AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8616 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course: School Administration and Supervision (8616) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  2
School Administration and Supervision (8616) B.Ed (2/5, 1/5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020 

Q1. How synergistic supervision improves the performance of students and teachers.

Supervision of any school ordinarily refers to the improvement of the total teaching-learning situation and the conditions that affect them. It is a socialized functions designs to improve instruction by working with the people who are working with the students/pupils.

          Supervision can also be defined in terms of function and purposes for which it shall be used as a) skills in leadership, b) skills in human relation, c) skill in group process, d) skill in personnel administration and e) skill in evaluation.

Scope of School Supervision

The major functions logically under school supervision can be cited as:

Inspection. This is actually a study of school conditions, to discover problems or defects of the students, teachers, equipment, school curriculum, objectives and methods. This could be done via actual observation, educational tests, conference, questionnaires and checklists.

Research. This has something to do to remedy the weaknesses of the solution to solve problems discovered. The supervisor should conduct research to discover means, methods and procedure fundamental to the success of supervision. The solutions discovered are then passed on the teachers.

Training. This is acquainting teachers with solutions discovered in research through training. Training may take the form of demonstration teaching, workshops, seminars, classroom observations, individual or group conferences, intervisitation, professional classes or the use of bulletin board and circulars, and writing suggestions in BPS Form 178.

Guidance. Guidance involved personal help given by someone. It is the function of supervision to stimulate, direct, guide and encourage the teachers to apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles and devices.

Evaluation. As an ultimate functions of supervision, evaluation appraises the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instructions and to improve the products and processes of instructions.

Activities of Supervision.  The activities logically that are falling under supervision can be enumerated as:

  1. survey of the school system;
  2. improvement of classroom teaching;
  3. in-service education of teachers;
  4. selecting and organizing materials for instructions;
  5. researching the problems of teaching;
  6. determining the desirable physical condition of teaching and
  7. performing semi-administrative duties.
Types of School Supervision

The type of school supervision that can be cited are in terms of:

Laissez-faire type. This type of supervision utilizes inspectorial supervisory methods unaided by any objective control, in which the teachers are observed, but noting is done to help them improve the work they are doing. In other words. The teachers are left free; they are not to be imposed upon or directed.

Coercive type. This type of supervision is the opposite of the laissez-faire. The supervisor visits the teachers in order to observe them. The teachers acquired ready-made-procedure or standard prescribed by the supervisors.

Training and Guidance type. This type of supervision emphasizes the improvements of teachers as well as her technique through direction, training and guidance.

Democratic leadership type. It consists of the teacher’s cooperation in the formulation of policies, plans and procedures. Supervisor observes teacher inside the classroom setting with the aim of improving the teaching-learning situation via cooperation process or group action. The teachers, supervisors and administrators are regarded as co-workers in a common task.

Interrelation of Administration and Supervision

Administration and supervision are interrelated in that every administrator is a supervisor and every supervisor participates in administrative affairs.

  1. Administration represents the whole of the education system; supervision represent a portion of it in terms of improving the total teaching-learning situation.
  2. Administration emphasizes authority; supervision, service. Every act of administration is based upon authority; supervision is based upon service.
  3. Administration provides favorable condition essential to good teaching and learning; supervision carries out the better operation and improving it. In simple words, administrations provide; supervision operates.
  4. Administration decides, directs and orders the execution of educational program; supervision assists, advises guides and leads the operation and improving the program. In other word, administration directs; supervision serves.
Basis of Administrative and Supervisory Principle

            Principle is an accepted fundamental truth. It can be a law, a doctrine. A policy or deep seated belief which governs the conduct of various types of human endeavors. In administration and supervision, principles becomes part of a philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate his educational objectives, attitudes, practices and outcomes.

General Principles of Administration and supervision

            These general principles can be stated as a summary of the substance and implications of philosophy of administration and supervision:

          School administration and supervision…

  1. must be democratic … is recognizing individual differences, respect personality and extend consideration to all;
  2. must be cooperative in character … in that cooperation is synonymous to group action;
  3. to be effective … must be scientific, that is, research oriented activity to discover solution to problem;
  4. must be based on accepted educational philosophy;
  5. must be creative … means initiating, devising, inventing or producing something new;
  6. must be evaluated in the light of results;
  7. must be preventive and constructive … that is helping teachers to avoid committing mistakes, anticipating difficulties, building self confidence, by discovering their own weaknesses;
  8. must be centered on child growth and development … in terms of growth mentally, physically, morally, emotionally and socially; and
  9. must be flexible … in terms of school building, curriculum, teaching objectives and procedures, instructional material and devices, school requirements and standard norms.
The Major Functions of School Administration

Some of the major functions of administration can be cited:

  1. Planning of school programs and activities … plan to show objectives, instructional materials and the procedures and the means to attain set-objective.
  2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational policies … that is decision-making, who to carry out plans, who teaches what; and working out policies and regulations for all those in the organization.
  3. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities … in terms of harmonizing educational activities and makes them instruments for yielding outcomes.
  4. Providing the necessary leadership.
  5. Evaluating the teaching personnel and school program … as an administrative function includes teacher performance rating and school survey; and
  6. Keeping records and reporting results … in that, records are kept for comparison and evaluation purposes; and reporting results to public will help them understand what the school can do and are doing.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q2. Mention five important skills that are supervision must posses to improve the quality and diversity instructions in the schools.

Administration and supervision are interrelated in that every administrator is a supervisor and every supervisor participates in administrative affairs.

  1. Administration represents the whole of the education system; supervision represent a portion of it in terms of improving the total teaching-learning situation.
  2. Administration emphasizes authority; supervision, service. Every act of administration is based upon authority; supervision is based upon service.
  3. Administration provides favorable condition essential to good teaching and learning; supervision carries out the better operation and improving it. In simple words, administrations provide; supervision operates.
  4. Administration decides, directs and orders the execution of educational program; supervision assists, advises guides and leads the operation and improving the program. In other word, administration directs; supervision serves.
Basis of Administrative and Supervisory Principle

            Principle is an accepted fundamental truth. It can be a law, a doctrine. A policy or deep seated belief which governs the conduct of various types of human endeavors. In administration and supervision, principles becomes part of a philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate his educational objectives, attitudes, practices and outcomes.

General Principles of Administration and supervision

            These general principles can be stated as a summary of the substance and implications of philosophy of administration and supervision:

          School administration and supervision…

  1. must be democratic … is recognizing individual differences, respect personality and extend consideration to all;
  2. must be cooperative in character … in that cooperation is synonymous to group action;
  3. to be effective … must be scientific, that is, research oriented activity to discover solution to problem;
  4. must be based on accepted educational philosophy;
  5. must be creative … means initiating, devising, inventing or producing something new;
  6. must be evaluated in the light of results;
  7. must be preventive and constructive … that is helping teachers to avoid committing mistakes, anticipating difficulties, building self confidence, by discovering their own weaknesses;
  8. must be centered on child growth and development … in terms of growth mentally, physically, morally, emotionally and socially; and
  9. must be flexible … in terms of school building, curriculum, teaching objectives and procedures, instructional material and devices, school requirements and standard norms.
The Major Functions of School Administration

Some of the major functions of administration can be cited:

  1. Planning of school programs and activities … plan to show objectives, instructional materials and the procedures and the means to attain set-objective.
  2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational policies … that is decision-making, who to carry out plans, who teaches what; and working out policies and regulations for all those in the organization.
  3. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities … in terms of harmonizing educational activities and makes them instruments for yielding outcomes.
  4. Providing the necessary leadership.
  5. Evaluating the teaching personnel and school program … as an administrative function includes teacher performance rating and school survey; and
  6. Keeping records and reporting results … in that, records are kept for comparison and evaluation purposes; and reporting results to public will help them understand what the school can do and are doing.

Operational Areas of School Administration

The operational areas within which school administration operates can be specified as: 1.) administration of school personnel, 2.) school finance and budget management, 3.) school plant management, 4.) curriculum organization and management, 5.) guidance and discipline, 6.) school and community relation, 7.) non-formal education; and 8.) evaluating results of school administration.

Administration of Teaching Personnel

Good personnel makes the quality school. A modern school needs a well trained and highly efficient teachers who represents several fields of specialization. School personnel should consists of persons who have deep and abiding interest in the optimum development of the personality of each youth.

Tact, sympathy, square dealing and all other factors found in successful personnel administration must be used with the students, teachers and employees rather than repressive disciplines. The administrator need not look deeply to see the real value of school personnel and students as human being.

Teaching personnel. The Dictionary of Education (Good ___ ) defined as teaching personnel as those persons employed in an official capacity for the purpose of giving instruction, whether public or private. The teaching personnel referred to are those school administrators, supervisors, and classroom teachers and school librarian.

The administration of the teaching personnel includes all policies, activities and practices of the administration and staff designed to increase the effectiveness of teaching personnel.

Educational community. The Philippine Educational Act of 1982 described educational community as those persons or group of persons who are associated in the institutions involved in organized teaching and learning system and that the members and elements of the educational community are:

  1. Parents or guardians or the head of the institution as foster home which has custody of the pupils or students;
  2. Students or those enrolled in and who attend regularly in an educational institution or secondary or higher level or a person engaged in formal study;
  3. Pupils who regularly attend a school of elementary level under supervision and knowledge of a teacher;
  4. School personnel refers to all persons working in an educational institution identified as;
  5. Teaching or academic staff or all persons engaged in actual teaching and/or research assignment, either on full time or part time basis, in all levels of education.
  6. School administrators or all persons occupying policy-implementing position having to do with the functions of the school in all levels
  7. Academic non-teaching personnel or those persons holding academic functions directly supportive of teaching. Examples are registrars, librarians, guidance counselors and researchers;
  8. Non-academic personnel or all personnel not falling under the definition and coverage of teaching items a,b,c.
  9. School institutions recognized by state which undertake education operations.
Selection of the Teaching Staff

The selection of the teaching staff or personnel takes place within the legal framework such as:

  1. Commonwealth Act. No. 177 placed the public school teachers under civil service.
  2. As a civil service they are governed by:
  3. civil service rules and regulations or RA 2260 as amended by RA 6040;
  4. RA 4670 or Magna Carta for public school teachers, defining examination, appointment, promotion, transfer, separation and reinstatement.

Identification of new staff members. This consists of two unique complimentary phases; recruitment and selection. Recruitment phase is concerned with the establishing a pool of potentially acceptable candidates whose values, interest, needs and abilities, having been carefully analyzed, fill to satisfy the requirements of a particular role.

Orientation of staff. Sometimes referred to as induction, orientation begins with the recruitment interview and continue on through the staff membership/ association with the organization/school.

Assignment of staff. In this stage, degree of congruence between the expectations for the position and qualifications and personal characteristics of teachers is insured, and that the major expectations for the institutional role and personal needs, dispositions and abilities of teachers are fully explored and considered.

Improvement of staff. Maintaining the teachers require that they improve themselves professionally while in the service. This can be done in several ways in terms of a) classroom observation, b) individual conferences, c) school visitation, d) professional association, e) student-teaching program, and f) in- service activities.

Privileges of Teaching Personnel in the Public School

As a civil service employees, public school teachers enjoy privileges…

  1. Membership to state insurance, Government Service Insurance System. Commonwealth Act 186 requires public school teacher to become member of the GSIS;
  2. Retirement of public school teachers. RA 660 automatically retires government employees, including teachers upon reaching the age of 65 with 15 years consecutive service;
  3. Teachers are persons in authority. By virtue of CA No. 378, teachers can not be attack physically when performing their duties;
  4. Maternity leave, RA No. 1564 provides maternity leave to regular and temporary teachers who are married;
  5. Study leave. BPS Cir. No. 25 3. 1984 and BPS No. 15, s. 1949, encourages public school teachers to raise their educational qualifications;
  6. Vacation and sick leave. Sec. 274 of the Revised Administrative code provides vacation and sick leave, except those teachers on the teacher-leave basis. One month of vacation and sick leave is given for every year of continues service;
  7. Vacation pay, entitles those teachers for pay during Christmas and long vacation;
  8. Service credits are given to teachers on leave basis who are requested to work during vacation period. The service credit may be used to offset past and future absences due to illness or other reasonable causes;
  9. Salary loan is allowed to teachers who are members of the GSIS. The amount loanable by GSIS usually does not exceed a three month salary, payable in 24 monthly equal installment, deductible from his salary; and
  10. Free medical consultation.

 

Principles to be observed in the Administration of Teacher Personnel

In the administration of teaching personnel.

  1. Decisions that affect the school enterprise should be placed upon the group, that is the teachers and the administrator, rather than the administration alone;
  2. Selection of teaching personnel, only the most qualified and competent are considered.
  3. Merit system must constitute the sole consideration in determining who shall be promoted.
  4. Educational Qualification Performance
  5. Length of service
  6. Competence
  7. Professional Development
  8. Community service
  9. Others
  10. The guarantee, security and welfare of the teachers that insure their efficiency should be provided (salary, appointment, and benefits);
  11. It is desirable to select teachers who come from different institution of higher learning so that the impact of their difference in training and personality will impique desirably upon a school system;
  12. There should be provision for a) orientation of new teachers, b) in- service improvement, and c) maintenance of high morale in the teaching staff;
  13. There should be provision for evaluation.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q3. Link the literature with present use of technology in institution and prepare a report on it.

Cognitive technology—also known as artificial intelligence—can go through a vast amount of data faster and more precisely than any person. It can also determine where a company’s practices have gone or might go wrong. And it can point out where and how systems, operations, processes and controls can be improved.

Not only that, but a cognitive system can learn as it goes along, allowing it to broaden and refine its knowledge and analytical capabilities, much like traditional audit professionals build their skills over their careers.

The result: Auditors can provide detailed, high-quality audits. And company executives and audit committees can get deeper insight into their organization like never before.

Leadership and Governance:  School committee and district and school leaders establish, implement, and continuously evaluate the effectiveness of policies and procedures that are standards-based, driven by student achievement data, and designed to promote continuous improvement of instructional practice and high achievement for all students. Leadership decisions and actions related to the attainment of district and school goals are routinely communicated to the community and promote the public confidence, community support, and financial commitment needed to achieve high performance by students and staff.

  1. Focused School Committee Governance: School committee members are informed and knowledgeable about their responsibilities under the Education Reform Act. In their policy-making and decision-making they are guided by improvement plan goals and informed by student achievement data and other educationally relevant data. The performance of the superintendent is annually evaluated based on the attainment of the goals in the district improvement plan, MCAS results, and other student achievement data. Together with the superintendent, the school committee creates a culture of collaboration and develops contracts and agreements which encourage all stakeholders to work together to support higher levels of student achievement.
  2. Effective District and School Leadership: The superintendent promotes a culture of transparency, accountability, public confidence, collaboration, and joint responsibility for student learning within the district and broader community. The superintendent effectively delegates educational and operational leadership to principals, program leaders, and administrators, and annually evaluates their performance in their roles based on the goals in the district and school improvement plans, MCAS results, and other relevant data. The district and each school take action to attract, develop, and retain an effective school leadership team that obtains staff commitment to improving student learning and implements a well-designed strategy for accomplishing a clearly defined mission and set of goals, in part by leveraging resources. Each school leadership team a) ensures staff understanding of and commitment to the school’s mission and strategies, b) supports teacher leadership and a collaborative learning culture, c) uses supervision and evaluation practices that assist teacher development, and d) focuses staff time and resources on instructional improvement and student learning through effective management of operations and use of data for improvement planning and management

School Improvement Planning:  The district and school leaders have a well-understood vision or mission, goals, and priorities for action that are outlined in a District Improvement Plan. The plan’s performance goals for students and its analysis of student achievement data drive the development, implementation, and modification of educational programs. Each school uses an approved School Improvement Plan that is aligned with the district’s plan and based on an analysis of student achievement data.  District and school plans are developed and refined through an iterative process that includes input from staff, families, and partners on district goals, initiatives, policies, and programs. District and school leaders periodically report to the school committee, staff, families, and community on the extent of the attainment of the goals in the plans, particularly regarding student achievement.

Educationally Sound Budget Development:  The superintendent annually recommends to the school committee educationally sound budgets based primarily on its improvement planning and analysis of data. The budget is developed and resources are allocated based on the ongoing analysis of aggregated and disaggregated student assessment data to assure the budget’s effectiveness in supporting improved achievement for all student populations. District leaders promote equity by distinguishing among the needs of individual schools’ populations and allocating adequate resources to the schools and students with greater needs. Each school’s administrators are actively involved in the development of its budget.

Data Collection and Dissemination By using technology: District assessment policies and practices are characterized by the continuous collection and timely dissemination of data.  District and school staff members have access to user-friendly, district-wide and school-based reports on student achievement and other relevant data. All appropriate staff and community members are made aware of internal reports and external review findings.

Data-Based Decision-Making:  The district is highly effective at analyzing and using data to drive decision-making. District and school leadership annually review student assessment results, external and internal reviews, and other pertinent data to prioritize goals, maximize effectiveness in allocating human and financial resources, and to initiate, modify, or discontinue programs and services. District and school leaders monitor student achievement data throughout the year in order to ascertain progress towards goals identified in the district and school plans, and to make needed adjustments to programs, policies, services, or supervision practices. All professional staff members are supported and expected to use aggregated and disaggregated student achievement data regularly to improve performance.

Professional Development: District and school organization, culture and structures create a climate conducive to adult learning through effective communication, ongoing professional improvement and joint responsibility for student learning. The district maintains a strong commitment to creating and sustaining a professional development program that supports educators at all stages in their careers. Professional development programs and services are based on district priorities, information about staff needs, student achievement data, and assessments of instructional practices and programs at each school. Programs progress developmentally and differentiate for educators’ different areas of responsibility and levels of expertise and experience. The district supports teacher leadership and growth by creating opportunities for exemplary teachers to have responsibility for instructional leadership and mentoring.  Professional development includes a) both job-embedded and individually pursued learning, including content-based learning, that enhances a teacher’s knowledge and skills and b) structures for collaboration that enable teachers to have regular, frequent department and/or grade-level common planning and meeting time that is used to improve implementation of the curriculum and instructional practice.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q4. Which strategy can a supervisor use to help teachers view evaluation as a way of improving instructional opportunities for students?

The review distinguishes between supervision, inspection, evaluation, and support; it defines supervision as: “the regular/periodic oversight of individuals or entities, which uses the results of evaluation (and sometimes inspection) to inform and direct action of those supervised.” It is perfectly possible that a single individual or entity may provide several functions at the same time and also that the name of the entity (for example, Inspectorate) may not reflect other important aspects of its work and mission. Supervision, according to this definition, has some overlap with evaluation and inspection, and often also with support, at least in the form of advice.

Supervising employees or tasks is not a simple matter. Supervisors need a certain set of skills in order to accomplish their job efficiently and effectively. In this lesson, you’ll learn about some of these core skills. A short quiz follows.

Types of supervision are generally classified according to the behaviour of supervisors towards his subordinates. These are also called as techniques of supervision.

These are explained as under:

  1. Autocratic or Authoritarian supervision:

Under this type, the supervisor wields absolute power and wants complete obedience from his subordinates. He wants everything to be done strictly according to his instructions and never likes any intervention from his subordinates. This type of supervision is resorted to tackle indiscipline subordinates.

  1. Laissez-faire or free-rein supervision: This is also known as independent supervision. Under this type of supervision, maximum freedom is allowed to the subordinates. The supervisor never interferes in the work of the subordinates. In other words, full freedom is given to workers to do their jobs. Subordinates are encouraged to solve their problems themselves.
  1. Democratic supervision:

Under this type, supervisor acts according to the mutual consent and discussion or in other words he consults subordinates in the process of decision making. This is also known as participative or consultative supervision. Subordinates are encouraged to give suggestions, take initiative and exercise free judgment. This results in job satisfaction and improved morale of employees.

  1. Bureaucratic supervision:

Under this type certain working rules and regulations are laid down by the supervisor and all the subordinates are required to follow these rules and regulations very strictly. A serious note of the violation of these rules and regulations is taken by the supervisor.

This brings about stability and uniformity in the organisation. But in actual practice it has been observed that there are delays and inefficiency in work due to bureaucratic supervision.

Skill Set

Meet Melissa. She’s a supervisor at a company that manufactures toys. Her job is to oversee employees engaged in their assigned tasks and projects. Supervisors are front line mangers, which means that they are down on the ground and in the trenches.

Melissa, like all supervisors, needs a specific set of skills to successfully supervise. In fact, the American Management Association has identified six essential skills that Melissa needs to master. (You can find more information on the association’s website.) Let’s take a quick look at each of these skills.

Management & Leadership

Supervisors may be on the lowest end of the management totem pole, but their leadership and management skills are absolutely essential to the success of any organization. Melissa is where the rubber hits the road; where the business of the business is done.

She’s on the production room floor making sure that her employees are getting the toys produced. She needs to be able to set goals and prioritize. She also has to be able to delegate tasks to capable subordinates. Melissa must also be able to develop and coach her employees.

Communication

Melissa also needs to have effective communication skills. She needs to be able to inspire and persuade. She also needs to be an active listener, which is being able to understand not only the content of a message, but also its intent and the circumstances that the message is being communicated. She also needs to be able to read non-verbal communication cues, such as hand gestures and facial expressions.

Supervision can be viewed as a process of managing functions intended to promote the achievement of institutional goals and to enhance the personal and professional capabilities of staff. Supervision interprets the institutional mission and focuses human and fiscal resources on the promotion of individual and organizational competence.

Supervision attends to the accomplishment of the institution and unit’s goals and to the personal and professional welfare of the staff. An effective supervisor provides by assistance to staff members in meeting their personal and professional goals within the context of the division and the institution. Supervision policy should, then, be directed toward the following objectives:

  • Model practice focused on student learning and education of the whole person.
  • Accomplish the unit and institution’s goals and mission.
  • Fulfill the institutional functions assigned to the unit.
  • Coordinate the recruitment and selection process of new staff members.
  • Coordinate the orientation and training of new hired staff members.
  • Consider the personal and professional welfare of the staff members.
  • Establish good communication between members of the unit and division.
  • Conduct and coordinate the performance appraisal of staff members.
  • Address needs of departing and remaining staff members when employee separation occurs.

Supervision Policy Statement

All staff members are entitled to quality supervision. Supervision is ongoing and includes two-way communication to achieve the dual purposes of institutional and staff member development. Supervision will focus on competence with the supervisor responsible for leadership toward the accomplishment of meeting institutional and staff needs. Staff members should be given clear guidance regarding expectations about their role in the unit.

Using The Staffing Model In Supervision

The integrated staffing model operates on the principle of all components of the model being interrelated and strongly influenced by supervision. Therefore, it is important to mention the five other dimensions of the model: , orientation, staff development, performance appraisal, and separation. Supervision, as the linchpin of the model, permeates each of these dimensions. Consequently, supervision principles as discussed here should not be considered in isolation, rather, should be applied to each dimension of the model.

Functions of Supervision – Supervision is not always easy. A supervisor is often called upon to make decisions based upon the knowledge and skills which have been acquired through the years of professional involvement. A supervisor must serve many functions. Among these are:

  • Articulating and achieving the unit’s missions and needs
  • Monitoring and managing the climate of the unit
  • Fostering individual development
  • Developing teamwork capabilities and group resources
  • Coordinating work activities
  • Promoting active problem solving

Approaches to Supervision – The process of supervision can take on one or a combination of styles, and one particular style may not be appropriate for every supervisory situation. It is important that a supervisor is aware of his or her predominate approach to supervision so that the style may be adapted as the situation or the staff member requires. Winston and Creamer (1994) provide an instrument to identify supervisory approaches. The four approaches included in the instrument are:

  • Authoritarian – based on the belief that staff members require constant attention
  • Laissez Faire – based on the desire to allow staff members freedom in accomplishing job responsibilities
  • Companionable – based on a friendship-like relationship
  • Synergistic – a cooperative effort between the supervisor and the staff member

Synergistic Supervision

Synergistic supervision has been described as having the greatest utility for working with student affairs professionals. Its cooperative nature allows joint effects to exceed the combination of individual efforts. Important characteristics of synergistic supervision include:

Dual Focus – Staff members need to feel that they have a significant influence on selecting and defining the goals of the unit and in devising strategies to accomplish them. If staff members perceive goals as being imposed on them, they may not make a personal investment in trying to achieve the goals of the unit. For example, it is a given that a successful Residence Life operation has a process for assigning rooms and roommates to new students. However, the individual staff members can play a large part in defining how that process will most effectively work.

Joint Effort – Supervision is not something done to staff but rather a cooperative activity in which each party has an important contribution to make. Plans for accomplishing tasks such as determining unit priorities, scheduling and distributing work, and coordinating the efforts of the division are worked out jointly between the supervisor and the staff member.

Two-way Communication – In the synergistic model of staffing practices, supervision is dependent upon a high level of trust between staff members and supervisors. Staff members must be willing to allow supervisors to learn personal information about them. Staff members must also feel free to give their supervisors honest, direct feedback. Communication is key in developing this trust.

Focus on Competence – Supervision should concentrate on four areas of staff competence:

Knowledge and information – Staff members must understand how to effectively perform the duties of their job. This includes, but is not limited to understanding college student development theory, current laws and other legal parameters of practice, standards of professional practices, ethical standards, and institutional rules and policies.

Work-related skills – Supervisors must ensure that staff members stay current on developing trends within the field of student development and that they are trained in a wide range of skills related to their job description, such as interpersonal communication, goal setting, and computer skills. For student affairs professionals to remain effective, these skills have to be refreshed regularly. This is especially true for skills that are not used on a regular basis. Supervisors must also provide the means for staff members to develop and acquire new skills.

Personal skills – The synergistic style emphasizes a holistic approach to supervision. Just as attention must be paid to development of a staff member’s work-related skills, so too must personal skills be developed. To function successfully as a professional, individuals must acquire skills in areas such as time management, anger control, diet and exercise, and retirement planning.

Attitudes – Supervisors must maintain a positive attitude among their staff members. Positive attitudes can motivate individuals to apply knowledge or skills to strive toward personal, unit, and division goals.

Student affairs professionals are involved in a people business. Therefore, their attitude toward people, especially students, must be appropriate. Whether a staff member approaches tasks with an attitude of enthusiasm or sarcasm often determines that staff member’s success.

Q5. Write your understanding about.

 

1) Supervising resource management

 

Beginning trainees bring many questions to supervision, most notably: ‘What is supervision?’ ‘Why is it necessary?’ and ‘What happens in supervision?’ They are essential, reflective practice questions and, in many ways, remain a focus of enquiry throughout the career lifespan. As the supervision conversation continues to develop through practice and research, new ideas emerge and new ways of working are presented. As I have developed as a practitioner, the type of supervision I have sought has also developed from formative to consultative supervision as I focus on the broad context of my work. As suggested by Stoltenberg (2005: 858), ‘the path toward proficiency is developmental.’ Different learning needs emerge as supervisees gain knowledge and capability (Stoltenberg and McNeill, 1997). It may also be developmental for supervisors as they gain knowledge and clinical wisdom.

It is challenging to define supervision

 It has different meanings in different contexts. For example, from a professional perspective, in counselling and therapy training it is an integral part of the training process and embedded in that context. It is supported by formal teaching and, frequently, personal therapy. In this context, it is most clearly evaluative, as trainee competence development is keenly monitored in client work. Posttraining, as a counsellor or therapist works towards accreditation or registration, while there is more autonomy, supervision is still evaluative. Post-accreditation/registration, and as supervision is usually a career-long requirement, there is a shift towards more  consultation and less evaluation. Nevertheless, the element of ‘overseeing’ is always present. However, to present supervision in these terms only does not do justice to the supervision phenomenon. It does not capture the essence of the interpersonal supervisory relationship. Nor does it speak to the experience of the learning process that is at the heart of supervision and how that occurs in relation to the vicissitudes of that experience. The following section demonstrates the complexity of the supervision endeavour and presents some of the attempts to capture the meaning and purpose of supervision.

reference to ‘approved supervisors’

The reference to ‘approved supervisors’ suggests that some agreed standard of proficiency is required of the supervisor. This definition also makes an explicit statement on the educative dimension of supervision wherein the provision of feedback is seen as the means of facilitating supervisee development with reference to the normative, restorative and formative functions of supervision. Evaluation is provided through corrective feedback on performance and competence.

Supervision can serve normative

Supervision can serve normative, restorative and formative functions. With reference to the training context and the ‘pre-registration’ stage, Scaife (2001: 4) considers additional features of supervision which facilitate professional identity development for the supervisee, communication of the norms and standards of the profession and the gatekeeping role of the supervisor. Scaife also acknowledges the power differentials present in the supervisory relationship and the potential impact of evaluation on the supervisee. However, within counselling and therapy, the latter features are ever present in the career lifespan (although perhaps to a lesser extent post-accreditation) when supervision is mandated as a requirement for accreditation by a professional body and external monitoring in that regard is a continuing requirement for practice.

Common Factors

 As you can see, many definitions of supervision exist in the field and, as mentioned, all seek to capture the essence and critical components of the complex supervisory relationship and process. While there is no consensus on a particular definition, all speak in some way of supervisee development and client welfare. Scaife (2001: 4–5) summarises these key components well when she suggests that the ‘features of supervision’ are specific to the purpose of supervision which is to secure the welfare of clients and enhance best practice and service to clients. To this end, the focus of supervision is primarily on the needs, experiences and professional development of the supervisee. Furthermore, supervision occurs in the context of a formal, contracted relationship characterised by mutual trust and respect (see Chapter 7). This relationship excludes other role relationships or, when this is unavoidable, these are explicitly negotiated. Many of the definitions presented provide some insight into what can happen in supervision. In presenting their client work, the supervisee will receive feedback and be given guidance to help them develop competence in their role as a counsellor or therapist.

Supervision among the Helping Professions

It is important to note that the therapy context and setting in which supervision occurs (for example, a training institution, statutory or voluntary agency, private practice) may require further consideration. For example, as noted by the BACP (2008: 2), ‘agencies and institutions may have their own criteria for supervision and provide supervisors from within the organization.’ Supervision is not the prerogative of counseling and psychotherapy, although the long tradition of its existence can mean that it is often taken for granted ‘as a given’ within our profession. Other disciplines, particularly those in the applied areas, have also embraced supervision as a means of facilitating professional development and client welfare. For example, social work has a long tradition of supervisory practice. Many disciplines within mental health (for example, nursing) are continuing to develop supervision models relevant to their contexts. From an interprofessional perspective, therapists/supervisees working in multidisciplinary teams may be challenged by the lack of a shared meaning of supervision which has yet to be established. However, what seems to be generally agreed is that supervision exists for client welfare and the professional development of the supervisee.

2) Supervising teaching and learning

The supervising teacher performs a vital role in the professional learning, support and assessment of pre-service teachers and in the task and activities that pre-service teachers undertake while enhancing and refining their classroom practice.

As suggested by the diagram, the role of the supervising teacher is a multi-dimensional one. Supervising teachers are teacher educators and mentors or guides for pre-service teachers, as well as being assessors of their progress against the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers.

A valued feature of performing these interconnected roles includes opportunities for discussion and reflection on practices that improve student learning to foster pre-service teachers’ confidence, competence and ongoing professional development.

Supervising teachers:

  • Provide opportunities for pre-service teachers to complete the professional learning tasks and activities outlined in the Information and Guidelines Booklet for the given placement
  • Facilitate opportunities for pre-service teachers to observe effective teaching practice
  • Support pre-service teachers to interpret and respond to observations of teaching and learning by sharing expertise and knowledge of students and discussing teaching practice
  • Support pre-service teachers to build constructive learning relationships and plan and implement an appropriate learning program for students
  • Help pre-service teachers understand and interpret student data to effectively plan and modify their teaching practice
  • Provide feedback on the pre-service teacher’s practices using the focus areas outlined in the Information and Guidelines Booklet or areas of strength and need for improvement
  • Assist pre-service teachers to identify evidence of the impact of their teaching on student learning
  • Liaise with the University Coordinator allocated to the site to clarify expectations for the placement and discuss the pre-service teacher’s progress
  • Assess the pre-service teacher’s progress towards or demonstration of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at a level appropriate to his / her experience or progress throughout the course of study
  • Complete the Interim Report and Final Summative Report by rating the pre-service teacher’s progress against the criteria outlined in the Guide to Making Judgements for the given placement (See Appendices in the relevant Information and Guidelines Booklet for the criteria and Guide to Making Judgements)
  • Finalise the pre-service teacher’s Summative Report at the conclusion of the placement by ensuring all site-based signatures have been obtained and provide a copy of the report to the pre-service teacher.

This list of roles makes it obvious that supporting pre-service teachers and making good judgements on their progress at different stages of their development depends on supervising teachers having clear, shared understandings of the expectations for their practice during a particular professional experience placement.

Professional experience placements represent a developmental continuum where pre-service teachers move from needing high levels of guidance and support during their first placement towards independent demonstration of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at Graduate Career Stage in their final placement.

In other words, context matters when providing appropriate support for pre-service teachers and making assessment judgements. A first year pre-service teacher will be at a vastly different stage of development to a final year pre-service teacher.

The following topic provides an overview of the professional experience developmental continuum for each initial teacher education course at CQUniversity. In addition, the topic called Assessment of Pre-service Teachers provides more information and video clips that explain the resources provided by CQUniversity for making judgements on pre-service teachers’ demonstration of the Standards at their current stage of development during placement.

Check Also: AIOU 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *