist between the team as a whole and the rest of the company.

Feedback

Experienced managers understand that their jobs are made easier when they have access to a constant stream of information from their employees. Managers who neglect feedback from workers are losing their best source of information about the health and functionality of their company. Both positive and negative feedback should be sought out from the people on the front lines of production to constantly improve efficiency and productivity. Soliciting feedback from workers also improves staff morale by showing that management takes their opinions seriously and wants to include them in the ongoing improvement of the organization.

Efficiency

Waste is the enemy of a profitable company. Waste exists not only in the material realm but in the realm of function and labor as well. Clear communication throughout an organization helps to efficiently organize labor and tasks to eliminate wasted effort and time. This improves the profitability of the company and the returns that can be enjoyed by everyone. Good communication also improves efficiency by providing a channel of information which lets everyone know about initiatives being undertaken by the company.

Individual Attitudes and Behaviors

Attitudes can positively or negatively affect a person’s behavior. A person may not always be aware of his or her attitude or the effect it is having on behavior. A person who has positive attitudes towards work and co-workers (such as contentment, friendliness, etc.) can positively influence those around them. These positive attitudes are usually manifested in a person’s behavior; people with a good attitude are active and productive and do what they can to improve the mood of those around them.

In much the same way, a person who displays negative attitudes (such as discontentment, boredom, etc.), will behave accordingly. People with these types of attitudes towards work may likewise affect those around them and behave in a manner that reduces efficiency and effectiveness.

Attitudinal Categories

Attitude and behavior interact differently based upon the attitude in question. Understanding different types of attitudes and their likely implications is useful in predicting how individuals’ attitudes may govern their behavior. Daniel Katz uses four attitude classifications:

Utilitarian: Utilitarian refers to an individual’s attitude as derived from self or community interest. An example could be getting a raise. As a raise means more disposable income, employees will have a positive attitude about getting a raise, which may positively affect their behavior in some circumstances.

Knowledge: Logic, or rationalizing, is another means by which people form attitudes. When an organization appeals to people’s logic and explains why it is assigning tasks or pursuing a strategy, it can generate a more positive disposition towards that task or strategy (and vice versa, if the employee does not recognize why a task is logical).

Ego-defensive: People have a tendency to use attitudes to protect their ego, resulting in a common negative attitude. If a manager criticizes employees’ work without offering suggestions for improvement, employees may form a negative attitude and subsequently dismiss the manager as foolish in an effort to defend their work. Managers must therefore carefully manage criticism and offer solutions, not simply identify problems.

Value-expressive: People develop central values over time. These values are not always explicit or simple. Managers should always be aware of what is important to their employees from a values perspective (that is, what do they stand for? why do they do what they do?). Having such an awareness can management to align organizational vision with individual values, thereby generating passion among the workforce.

Organizational Attitudes and Behaviors

Attitudes can be infectious and can influence the behavior of those around them. Organizations must therefore recognize that it is possible to influence a person’s attitude and, in turn, his or her behavior. A positive work environment, job satisfaction, a reward system, and a code of conduct can all help reinforce specific behaviors.

One key to altering an individual’s behavior is consistency. Fostering initiatives that influence behavior is not enough; everyone in the organization needs to be committed to the success of these initiatives. It is also important to remember that certain activities will be more effective with some people than with others. Management may want to outline a few different behavior-change strategies to have the biggest effect across the organization and take into consideration the diversity inherent in any group.

The real change after giving such a feedback in an organisation is barely visible, letting the employees feel useless. There are some companies with disruptive new structures such as google in which the hierarchy is maintained as flat as possible. I am well aware that this company form is not applicable for every Industry and company but at least some extent of employee co-determination should be possible. It will make the company feel more at home and should motivate everyone to work harder.

Concluding I want to motivate managers to show their employees that they care about them and that they are not just workforce which might as well be replaced by machines. This attitude should be beneficial for all parties and self-reinforcing.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q2. What are international students for quality management. Discuss the role of quality management 8n customer – focus organization.

Managers in small businesses have enormous responsibilities. They must wear many different hats–and take on more duties than a department manager in a large company who has assistant managers and supervisors to share in the responsibilities. For this reason, a small business manager must have superior organizational skills for the department to run smoothly and with a productive and satisfied workforce.

Time Management

Time management helps managers establish department goals and determine objectives to reach those goals on deadline. Staffing and workforce planning, delegating assignments and setting priorities are activities that create organization skills. Time management is also important in conducting performance appraisals. Some managers wait until the last possible moment to evaluate the employee’s performance for the past 12 months. This results in a haphazard way of appraising an employee’s contributions and may result in not recognizing all of the employee’s contributions to the department and the company.

Achieving department goals requires the manager’s ability to execute tasks and motivate his staff to accomplish their respective tasks. Organization skills in time management will help determine to whom certain tasks will be assigned. Subsequent to finishing the tasks required for meeting goals, the manager must ensure the goal has been achieved efficiently and to business standards.

Professional Development

The manager needs organization skills in the area of professional development for his staff and himself. Observing his employees’ duties and capabilities will help create professional development plans. However, organizational skills are needed to maintain knowledge of the employee skills and responsibilities. In addition, the manager himself must engage in self-evaluation and communication with his superior to plan his professional development. Organizing a schedule of interacting with employees on a regular basis and providing feedback to help their development is a critical part of managing a workforce. A manager cannot get so caught up in other business details as to forget this.

Communication With Executive Leadership

There needs to be regular communication between the department manager and executive leadership. The manager should communicate issues such as departmental productivity, goals, objectives, workforce issues and any other challenges she encounters as manager. Keeping executive leadership informed is good business practice that enables the owner of the business or executive team to make wise decisions on behalf of the company.

In addition, the manager must spend time learning the business if she wants to see career progression with the company. During regular contact with business leaders, she demonstrates her interpersonal skills and suitability for promotion within the company. Communication supported by organizational skills are required to convey to executive leadership your department’s status and contributions to the business overall.

Each business has an organizational culture no matter how big or small. A business can informally develop a culture without the guiding hand of management or ownership, or the company can create its own culture using a system of values and performance standards. A manager’s role in a company’s culture depends on how the business wants the manager to interact with other employees and how much authority the business gives the manager.

Manager as Disciplinarian

A small business’ organizational culture may force a manager into the role of disciplinarian to police and correct employee behavior. A manager functioning in this role may issue verbal or written warnings to employees not operating according to the company’s mission statement or operational standards and conduct performance reviews to make employees aware of what areas require improvement. A manager in a disciplinarian role may have a difficult time establishing interpersonal relationships with other employees because workers see the manager as an authority figure first and a coworker a distant second.

Interaction with Employees

Conversely, an organization with a disseminated leadership culture where each employee takes part in a company’s business strategy may install managers in roles indistinguishable from floor-level employees. A small business with only a handful of employees can accomplish this easily. A disseminated leadership culture allows managers to build better working relationships with employees while still supervising employee performance and reporting to company owners. Managers in this model achieve a more relaxed form of interaction with subordinates because employees see them as actual human beings and not simply the manifestation of the employer’s will.

Setting the Example

Regardless of the organizational culture, a manager must serve as the model for that culture for other employees to emulate. For example, a small-business owner wishing to see more employee teamwork must have a manager who is able to work directly with employees and foster a team atmosphere. Since the culture of a business may shift over time, this also requires a manager to be versatile and easily adaptable to change. The quicker a manager can illustrate the proper model of a company’s desired culture, the faster employees will adopt it.

Rewarding Proper Behavior

A manager’s role within a small business’ culture may require her to reward employees who properly display the company’s desired qualities. Rewards can take the form of simple praise within the workplace or may include higher grades on performance reviews, which can lead to promotions and higher rates of pay. Rewarding employees for perpetuating proper organizational culture shows workers that owners and management value each worker’s place in the company and are serious about maintaining standards.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q3. Explain different phases of precise change management methodology.

Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness of an activity that would finally prompt a judgment regarding the progress made in relation to the goals of a firm. Evaluation consists in estimating the value of something. It involves the process of finding the facts.

Evaluation can also be explained as the study of past experience when it comes to the performance and implementation of the project. Unlike Evaluation, Monitoring does not take into account the past experience involved in the performance of a project. In short it can be said that evaluation aims at the submission of the valid information on the conduct and impact of the project.

Differences between monitoring and evaluation

The common ground for monitoring and evaluation is that they are both management tools. For monitoring, data and information collection for tracking progress according to the terms of reference is gathered periodically which is not the case in evaluations for which the data and information collection is happening during or in view of the evaluation. The monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which also assesses the outcomes and sometime longer term impact. This impact assessment occurs sometimes after the end of a project, even though it is rare because of its cost and of the difficulty to determine whether the project is responsible of the observed results.

Importance of monitoring and evaluation

Although evaluations are often a retrospective, their purpose is essentially forward looking. Evaluation applies the lessons and recommendations to decisions about current and future programmes. Evaluations can also be used to promote new projects, get support from governments, raise funds from public or private institutions and inform the general public on the different activities.

It is also very important as monitoring team give the recommendation to the school visited. (E.g K.H.S and G.S.G ) The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in February 2005 and the follow-up meeting in Accra underlined the importance of the evaluation process and of the ownership of its conduct by the projects’ hosting countries. Many developing countries now have M&E systems and the tendency is growing.

Performance measurement

The credibility of findings and assessments depends to a large extent on the manner in which monitoring and evaluation is conducted. To assess performance, it is necessary to select, before the implementation of the project, indicators which will permit to rate the targeted outputs and outcomes. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), an outcome indicator has two components: the baseline which is the situation before the programme or project begins, and the target which is the expected situation at the end of the project. An output indicator that does not have any baseline as the purpose of the output is to introduce something that does not exist yet.

Evaluation consists in making a study about the effectiveness of the projects. The purpose of evaluation lies in bringing about the process of accounting close to perfection. It also consists in making the best possible use of the available funds, methods to stop the probability of mistakes, testing the efficacy of the new techniques employed in the completion of the projects, verifying the real benefits of the projects and understanding the participation of the people in the project by means of surveys, interviews and the like. It is true that evaluation aims for the future. This emphasizes that in conducting projects both monitoring and evaluation have a specific role to play. The difference between the two roles in project management can be summarized as follows.

Strategic Decisions

Geared for the long haul, strategic decisions point the company in the direction management wants to take it. These are more general, taking on all operations as a whole. Top management usually makes strategic decisions with or without input from department heads or key employees. Strategic decisions cover the “what” and “why” of a business. Without strategic decision-making, all operational decisions become a mass of procedures and projects without anything to tie them into a cohesive whole. Ideally, strategic decisions are the first to be made in any new business. However, poorly made strategic decisions affect future operational decisions, and if the future doesn’t match up with projections new strategies must be made to adjust.

Strategic Applications

Mission statements and business plans form the cornerstone of strategic thinking, and all other decisions flow from those. To a lesser extent, strategic thinking paints a general picture of what kind of line employee a company wishes to hire. Strategic decisions help a company decide which direction to expand, what new products or services to introduce, and whom it envisions as the typical customer.

Operational Decisions

Unlike strategic planning, operational decisions deal with the ground-level tactics of putting plans into action. Operational decisions get down to specifics of how to get things done. Because of this, operational decisions lean more toward the short term. Without operational thinking, strategy becomes little more than a dream with little to make it happen. On the other hand, operational decisions made without strategic planning become more random and lack a central theme to determine an organization’s direction.

Operational Applications

Examples of operational planning include scheduling employees and allocating resources on the departmental level. Most hiring decisions come from this level, along with designating key employees and managing a department. Protocols for customer service and shipping the product or service also come from the operational side.

The Administrative Bridge

A third level of decision-making — administrative — usually serves as a bridge between the strategic and operational sides. If operational thinking is concerned with how to get things done, administrative thinking fleshes out top-level strategic plans and breaks them down to actionable chunks for the operational decision makers.

Strategic Decisions

Strategic decisions consider the entire organization and represent a complex aspect of business planning. Strategy entails making major changes for the organization and recognizing that the business environment is not static and will continue to evolve. The goal of making strategic decisions is to implement policy that aims to move the organization toward its long-term goals. Strategy takes into account an organization’s resources, threats to it and available opportunities.

Risk of Strategic Decisions

A business always assumes risk when deciding to change its methods. Strategic decisions always represent a risk because these decisions deal with the future. While a company can make strategic decisions based on relevant information, the organization can never predict the future with certainty. Because of this, a business must take precautions when implementing strategic decisions.

Operational Decisions

Operational decisions relate to the daily operations of an organization. The countless interactions that take place on a daily basis represent the result of operational decisions. These decisions, therefore, can bog down an organization and make it ineffective. To prevent this, operational decisions should be consistent with strategic decisions. Good operational decisions will have measurable results such as higher revenues, increased profits, increased productivity and customer satisfaction.

Decisions

A business does not make frequent decisions regarding operations because of constraints of time, resources and the workforce. Instead, a business should make operational decisions after key personnel agree on an overall strategic plan for the organization. In many organizations, operational decisions result from strategy related to production and growth. The operational decisions then help the organization to bring about changes that move the business toward its strategic goals.

Concept of SWOT analysis in strategic management

The SWOT analysis helps organizations assess issues within and outside the organization. The SWOT analysis, made up of an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, external opportunities and threats from competition, provides an outline for strategic decision-making.

Purpose

Small businesses, large corporations and individuals can utilize the SWOT analysis process for evaluation. By adding a SWOT analysis in their business plans, small businesses can better clarify their short- and long-range strategies. The SWOT analysis, often found in marketing plans, becomes a useful tool for planning and competitive analysis. Organizations often provide a SWOT analysis in a chart format with each segment represented in a different quadrant.

Strengths

The strengths segment of a SWOT analysis provides an area to list everything done right either individually or as an organization. This section contains both strengths within the organization and external strengths, such as client relationships. Organizations should seek to reflect their strengths honestly to maintain the integrity of the SWOT analysis. Feedback from others can also provide clarification on strengths captured in this segment of the SWOT analysis.

Weaknesses

The weaknesses segment contains needed improvements within an organization or personally. Group sessions can help organizations identify weak areas. Analysis in this segment can provide a clear list of areas that need a development plan to remedy the issues identified. Tools such as action plans and goal formation provide ways to improve weaknesses. From a competitive standpoint, organizations should attempt to mitigate weaknesses as soon as possible since they can offer an undesired opportunity to their competitors.

Opportunities

Opportunities for improvement exist within all organizations. This makes the opportunities segment of the SWOT analysis important. Within this segment, organizations identify internal and external opportunities. To have a comprehensive list, organizations sometimes use group facilitation to identify these opportunities. Organizations can add both current and future opportunities to this segment of the quadrant.

Threats

By examining threats, such as new competitors in the market, organizations can implement counter measures prior to the threat occurring. To ensure success, organizations may need to deal with both future and present threats. For individuals creating a SWOT analysis for personal development purposes, an example of a threat such as job security problems, would reside in this section of the SWOT analysis.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q4. Discuss the concept of DDIM with yours colleagues in your institution. Then draft the sub goals and objectives for English subjects At Elementary level.

Exchange information about what you both are doing. While the classic scene of mentoring seems to be the mentee asking the mentor questions, I urge you to change that expectation right away. If you want to be helpful in thinking about work, goals and setting directions for the future, you have to start with questions about what your colleague is currently doing. Start with open-ended questions — “What are you working on now?” — and let it flow from there.

At this point, you are doing more listening than talking. As you listen closely and ask good questions — probing inquiries rather than examination questions — you will be invited into deeper conversations. That’s when you will begin to talk as well about what you are doing. This exchange is when the real mentoring begins: the gains go in both directions.

Make connections to extend the network and expand conversations. To be a successful mentor in these times on campuses, you have to be prepared to engage in conversations where you do not have significantly greater expertise in certain areas. One of the important contributions you can make is to suggest connections with others who can expand the network around your colleague.

Between monitoring and evaluation of projects, one can find a variety of differences. Monitoring and Evaluation are two states of analysis in terms of the progress made in relation to the goals of an enterprise or a firm. These two states of analysis differ in their manner of approach. Monitoring is the systematic analysis occasionally made of information to identify changes over a period. On the other hand, evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness of an activity that would finally prompt a judgment regarding the progress made in relation to the goals of a firm. This is the major difference between monitoring and evaluation. This article attempts to clarify this difference in detail.

What is Monitoring?

Monitoring is the systematic analysis occasionally made of information to identify changes over a period of time. Monitoring keeps the track of the process of implementation. It consists in examining the progress made in a project against time by taking into account performance too.

Monitoring consists in periodical checking of progress made in the conduct of the projects against the targets and goals laid down. It has to be understood that monitoring is done with a view to ensure the completion of the project in time. This, in fact, is the very purpose of monitoring.

The purpose of monitoring also lies in providing constructive suggestions. These suggestions can be regarding the rescheduling of the project if required, allotment of separate budget to the project and even reassigning the staff for the conduct of a particular project.

What is Evaluation?

Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness of an activity that would finally prompt a judgment regarding the progress made in relation to the goals of a firm. Evaluation consists in estimating the value of something. It involves the process of finding the facts.

Evaluation can also be explained as the study of past experience when it comes to the performance and implementation of the project. Unlike Evaluation, Monitoring does not take into account the past experience involved in the performance of a project. In short it can be said that evaluation aims at the submission of the valid information on the conduct and impact of the project.

Differences between monitoring and evaluation

The common ground for monitoring and evaluation is that they are both management tools. For monitoring, data and information collection for tracking progress according to the terms of reference is gathered periodically which is not the case in evaluations for which the data and information collection is happening during or in view of the evaluation. The monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which also assesses the outcomes and sometime longer term impact. This impact assessment occurs sometimes after the end of a project, even though it is rare because of its cost and of the difficulty to determine whether the project is responsible of the observed results.

Importance of monitoring and evaluation

Although evaluations are often a retrospective, their purpose is essentially forward looking. Evaluation applies the lessons and recommendations to decisions about current and future programmes. Evaluations can also be used to promote new projects, get support from governments, raise funds from public or private institutions and inform the general public on the different activities.

It is also very important as monitoring team give the recommendation to the school visited. (E.g K.H.S and G.S.G )

The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in February 2005 and the follow-up meeting in Accra underlined the importance of the evaluation process and of the ownership of its conduct by the projects’ hosting countries. Many developing countries now have M&E systems and the tendency is growing.[4]

Performance measurement

The credibility of findings and assessments depends to a large extent on the manner in which monitoring and evaluation is conducted. To assess performance, it is necessary to select, before the implementation of the project, indicators which will permit to rate the targeted outputs and outcomes. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), an outcome indicator has two components: the baseline which is the situation before the programme or project begins, and the target which is the expected situation at the end of the project. An output indicator that does not have any baseline as the purpose of the output is to introduce something that does not exist yet.[

Evaluation consists in making a study about the effectiveness of the projects. The purpose of evaluation lies in bringing about the process of accounting close to perfection. It also consists in making the best possible use of the available funds, methods to stop the probability of mistakes, testing the efficacy of the new techniques employed in the completion of the projects, verifying the real benefits of the projects and understanding the participation of the people in the project by means of surveys, interviews and the like. It is true that evaluation aims for the future.

This emphasizes that in conducting projects both monitoring and evaluation have a specific role to play. The difference between the two roles in project management can be summarized as follows.

What is the Difference Between Monitoring and Evaluation?

Definitions of Monitoring and Evaluation:

Monitoring: Monitoring is the systematic analysis made occasionally of information to identify changes over a period of time.

Evaluation: Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness of an activity that would finally prompt a judgment regarding the progress made in relation to the goals of a firm.

Characteristics of Monitoring and Evaluation:

Function:

Monitoring: Monitoring keeps the track of the process of implementation.

Evaluation: Evaluation consists in estimating the value of something. It involves the process of finding the facts.

Aim:

Monitoring: Monitoring aims at periodical checking of progress made in the conduct of the projects against the targets and goals laid down.

Evaluation: Evaluation aims at making a study about the effectiveness of the projects.

Purpose:

Monitoring: The purpose of monitoring lies in providing constructive suggestions.

Evaluation: The purpose of evaluation lies in bringing about the process of accounting close to perfection.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of educational personnel

A key performance indicator (KPI) is a type of performance measurement that helps you understand how your organization, department, or institution is performing and allows you to understand if you’re headed in the right direction with your strategy. But if you’re looking for key performance indicators for schools or higher education, you know that there are hundreds to select from. That’s why we’ve narrowed down a list of 28 critical education KPIs—divided between nine categories specific to education management—that you can begin tracking today.

  1. Graduation Rate: This KPI determines the number of students who completed their schooling or received a particular certificate or degree within the normal time frame. (You’ll want to ensure you have a policy for tracking transfers in and out of your grades.)
  2. Awards: This metric looks at the number of awards granted to students and/or faculty and staff during each academic calendar year.
  3. Research Grants: This metric examines the percentage of the grants students and/or faculty received versus those that were applied for. You may also want to track total grant dollars.
  4. Student Attendance Rate: Determining the number of students that have achieved, say, 90% attendance during a given semester or academic year is vital to track. (You can set your target and measure accordingly.)

Finances

  1. Percentage Of Students On Aid: This metric calculates the number of students receiving some kind of financial assistance, like scholarship money or government aid. In a secondary school you may also track those on meal assistance.
  2. Grant Money: It’s important to track the dollars fundraised for an institution through endowments, donations, or partnerships.
  3. Tuition Costs: This metric examines the cost to each student in a given scholastic timeline (i.e. a quarter or semester) to attend the institution.

Ratios

  1. Student To Faculty Ratio: Schools may want to examine this metric to ensure students are receiving the proper attention. In most cases, the lower your student to faculty ratio is, the better.
  2. Cost Per Student: This metric calculates every cost a school incurs to educate each student. This might include campus and building maintenance, teacher and staff salaries, some books costs, some food costs, and much more.
  3. Faculty To Administration Ratio: If this ratio is too low—say, you have only two administrators for 50 faculty members—there may be issues with scheduling, organization, and finances.
  4. Number Of Students Enrolled Per Number Of Applications: This metric is particularly important for private schools who wish to remain academically competitive. Additionally, it can help you keep tabs on statistics with the student body so you are able to offer the right amount of student resources. This can also be called the acceptance rate.

Curriculum

  1. Percentage Students In Focus Areas: This metric allows you to examine the percentage of students taking, say, a foreign language, STEM courses, or AP courses. (Which focus areas you hone in on will depend entirely on your strategy.)
  2. Proficiency Rates For Each Subject: This allows you to see not just how your curriculum breaks down, but how each area of a curriculum is performing.

Faculty

  1. Percentage Of Faculty With Advanced Certifications Or Degrees: In higher education, this metric may be important for recognition, grant money, or simply the reputation of the school.
  2. Number Of Training Sessions Per Year:Ensuring faculty members are in touch with the latest teaching methods or technologies helps ensure that students receive the best educational experience.
  3. Faculty & Staff Attendance Rates: If your institution has a low attendance rate from faculty and staff members, this can have a negative effect on the organization as a whole. Timelines can be thrown off, and time and money is spent finding substitutes or temps.
  4. Faculty & Staff Retention Rate: Not only does a high retention rate help students and professors build better rapport, but education management also doesn’t have to retrain new employees as regularly.

Facilities

  1. Average Age Of Buildings: Renovating older buildings effectively lowers the building’s age. Thus tracking the age of your buildings on campus helps ensure that adequate maintenance is being provided and that they are fully functional.
  2. Percentage Of Buildings Passing Inspection: Of course, this metric should ideally come out at 100%—but if it’s lower, you’ll know to pay immediate attention to the buildings that did not pass. You could also have an internal inspection for something like the availability of technology. For example, what percent of your buildings have adequate WiFi?
  3. Classroom Utilization Rate: This metric examines whether you’re making the best use of your campus space and keeping classes as full as possible.

Technology

  1. Percentage Of Classes Using Technology: You’ll want a high percentage of classes in your school using the technologies or online platforms that have been provided to them.
  2. Percentage Of Administrators Using Technology: Both teachers and administrators should be using the online- or classroom-based technologies they’ve been provided for lessons, projects, or activities—and this metric should make you aware of whether that is happening or not.
  3. Social Media Engagement: The analytics you’ll need for this metric are often available through the social media platforms your school chooses to employ (like Facebook, for example), and can show how well your social media department is performing.
  4. Calls To Tech Department Per Month: This may act as a productivity metric for your IT department, showing them how many calls they’re fielded and how many (if any) went unanswered.

Transportation

  1. Percentage Of Students That Take Public Transit: Whether at a junior high or a large university, schools will want to track whether students are using the transportation options that have been provided to them by the institution, municipality, or state.
  2. Percentage Of Students That Commute: Month-to-month or year-to-year, the admissions office will likely want to track what percentage of students commute—as this is directly tied to how much parking and on-campus housing may be needed.
  3. Cost Of Transit: Tracking your cost per student of busses will allow you to analyze if you have an appropriate bus route or if you need to get creative about getting your students to class. You have the same challenge at a university, when looking at the availability of transit options. Having a school transit option might be a good way to encourage attendance.

Housing

  1. Percentage Of Students Living On Campus: Tracking this rate allows administrators to ensure that there is enough room (or too much room) for students on campus and that this stays in line with the long-term strategy of the institution.
  2. Percentage Of Students That Say On-Campus Housing Is Above Average:Survey results are always important to keep in consideration. You’ll want to ensure that students feel their tuition and fees are being utilized appropriately and that administrators are responding to their feedback accordingly. The quality of housing options certainly affects where students choose to live during college.

You may know experts in the field you are discussing, but that’s not necessary. You need only know other people who might be interested and open to a conversation on the topic from another angle. Suggesting a couple of those connections will allow you to judge whether they seem a match for your colleague’s interests right now. If so, you can offer to introduce them. You aren’t responsible for following up to host a meeting, but whatever happens, make a point of checking back in a month or so.

Encourage your colleagues to identify their strengths and skills. As you get to know better the sorts of projects that your colleagues are pursuing, you will have a chance to talk more about the specifics of what is involved. With more of that sort of information, you can begin to make connections between what they are doing now and what they might be interested in doing in the future. For that, they are going to need to think explicitly about what strengths and skills they have developed and what they may need for the next level of professional development.

Yet they may not know exactly what strengths or skills they have or will need. That is an area where you can bring to bear your understanding of your own strengths and skills, and those of colleagues with whom you have worked over the years. If having this sort of conversation feels outside your realm of experience, you might suggest your colleague try some of the strength and skills assessments available through most career planning centers on your campus. But you should offer to talk about the results so you can help your colleague apply the information to the goals you have been discussing. In a world in which expectations for roles and positions are changing rapidly, it is vital to have help identifying strengths and skills that can be transferred to new situations.

Share stories — and that means listening as well as talking. Mentoring colleagues who are not necessarily headed down the path that you’ve traveled is not so different from mentoring students who have arrived at your institution through paths that are different from yours. With colleagues, as with students, listening is the prerequisite to helping. Important things about the work you have done will most certainly be useful, as will illustrations of how you have handled things. Exchanging stories about all of those can be beneficial — as long as, first and foremost, you listen for what your colleague needs. You work is to offer your experience — and, if asked, your advice. You cannot provide specific expertise in career trajectories for the future.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8615 Spring 2020

Q5. Define management information system. Explain the factors contributing towards success of an MIS.

A management information system (MIS) is a set of systems and procedures that gather data from a range of sources, compile it and present it in a readable format. Managers use an MIS to create reports that provide them with a comprehensive overview of all the information they need to make decisions ranging from daily minutiae to top-level strategy. Today’s management information systems rely largely on technology to compile and present data, but the concept is older than modern computing technologies.

Identification

Management information systems consist of the physical hardware and software plus the processes required to effectively manage the flow of information in an organization. MIS offerings have existed since the 1960s, when large mainframe computer systems began automating processes at major corporations. The information that MIS creates provides management with critical, decision-making data. Most MIS systems require an entire department to manage the system’s software, database management and hardware and programming requirements. MIS systems impact all levels of an organization.

Features

At the center of any MIS system sits the database management system (DBMS) and the tools required to report, retrieve and edit the information. The tools found in an MIS allow users to query, retrieve, export and manipulate data found in the DBMS. Often these tools let users export data to other areas of the management information system or to external applications such as spreadsheets and other database applications. Most MIS applications control the day-to-day functions of a business, such as payroll, accounts receivable, accounts payable and purchasing.

When the main software of an MIS is enterprise resource planning (ERP) software, many of the features integrate internally through various modules of the ERP. Companies that do not have an ERP system typically integrate the management information system into existing legacy systems and applications.

Making Business Decisions

The main purpose of a management information system is to make managers’ decision-making more efficient and productive. By pooling information from a range of sources into a single database and presenting the information in a logical format, an MIS can provide managers with everything they need to make highly informed decisions and perform in-depth analysis of operational issues.

Collecting Business Information

An MIS can be developed to collect nearly any type of information managers require. They can view financial data such as daily revenues and expenses at a glance and attribute them to specific departments or groups. Performance indicators such as the timeliness of projects or the quality of products coming off an assembly line can help managers pinpoint areas of needed improvement. Staff can manage schedules for work shifts, incoming deliveries and outgoing shipments from any place linked to the MIS.

Facilitating Collaboration and Communication

A management information system can facilitate collaboration and communication as well. Employees can edit and share documents and communicate relevant information on anticipated developments and warnings across the organization.

Compiling Business Reports

One of the most valuable features of a management information system is its ability to pull in internal and external data from a variety of sources and present it in an easy to analyze format. Internal reports present information in a way that managers can understand, by including all relevant data and grouping data in a logical manner. For example, a report viewed by a corporate manager for a restaurant chain may show revenue, expenses, labor-hours and volume of each outlet, allowing him to see which store makes the most money per employee on the floor and which stores have higher expenses compared to revenue and volume–an indicator of waste or theft.

Generating Government Reports

Non-profit organizations can use an MIS to automatically generate reports required by the federal government. This allows employees and volunteers to focus their time on more productive activities and can reduce errors and the costs associated with resubmitting federal reports.

MIS Goals

According to the Comptroller of the Currency of the U.S. Treasury, the goals of any MIS are to enhance communication among employees, deliver complex material throughout the organization, provide an objective system for recording and aggregating information, reduce expenses related to labor-intensive manual activities and support the organization’s strategic goals and vision.

Management by Objective (MBO)

Management information systems not only provide detailed reports of the activities within an organization, they also function well as management by objective (MBO) tools. MBO allows a company’s management and staff to define a set of objectives for the staff to perform. These objectives must follow the S.M.A.R.T. philosophy: specific, measurable, agreed upon, realistic and time-specific. MIS aids a company in achieving its management by objectives goals because the system provides reports that measure key data. This key data gets used to track the performance of the staff’s objectives.

Responsiveness

Good management information systems architecture allows a company to react more quickly and efficiently to changes in the market. Slow, difficult-to-use systems that do not allow users to create specialized reports typically do not provide critical information in time to make decisions. A fast, nimble MIS architecture that runs in real time and gives up-to-date pertinent information allows a company to respond more quickly to critical events.

Front-Line Benefts

Front-line employees can use an MIS to perform their jobs more effectively as well. For example, employees at all levels can consult an MIS to check on the status of inventory items, view stats related to their specific department or group and request internal transfers of materials.

Training Employees to Use the System

A management information system can be a costly investment. In addition to purchasing an MIS software package, customizing the system and hiring extra IT personnel to oversee and maintain the system, a company must train all employees to use the system. Front-line employees often perform the first two steps in an MIS, data collection and input, leaving them with less time to focus on productive activities; this can increase overall salary expenses. Weigh the costs of an MIS against the potential benefits before implementing this tool in your small business.

Business owners and managers need to be informed about the overall operation of a company and key areas of responsibility. If the president calls and wants to know how much sales have increased in each of the last four years, the sales manager must provide the information. Management information systems give you access to key data about your department and about the company in general. If the manager needs reference information for a bid or for regulatory purposes, management information systems are a good source.

Informing Business Decisions

Decisions are only as valid as the information on which they are based. Management information systems improve your decision-making, because they provide information that is accurate, timely, relevant and complete. Self-checking and cross-checking features in management information systems reduce errors, and IT professionals design the systems to offer a complete picture of a situation or highlight that specific information is missing. Companies that use management information systems ensure that all managers work from the same set of data and make their decisions based on identical information.

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