AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8617 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course: Plan Implementation and Management (8617) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

ASSIGNMENT No:  2
Plan Implementation and Management (8617) B.Ed (2/5, 1/5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020  

Q.1   Analyze the concepts of school catchments area with reference to geographical diversity. What are the factors that may influence the school mapping decisions, while planning the location of Public Sector University in Baluchistan province?            (20)

At independence, Pakistan had a poorly educated population and few schools or universities. Although the education system has expanded greatly since then, debate continues about the curriculum, and, except in a few elite institutions, quality remained a crucial concern of educators in the early 1990s.

Adult literacy is low, but improving. In 1992 more than 36 percent of adults over fifteen were literate, compared with 21 percent in 1970. The rate of improvement is highlighted by the 50 percent literacy achieved among those aged fifteen to nineteen in 1990. School enrollment also increased, from 19 percent of those aged six to twenty-three in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990. However, by 1992 the population over twenty-five had a mean of only 1.9 years of schooling. This fact explains the minimal criteria for being considered literate: having the ability to both read and write (with understanding) a short, simple statement on everyday life.

Many reforms have been introduced in school sector by the Government of Pakistan in which the major attention was given to the management of schools. According to Mathur (2005), management depends on controlling the available resources to achieve the desired target. Even most of the managers are not aware of effective planning or have poor understanding.

The most important aspect of the planning in school sector is related to the location of the institutions. The process of location planning in education is called “School Mapping’. It involves the process of identifying the communities and places where educational facilities proposed in the PLAN are to be located. It requires systematic effort designed to locate educational facilities in such a manner that targeted age-groups of the population are able to use facilities to their maximum advantage.

In recent years this phase is identified by the term “school-mapping”. It is an activity as indicated by the gerund “mapping” and not to be confused with “school map. The original term and the concept has been widely used in French-and Spanish-speaking countries.

School Mapping is the dynamic process of identifying logically and systematically the communities and sites where educational facilities provided in the plan are to be located. As educational facilities have been synonymous with schools, the terms have been rather narrowly conceived as school-mapping [4]. So, during the last decade, educational planners are engaged in widening the concept of school-mapping to one of the educational mapping.

This does not mean that one concept eliminates the other. For all practical purposes, school-mapping and educational mapping will remain distinct activities each with its own utility value, purpose and direction. The process of investigation for school-mapping for the school-mapping is the same as for educational mapping and its final result is manifold [5].

  • It will produce a catalogue of educational needs (or learning needs) of the society as a whole;
  • It will produce an inventory of available educational facilities;
  • It will show which of the facilities are utilized or under-utilized;
  • It will provide guidelines as to how the available facilities can be recognized by redistribution of either the facilities themselves or their users; and
  • It will enable the new facilities to be provided where they can be utilized to the highest advantage.

But the main difference is that often narrow objectives and aims are concentrated at identifying location for the construction of school, classrooms, laboratories etc.

Evaluation of use-efficiency, reorganization and redistribution of facilities and maximization of use continue to be the next outcome of the school-mapping exercise.

School Mapping Activity

The last phase in the planning process, when the physical facilities that are to be provided under the plan are actually located or sited; that is, to decide where (in what community or geographical area) the school, laboratories, workshops and such other educational facilities are to be built or provided. It is suggested to undertake a detailed school mapping activity in each of the district covering school and non-school based data in doing this activity, the present stock of data at the EMIS center or cell should be considered to avoid duplication.

Establish close linkage with the other government agencies like ministry of Defence, Natural Resources or Environment, Census, planning Office and others to ensure that the requirements of school mapping as a tool for the in depth analysis of the existing situation of the district can be fully addressed. This will also build- up and update the present stock of data of the EMIS centers and cells.

Scope of School Mapping

With the recent development in non-formal education in areas such as literacy programs, post-literacy courses, vocations training and adult education, school mapping should cover not only the distribution of formal educational facilities but also the non-formal educational facilities.

The process of school mapping covers the following specific areas for expansion and improvement of facilities:

  • Rationalization of existing facilities by:
  • shifting, closure or amalgamation of institutions;
  • optimum utilization of teaching and non-teaching staff;
  • optimum utilization of buildings, equipment’s, furniture, etc.
  • Provision of new or additional facilities by:
  • Opening of new schools or upgrading of existing ones;
  • Providing additional teaching and non-teaching staff;
  • Providing new or additional buildings, furniture and equipment in institutions.

Thus, school mapping has the double function of securing greater equality of education opportunities and at the same time of rationalizing the use of existing facilities in an effort to optimize the limited material and manpower resources.

Methodology

The assessment was only confined to school level. In assessing the extent of the school mapping activities the province was divided into three levels i.e. Secretariat, Directorate at provincial level, and office of the Executive District Officers at district level. Some basic questions included in the interview were asked to respondents such as: Chief Planning Officer, Provincial Director, Executive District Officers of Education and the EMIS staff both at provincial and district level. The major area of the questions were about the activities related to school mapping, utilization of EMIS for school mapping, data asked in school mapping, processing of the data and users of these data.

Allocated to education

Relatively limited resources have been allocated to education, although there has been improvement in recent decades. In 1960 public expenditure on education was only 1.1 percent of the gross national product (GNP–see Glossary); by 1990 the figure had risen to 3.4 percent. This amount compared poorly with the 33.9 percent being spent on defense in 1993. In 1990 Pakistan was tied for fourth place in the world in its ratio of military expenditures to health and education expenditures. Although the government enlisted the assistance of various international donors in the education efforts outlined in its Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93), the results did not measure up to expectations.

Few places in the world have assumed as much importance for the United States and its allies since 2001 as Pakistan’s northwestern tribal regions, which have served as a base for the mix of militants seeking to attack the governments, militaries and civilians of the United States, Afghanistan, Pakistan and others. Yet our understanding of this region – its politics and history, U.S. involvement there, and the opinions of those who call it home – is painfully limited.

Bridge that knowledge gap

This project aims to help bridge that knowledge gap, by combining three streams of work from the New America Foundation’s Counterterrorism Strategy Initiative: A first-ever poll of sensitive political issues in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan (FATA); New America’s on-going monitoring of U.S. drone strikes in Pakistan, and our series of of in-depth analyses on politics and militancy in Pakistan’s tribal areas, written by local Pakistani researchers and other regional experts.

The intensity of opposition to the American military is high. While only one in ten of FATA residents think suicide attacks are often or sometimes justified against the Pakistani military and police, almost six in ten believe these attacks are justified against the U.S. military. (The United Nations has determined that many of the suicide attackers in Afghanistan hail from the Pakistani tribal regions.)

More than three-quarters of FATA residents oppose American drone strikes. Indeed, only 16 percent think these strikes accurately target militants; 48 percent think they largely kill civilians and another 33 percent feel they kill both civilians and militants. Directed by the Central Intelligence Agency, missiles are launched from unmanned drone aircraft in the FATA region of Pakistan.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020

Q.2   Explain the process of rational decision making. Analyze various methods and techniques of educational decision making.                                                                 (20)

Managers often rely on fact-based analytical decision making. Rational decision making can be very beneficial in the business world and differs from intuitive processes in several ways. Learn more about both decision-making tools, and find out which process provides the best solutions.

Rational Decisions

Business people are faced with decision making every day. Intuitive and rational decision making are the two ways that an individual can approach problem solving. Some people are very aware of feelings or instincts and use them as guides to decision making. These types of feelings are instinctive and rely on intuition and not facts. In fact, intuition is the ability to have a grasp on a situation or information without the need for reasoning. In business, people use this type of decision making when facts are unavailable or when decisions are difficult in nature.

The second, opposing type of decision making is called rational decision making, which is when individuals use analysis, facts and a step-by-step process to come to a decision. Rational decision making is a precise, analytical process that companies use to come up with a fact-based decision. Let’s take a look at how the rational decision-making process can work in an organizational environment.

Rational Model

Violet Jones is a manager at the Intestinal Distress Tacos fast food restaurant. She is under enormous pressure from headquarters to increase her monthly profits. Violet is not sure what the solution is for her financial dilemma. She has to decide to use the rational decision-making model to determine the best path for a solution. To do this, Violet must follow these six steps:

  1. Define the problem.
  2. Identify the decision criteria.
  3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
  4. Develop the alternatives.
  5. Evaluate the alternatives.
  6. Select the best alternative.

Let’s take a look at the process Violet used to determine how to increase company profits for her store.

Define the Problem

Violet first needs to define the problem. This step is relatively easy for Violet, as upper management has already identified the issue. Her store profits have not increased month to month, so she needs to find the best solution to increase profits. The next step facing Violet is to determine what criteria she will use to make her decision.

Identify the Decision Criteria

The next step in the rational decision-making process is to identify the decision criteria. This step deals with choosing variables that will determine the decision outcome. In Violet’s case, she needs to determine the criteria or information that is relevant and will help her increase her profits. The criteria are usually dependent upon the individual’s values and beliefs. Violet will make her decision based on her belief that she should not eliminate any employees to save money. She will only cut costs in other ways, such as finding cheaper vendors, shortening store hours, changing menu options, etc. Her criteria will be:

  • How will employees be affected?
  • How will changes affect customers?
  • How will changes affect quality?

Allocate Weights to Criteria

Violet’s next step is to allocate weights to the criteria. This means ranking which criteria is the most important to the decision-making process. Violet feels that the biggest weight should be given to how the change will affect employees. The other weights are then distributed equally. The next step starts to consider solutions.

Develop the Alternatives

The next step is to develop alternatives, which is where the potential solutions need to be considered. There will not be any consideration in this step, just a generated list of alternatives. Violet has brainstormed a short list of alternative solutions:

  • Select a new distributor of food and supplies that will cost less money.
  • Shorten store hours, which will limit overall overhead costs.
  • Lay off some employees who are making larger salaries.
  • Increase promotions to lure new customers and sales.

Multiple Perspective Analysis

Sometimes using multiple perspective analysis to make a decision is best so a CEO or manager can force herself out of her usual method of thinking. Professor Hossein Arsham, in an article titled “Leadership Decision Making” at the University of Baltimore site, notes this method and its steps. By wearing six different “hats,” you can make a decision using different thinking approaches. For instance, a red hat uses reaction and emotion, or being aware of how other people will react when the decision is made. A green hat will use freewheeling creativity in making a decision. The article also notes that a decision can be made using differing points of view from customers or those in different professions.

Short-Term Decisions

Another decision method is the short-term method, or operational decisions. These decisions usually solve a problem in the immediate term through the action of employees. The method to this involves practical steps for a quicker outcome. For example, it could be choosing a particular delivery service to deliver products to the organization’s customers

Following Up and Feedback

After an organization has made a decision, the manager or CEO needs to follow up on it to make sure it was implemented correctly. Communication with every employee involved in implementing the decision is important in this scenario. Additionally, a leader of an organization should get feedback from those directly affected by the decision. By doing so, the organization can know whether the decision was the right one. This helps in gauging how to make future important business decisions.

Decision making in Educational Planning

Education: needs and problems of the educational system as a whole and of each level and branch of education in the country concerned, and possible solutions advisable, covering both the quantitative and the qualitative or strictly educational aspects; and techniques of public administration as they relate to problems of (a) structure, (b) staff and (c) procedure. In addition, it is advisable for planners to have a command of certain auxiliary techniques belonging to the field of scientific work organization, such as O and M (organization and methods), group dynamics, etc. Their knowledge of educational finance should cover programming and budgeting techniques, budgetary analysis, rationalization of costing and the financing of education from domestic and external sources. The discharge of the planning function requires directing staff with a good grasp of the whole situation, administrative talent, knowledge of a wide variety of subjects and ability to take decisions. In the specific case of educational planning, it is highly desirable for the directing staff to have had previous conations with teaching and the administration of education.

Required for the planning process

As part of the research required for the planning process, a series of questionnaires should be addressed to the various sectors of the nation, either directly to individuals, or through their

Organizations, seeking their specific opinions as to the positive and negative features of current education, both general and specialized, as well as the lines along which they would like educational services to develop.

These questionnaires should be prepared by specialists, in accordance with modern techniques, and when addressing them directly to individuals the co-operation of educational personnel specially trained for the purpose should be enlisted. Special importance should be attached to the questionnaires addressed to teachers at all levels and to their organizations, whose opinions and cooperation are vital for the success of the planning process, and for the execution of whatever plans are adopted.  The conclusions drawn from the answers to these questionnaires should be made public, in order to promote an increasingly better-informed public awareness of the importance and complexity of the country’s educational problems.

Stressed the importance of an effective administration so that the proposed reforms may be efficaciously carried out; it is advisable that care should be taken to improve the training of educational administrators and planners. Educational planning can only indicate the global requirements (in teachers and in funds) of the envisaged reforms, fix the orders of priority, adapt them to the economic possibilities of the present and foreseeable future, orient education as a whole with economic, social and cultural change, adapt it also to the needs of employment, and allow sociologists to point out at the right moment the social factors which may act as a brake or, on the contrary, help progress. In all these stages (formulation, impend negation, supervision, re – adjustment), educational planning must be the object of close co-operation between educators, economists and sociologists. Preliminary consultation between these groups is essential in this respect.

Methods of economic planning

Methods of educational planning should in particular take account of methods of economic planning, both in calculating and reconciling the various estimates and in preparing the necessary statistics. Detailed suggestions were made (during the Symposium) as to the type of information which should be gathered, at the national and international levels, if education is to fulfill its r6le in the implementation of economic and social plans. Planning must take special account of the factors peculiar to each country the economic characteristics (importance of the agricultural sector, rate of industrialization, etc. ), social, cultural and demographic characteristics (structure of the different groups, individual and collective requirements, etc. 1, and present and future economic and social changes. But international

Comparisons may furnish useful indications and examples. However, if there is no standard plan applicable for each country, national plans must also avoid rigidity, and be subject to periodic evaluation, checking and revision. Here again, constant co-operation between educators, economists and sociologists is indispensable.

Educational systems and methods of industrialized

At the same time those of society. propose means to remedy it. Underdeveloped countries should not merely copy the educational systems and methods of industrialized countries, especially in Pakistan which are too expensive and not adapted to their particular needs. It is therefore necessary, during a transitional phase, to make use of all appropriate means and resources, and preferably to employ national resources. The importance of female education, adult education, accelerated professional training, intensive teacher training, audio-visual methods, co-operatives and the training of agricultural instructors was stressed. If it fulfils the above conditions, education may be considered as a priority investment, for it is an indispensable base for economic development. Education has also its own requirements and should form individuals capable of developing their personalities and of participating actively not only in the economy but also in community life. This is the general role of education, which should not be sacrificed for immediate economic gains. Also, education, if it is modified by economic and social changes, is in fact an essential factor in such changes; in analyzing it from this angle, the socio- logiest must assist education to fulfill this role, and thus avoid costly errors.

Encourages intolerance

If Pakistan is to provide all children between five and sixteen free and compulsory education, as its law requires, it must reform a system marred by teacher absenteeism, poorly maintained or “ghost schools” that exist only on paper and a curriculum that encourages intolerance and fails to produce citizens who are competitive in the job market. Private schools, increasing largely in response to these shortcomings, account for 26 per cent of enrolment in rural areas and 59 per cent in urban centres but vary greatly in methodology, tuition and teacher qualifications.

The eighteenth constitutional amendment devolved legislative and executive authority over education to the provinces to make it more responsive to local needs. Given the scale of those needs, donors and the private sector must be key partners, but provincial governments need to become the principal drivers of reform. They should reverse decades of neglect by giving government-run schools adequate materials and basic facilities such as boundary walls and toilets. They should also tackle teacher absenteeism and curb nepotism and corruption in appointments, postings and transfers.

To counter the challenge from the private schools, and madrasas and religious schools of Islamic parties and foundations that fill the gaps of a dilapidated public education sector but contribute to religious extremism and sectarian violence, the state will have to do far more than just increase the numbers of schools and teachers. Curriculum reform is essential and overdue. Provincial governments must ensure that textbooks and teachers no longer convey an intolerant religious discourse and a distorted narrative, based on hatred of imagined enemies, local and foreign.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020

Q.3   what is motivation? Discuss its significance to enhance the efficiency of an organization.         (20)

Why do we do what we do? Motivation is the term that we use to describe why people move towards certain actions and goals but not others. Learn about the concept of motivation and a few important theories psychologists have developed to try and explain our behavior.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

What do you think is motivating you to read this lesson at this very moment? Motivation refers to the reasons that we act towards a goal. Psychologists understand that motivation can only be understood through behavior. Although only you can fully explain the many factors that have you reading this lesson right now, psychologists have created theories to try to understand and explain behavior.

From these theories we can make a few educated guesses about your present situation:

  • You are not worried about being hit by a car. Most likely you are at home or in another location where you feel safe.
  • You are probably not hungry to the point of starving. Perhaps you are even snacking while you read this!
  • You are not outside in freezing weather or a hurricane or sitting in a desert without water.

These are just a few of the guesses we can make based on a theory of motivation developed by famous behavioral psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow believed that basic needs must be met before we can satisfy our other, less basic needs.

This was structured as hierarchy of needs that is often shown in a pyramid and referred to as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Just as the ancient Egyptians built a pyramid from the bottom up, we must satisfy our needs from the bottom up, fulfilling the most important needs first. Who would build the top of the pyramid before its foundation?

Human Drives and Drive Reduction

Although Maslow’s pyramid mostly speaks to human motivation, all organisms act on drives, which are essentially motivator stimuli. We all have a drive to eat every day. Our bodies tell us when we are hungry with an empty feeling in our stomachs. When we are confronted by a feeling of hunger, what is our most common reaction? Eating! This reduces the drive for food, a motivation called drive reduction. The hungrier we get, the more likely we are to stop whatever else we are doing and find food. Other human drives include the need for water, air to breathe, elimination of waste and the biological need to have sex. Often without conscious thought, these drives are fulfilled before any other drives, such as hanging out with friends or achieving educational goals.

An excellent example of drives and drive reduction at work can be found in watching a dog that is both hungry and tired. Imagine the dog is resting but sees his owner bring food to his bowl. This dog is left to fulfill one need: sleeping or eating. Trying to do both would be funny but ultimately impossible. If the dog is too tired, he will ignore the food and go to sleep. Alternately, if the dog is more hungry than tired, he will get up and walk to the food.

All organizations require human capital to function and accomplish their goals. In this lesson, you’ll learn what human capital is, its importance and the role that human resource management plays in it. A short quiz follows.

Human Capital Defined

Dave is a human resource specialist for a smartphone company, and his job is to find and cultivate human capital. Capital is a type of asset that allows a business to make more money or otherwise further its goals. Examples of capital include plant, tools, and equipment. Human capital is the sum total of a person’s knowledge and skills that the company can use to further its goals. For example, Dave’s company needs people with knowledge and skills in engineering, computer software design, manufacturing, finance, law, accounting and management, just to name a few.

Importance of Human Capital

Until we develop artificial intelligence, we pretty much need human capital to accomplish anything in the world today. In fact, it takes human capital to create some other forms of capital. While a machine may eliminate the need to have hundreds of production workers make stuff, it still took human capital to design and build the machine. And as we move deeper and deeper into a knowledge-based economy that depends on information, knowledge and high-level skills, human capital will become increasingly important. Dave’s smartphone company is an example of a knowledge-based business where information, data and knowledge is paramount for success.

Human Resource Management

The best way to understand strategic human resources management is by comparing it to human resource management. Human resource management (HRM) focuses on recruiting and hiring the best employees and providing them with the compensation, benefits, training, and development they need to be successful within an organization. However, strategic human resource management takes these responsibilities one step further by aligning them with the goals of other departments and overall organizational goals. HR departments that practice strategic management also ensure that all of their objectives are aligned with the mission, vision, values, and goals of the organization of which they are a part.

Strategic Human Resource Management

Strategic human resource management is the practice of attracting, developing, rewarding, and retaining employees for the benefit of both the employees as individuals and the organization as a whole. HR departments that practice strategic human resource management do not work independently within a silo; they interact with other departments within an organization in order to understand their goals and then create strategies that align with those objectives, as well as those of the organization. As a result, the goals of a human resource department reflect and support the goals of the rest of the organization. Strategic HRM is seen as a partner in organizational success, as opposed to a necessity for legal compliance or compensation. Strategic HRM utilizes the talent and opportunity within the human resources department to make other departments stronger and more effective.

Importance of Strategic HRM

When a human resource department strategically develops its plans for recruitment, training, and compensation based on the goals of the organization, it is ensuring a greater chance of organizational success. Let’s think about this approach in relation to a basketball team, where Player A is the strategic HR department, and Players B through E are the other departments within the organization. The whole team wants to win the ball game, and they all may be phenomenal players on their own, but one great player doesn’t always win the game. If you’ve watched a lot of sports, you understand that five great players won’t win the game if each one of those five great players is focused on being the MVP.

That’s not how a basketball team wins, and it’s not how an organization wins either. A team wins when its members support each other and work together for a common goal. Player A, our strategic HR department, must work with players B, C, D and E, our different organizational departments. They must run plays that they have planned out beforehand, assist when necessary to help another player get the basket, and compensate for the weaknesses of one in order to create a stronger team as a whole. When a team works together to reach that common goal, only then can they be truly successful.

You could also look at strategic HRM as the team captain or coach, as his or her responsibilities are a little bit different from those of the other players. Human resources departments are charged with analyzing the changes that need to occur with each ‘player’ or department and assisting them in strengthening any weaknesses. Strategic human resource management then is the process of using HR techniques, like training, recruitment, compensation, and employee relations to create a stronger organization, one employee at a time.

The Roles of Human Resource Management

Human resource management is involved in acquiring, cultivating, and retaining human capital. Dave and his department are responsible for finding, recruiting and selecting people possessing the right knowledge, skills and abilities that the company needs. In other words, the staffing function can be thought of as acquiring human capital.

Employees will come on board with a general level of human capital, including communication skills, the ability to collect and process information in various ways and the ability to critically think and problem solve. Some employees will have specialized knowledge, such as software engineering and management skills. However, sometimes human capital needs to be refined like crude oil is refined into gasoline.

As a human resource specialist, Dave may build up firm-specific human capital through orientation and training. Firm-specific human capital is knowledge and skills that are specific to a particular business that make a person more productive within the specific business. Examples range from knowing how to operate the company’s custom computer software to understanding the company’s specific organizational culture to knowing where to find the restrooms.

Human capital can be increased through education and training. Dave can offer in-house educational and training programs to keep employees up to speed on their areas of expertise.

the process of developing the knowledge, skills, education, and abilities of an organization’s employees. You’ll learn about the purpose, types, and benefits involved.

What Is Human Resources Development?

Human resources development (HRD) refers to the vast field of training and development provided by organizations to increase the knowledge, skills, education, and abilities of their employees. In many organizations, the human resources development process begins upon the hiring of a new employee and continues throughout that employee’s tenure with the organization.

Many employees come into an organization with only a basic level of skills and experience and must receive training in order to do their jobs effectively. Others may already have the necessary skills to do the job, but don’t have knowledge related to that particular organization. HR development is designed to give employees the information they need to adapt to that organization’s culture and to do their jobs effectively.

What Is the Purpose of HRD?

Human resources development can be viewed, in some ways, in the same manner that a coach views his athletic team. While a coach may recruit players who already have some skill and ability, the point of continued practice is to strengthen those skills and abilities and make even better athletes.

HR development has the same goal: to make better employees. The purpose of HR development is to provide the ‘coaching’ needed to strengthen and grow the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an employee already has. The goal of development and training is to make employees even better at what they do.

Types of HRD

Human resources development usually begins as soon as an employee is hired and continues throughout that employee’s tenure with the organization. HRD comes in different forms, including on-the-job training or job shadowing, textbook or online education, growth opportunities, and compliance training.

On-the-job training refers to learning the aspects of a job while one is doing the job. An employee may know the basics of what the job requires, but specifics like which forms to use, where materials are stored, and how to access the computer systems may require on-the-job training.

Job shadowing is similar in that the employee watches another employee do the job in order to develop the proper skills.

Another form of development is intellectual or professional development, which includes college or certification courses or job-specific trainings and seminars related to how to do one’s job better.

Many organizations invest heavily in providing training and development to their employees in order to increase their knowledge and skills. With the growth of online learning, much of this training has become available via webinars and online courses, but it is still very common to conduct in-person trainings or attend training seminars or conferences with other professionals in the field.

Many professionals also voluntarily take additional training and development courses in order to be seen as experts in their fields. Professional organizations often offer their members options to increase their development and many have specific certifications that must be obtained through extensive training and development. The Six Sigma certification, Professional in Human Resources (PHR) certification, and Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) certification are just a few examples of these forms of HR development that require continued education, training, and testing.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020

Q.4   Critically analyzes the various types of effects of control on the performance of teaching and non teaching staff. As an educational manager, how would you manage3 the negative effects of control?                                                                                          (20)

Pakistan achieved independence from over a century of British colonial rule in August 1947. The colonial period did witness some progress in education. However, the progress was largely limited to what emerged as India. The regions comprising Pakistan were relatively backward in all respects, including in

education. At independence, 85 percent of the population was illiterate and in the more backward regions of the country, e.g., Balochistan, the literacy rate was even lower, with the rate for rural women therein being virtually zero.

It was realized then that the task of nation building would not be achieved without an educated and skilled manpower. And in recognition thereof, a National Education Conference was convened the same year, which recommended that universalization of primary education should be achieved within a period of 20 years. Since then, universal primary education has remained an important objective of all governments.

And to this end, considerable resources have been expended in creating new infrastructure and facilities and various projects and schemes have been launched. Yet, the desired progress has not been achieved, either quantitatively or qualitatively.

A largely illiterate country

Half a century down the road, Pakistan remains a largely illiterate country. Close to two-thirds of the population and over 80 percent of rural women are still illiterate.More than a quarter of children between the ages of five and nine do not attend school. And for those who do, the quality of education is seriously wanting. One 1994 study conducted arithmetic and urdu language tests to grade-3 school children in Lahore and found that only 33 percent of students in government schools passed both the tests. The same test conducted in 1996 to test grade-3 students in 5 districts in Punjab found that only 22 percent of the students in government schools passed both the tests. The same test adminsitered to the teachers did not elicit an encouraging result either. This paper outlines this process from the education conference in 1947 to the education policy presented in 1998.

The existing education delivery system is not meeting the needs and aspirations of society as such particularly; it is a challenge to the provinces and districts for the 21st century. Moreover, prior to devolution, the policy and planning have been undertaken by the central and provincial governments without taking into account the ground realities and without the participation of community.

Basic right of every citizen

The government of Pakistan recognized that education is the basic right of every citizen; therefore, access to education for every citizen is crucial for economic development and for poverty alleviation.

The overall estimated literacy rate was 50.5 per cent, for male 63 per cent and for female 38 per cent during 2001-2002. The urban literacy rate was 70 per cent and the rural literacy rate is 30 per cent during the same period. The main objectives of the devolution plan is to empower the community at the grassroots level in planning, management, resource mobilization and utilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the education system to improve the service delivery at that level.

The main inherent issues of the education system are teachers` absenteeism, high dropout rates, particularly at primary level, high repetition rates, low completion rates, inequalities by gender, location and social groups, low literacy rate and unsatisfactory performance of schools. These issues have been addressed under DOP through empowerment of local communities. The present government has initiated political and administrative devolution under its reforms agenda under the Local Government Plan 2000. The Local Government Ordinance was promulgated on Aug 14, 2001.

Under devolution, political power

Under devolution, political power, decision-making authority and administrative responsibilities have been moved as closer as possible to the village, union council, tehsil and district levels, with only the major policymaking, coordination and special service functions being retained with the central and provincial governments.

It is believed that highly centralized system of education is greatly hampering the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery service at the grassroots level. Successive governments addressed this problem in their policies and plans since 1947.

The major issues and challenges of the education system include low literacy rate, high dropout rate, widespread teacher absenteeism, weak management and supervision structure, shortage of trained and qualified teachers, specially female, lack of teachers` dedication, motivation and interest in their profession and lack of physical facilities. Moreover, the curriculum is mostly outdated, irrelevant and does not fulfil the requirements of the present day. Policies should be made in such a way that will help us to set better standards of education at all levels.

Adult Education

The Committee on Adult Education pointed out that illiteracy was high at 85 percent and, at the then rate of increase of literacy, 140 years would be required to liquidate the problem. Highlighting the urgency of introducing literacy among the masses, including women, it identified the objective of literacy as a means to further education. “The primary aim of the campaign must be not merely to make adults literate but to keep them literate”, it stated. It called for the provision of facilities for adult education on the widest scale and the introduction of a free and compulsory system of primary education to be treated as complementary to one another. It suggested the setting up of a permanent system of adult education, closely linked with compulsory primary education, to solve the problem in a period of 25 years.

Approach and the language

The Committee’s report was fairly pragmatic in its approach and the language used was matter of fact. It dwelt on the problems and constraints facing the task and identified issues of training adult school teachers, teaching materials and literature for adult schools, instruction methodologies, etc. It cautioned against attempting to draw up a code or prescribe uniform methods or approaches applicable to the country as a whole and, instead, called for a committee of experts report on questions of teaching technique and results of experimentation. It also advised against drawing any rigid distinction between adult education in the strict sense and technical, commercial or art instruction and suggested that adult students may be provided literacy through subjects of a vocational character.

The report recommended the following stages for the execution of a programme of adult education. The first 5 years were to be devoted to planning, recruitment of teachers and training. In the sixth year, about 500,000 persons were to be made literate with an annual increase of 300,000 thereafter. It acknowledged that illiteracy was not confined to the rural areas and a large proportion of the urban population was also illiterate. It, thus, called on all government departments and all employers and trade unions to ensure that their employees, workers, and members are literate The question of levying a tax on those employers who do not make adequate provision for the education of their employees was also presented for consideration. Other specific proposals included (i) the possibility of making a period of social service obligatory on all university students and (ii) the use of mechanical aids to learning, such as radio, cinema, the gramophone, and magic lantern.

Legislation

Any education Plan also proposed to undertake a detailed school mapping exercise and stated that “a primary school will be established for a settlement of more than 300 population (1981 census), whereas a mosque school will be opened for a smaller settlement having minimum of 25 primary school age children.” It also provided for purchase of land/buildings in big cities where land could not be made available free of cost.

Legislation was also proposed to be introduced to make it obligatory for all public and non-profit private housing schemes to provide land for primary level educational institutions free of cost. To increase the utilization of existing schools, specially those of girls schools in the rural areas, “strong motivational campaign will be launched for parents to persuade them to send their children to schools. This will be accompanied with legislation for compulsory enrolment for children of 5-9 years age group, wherever primary education facilities become available within a reachable distance.” The Plan, thus, proposed to enroll 5.5 million additional primary school children, including 3.4 million girls and raise the primary participation rate for boys from 84.8 to 95.5 per cent and for girls from 53.7 to 81.6 per cent. It also aimed at increasing literacy from 35 to 48 percent by the end of the Plan period.

Considerable attention was also given to quality of instruction, drop-out rates, etc. It stated:

“Activity oriented instructional material will be developed and provided to teachers to make the learning process interesting. Quality of teachers will be improved through better pre-service and in-service training, … wastage at primary school level will be minimized by reducing the drop out rate and improving the efficiency of the system through better supervision and with the involvement of local community.”

The importance and urgency of female education was repeatedly stressed with statements like: “Efforts will be made to reduce the disparities in availability of the schooling facilities for boys and girls, both in rural and urban areas”, “highest priority will be given to opening of girls primary schools in all such villages where there is a boys school but no girls school,” “In order to remove the imbalance of male, female enrolment ratio, 65 per cent of all new schools established during 8th Plan will be for girls. Wherever feasible, co-educational primary schools will also be established in which female teachers would be appointed.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8617 Spring 2020

Q.5   Write short notes on the following:                                                 (20)

  1. Role of Management Information System in Decision Making

Organizations strive to be market leaders in their given industry. In climates where factors such as recession, inflationary pressures and increased competition can hinder the achievement of this goal, companies look for strategies that lead to competitive advantages. One such strategy is the adoption of information systems within the company. Information systems help a company make adequate use of its data, reduce workload and assist with compliance with various mandatory regulations.

Information Storage and Analysis

At the date of publication, many companies no longer manage their data and information manually with registers and hard-copy formats. Through the adoption of information systems, companies can make use of sophisticated and comprehensive databases that can contain all imaginable pieces of data about the company. Information systems store, update and even analyze the information, which the company can then use to pinpoint solutions to current or future problems. Furthermore, these systems can integrate data from various sources, inside and outside the company, keeping the company up to date with internal performance and external opportunities and threats.

Assist With Making Decisions

The long-term success of a company depends upon the adequacy of its strategic plans. An organization’s management team uses information systems to formulate strategic plans and make decisions for the organization’s longevity and prosperity. The business uses information systems to evaluate information from all sources, including information from external references such as Reuters or Bloomberg, which provide information on the general economy. This analysis of and comparison to market trends helps organizations analyze the adequacy and quality of their strategic decisions.

Assist With Business Processes

Information systems aid businesses in developing a larger number of value added-systems in the company. For example, a company can integrate information systems with the manufacturing cycle to ensure that the output it produces complies with the requirements of the various quality management standards. Adoption of information systems simplifies business processes and removes unnecessary activities. Information systems add controls to employee processes, ensuring that only users with the applicable rights can perform certain tasks. Further, information systems eliminate repetitive tasks and increase accuracy, allowing employees to concentrate on more high-level functions. Information systems can also lead to better project planning and implementation through effective monitoring and comparison against established criteria.

Considerations

Implementing information systems within an organization can prove to be costly. Implementation costs include not only installation of the systems but also employee training sessions. In addition, employees may see the adoption of information systems as an unwarranted change and, thus, may resist this change. Resistance to change can hinder business operations and can cause employee turnover. Companies should have leadership in place to assess the adequacy of the decision to have an information system and to guide the company through the transition phase and weigh information systems cost against the potential benefits.

  1. Human Relations in an Educational Organization

An employee’s relationship with a manager is the most important indicator of success or failure on the job. Managers have numerous ways to impact employee performance through behavior modeling, constructive feedback, and performance reviews, among other methods. However, these techniques won’t succeed unless the manager tries to understand his employees’ motivations. Managers who follow a “command and control” leadership model inspire lower loyalty and productivity than those who allow their subordinates some degree of autonomy.

Behavior Modeling

Whether they realize it or not, managers influence the actions of those who work under them. However, organizations don’t change for the better, unless you model morally upright behaviors of collaboration, inclusion and trust to your employees, an analysis by counselors at Tampa Mediations states. Once these values take hold, employees feel empowered to act when they see them being compromised. Managers who create this atmosphere inspire greater loyalty and trust, and also serve notice that ego conflicts won’t drive morale and performance.

Constructive Feedback

Not all employees progress at the same rate. As a result, it becomes necessary that you give constructive feedback to improve their performance. That process requires evaluating why an employee isn’t meeting your expectations, how you can help him, and working to find a solution, an article on the Business Performance website advises. However, when you’re dealing with negative areas, it’s best to couch your improvement suggestions in positive terms. Otherwise, the employee feels little or no incentive to change his behavior.

Employee Recognition

Earning recognition for achievements is as important to employees as equity and camaraderie. Smart managers stay attuned to these feelings and make a point of recognizing individual contributions, instead of focusing on criticism. Employees who feel appreciated and respected are more likely to perform at higher levels than those who only hear the occasional compliment, as “Harvard Management Update” notes in its April 2006 edition. However, such policies are no substitute for fair pay, which is an equally important consideration for workers.

Informal Meetings

Without regular feedback from employees, it’s difficult to determine the type of performance that you expect. To counter this uncertainty, you should regularly meet with your staff outside of the work setting. “Harvard Management Update” recommends getting together over lunch, for example, which is more likely to encourage a relaxed discussion of work issues. Even if you can’t deliver on a particular request, your employees will appreciate the opportunity to bring it up, which strengthens their trust in your leadership.

Performance Reviews

A semi-annual or yearly performance review provides an ongoing opportunity to measure an employee’s development within an organization. Your evaluation of that progress and recommendations for improvement should be stated in clear, measurable terms, a 2007 article in “Entrepreneur” magazine states, so that the employee knows exactly what’s expected of him. In recounting the past year, you’ll want to balance positive and negative statements, to give the employee a comprehensive picture. This approach reduces feelings of defensiveness, while allowing you to identify areas that need improvement.

  1. Key Issues in Appraising Project

Appraising a project means evaluating the proposed solution against its ability to solve the identified problem or need. Some PM methodologies and guides (e.g. PMBOK) regards the technical and financial project appraisal as a component of the initiation or pre-planning phase. PRINCE2 suggests developing the business case which is a form of project appraisal. The Method 123 (MPMM, which is based on PMI and PRINCE2 standards) also uses the business case for preparing a proposed project for feasibility analysis and assessment.

Project appraisal management is an essential stage of any project, regardless of its nature, type and size. This stage represents the first point of the pre-planning or initiation phase. Without having appraised a project, it is financial and technically unreasonable to proceed with further planning and development. No matter whether you are going to purchase a new car (e.g. my neighbor’s project), constructing a building, improving a business process, updating a network system, conducting a marketing campaign, building a garage, or any other initiative, you should make a preliminary assessment and appraisal of your undertaking in order to be sure that that you will do a required and necessary change to your environment.

Key Steps

Various PM methodologies use various approaches and techniques for developing a project appraisal. In my practice we use some method that regards the appraisal process as a series of 4 steps that have a range of sub-steps and tasks. In this checklist you can view the entire hierarchy with the details. I am going to give an overview of the steps. If you want to get deeper, please read the checklist.

Step #1. Concept Analysis

The first step requires you (as a project appraiser or analyst) to conduct a range of analyses in order to determine the concept of the future project and provide the Decision Package for the senior management (project sponsors) for approval. It means you need to carry out the problem-solution analysis that determines the problem/need to be addressed and the solution to be used to handle the problem. The solution should analyzed by cost-effectiveness and feasibility (various project appraisal methods and techniques can be used). Also you will need to identify stakeholders (those people and organizations involved in or affected by the problem and/or solution) and analyze their needs (how they relate to the problem and/or solution). After all, you must develop a decision package that includes the problem statement, the solution proposal, the stakeholder list, and the funding request. This package will then be submitted to the sponsor for approval (or rejection). If the sponsor approves the project concept then you can proceed to the next step.

Step #2. Concept Brief

At this step you must develop a summary of the project concept to define the goals, objectives, broad scope, time duration and projected costs. All this data will be used to develop the Concept Brief. You need to develop a project statement document that specifies the project mission, goals, objectives and vision. Then you create a broad scope statement that specifies the boundaries, deliverables ad requirements of your endeavor. Finally you make a preliminary schedule template that determines an estimated duration of the project, and then develop a cost projection document based on cost estimates and calculations.

Step #3. Project Organization

You use the Concept Brief to determine an organizational structure of your project. This structure should be developed and explained in the Project Organizational Chart. The document covers such issues as governance structure (roles and responsibilities), team requirements and composition, implementation approach, performance measures, other info. The idea behind the Project Organizational Chart is to create a visual representation of the roles, responsibilities and their relationships and what people/organizations are assigned to what roles and duties within the project.

Step #4. Project Approval

The final stage requires you to review all the previous steps and gather them into a single document called the Project Appraisal. This document summarizes all the estimations and evaluations made, to justify the project concept and verify that the proposed solution addresses the identified problem. The financial, the cost-effectiveness and the feasibility analyses will serve as the methods of project appraisal to approve the project. The document is to be submitted to the snooper stakeholders (the customer, the sponsor) for review and approval. If the appraisal is approved, then the project steps to the next phase, the planning.

  1. Planning Commission Forms

Planning Commission Forms are used for planningprocessing, and reporting on public sector development schemes or projects in Pakistan. They include PC-I, PC-II, PC-III, PC-IV, and PC-V forms. Collectively, they are also referred to as Proformae for Development Projects.

Government of Pakistan prescribed five forms for preparation and implementation of development schemes or projects in 1952. Two of the forms dealt with submission of project proposals (PC-I and PC-II); one was concerned with the progress of ongoing projects (PC-III); and two i.e. PC-IV and PC-V were to be filled in after completion of project.

Since the time they were first introduced in their simple format, they have been revised and updated several times. As the time passed, bigger and complex projects had to be prepared which required quite detailed information for pre-investment proposals.

Currently, the following forms are in use:

  • PC-I Form: Project Proposal
  • PC-II Form: Survey and Feasibility Studies
  • PC-III Form: Physical Targets and Progress Reporting
  • PC-IV Form: Project Completion Report
  • PC-V Form: Annual Performance Report after Completion of project

PC in the abbreviation stands for Planning Commission (currently Ministry of Planning, Development, and Reform). That is why they are commonly referred to as Planning Commission forms.

A brief description of the different forms is provided below.

PC-I Form: Project Proposal

PC-I is the basic form on which all projects or schemes are required to be drawn up or designed. It documents necessary information to devise a proposal for a specific development project.

Currently, in Pakistan, all sectors are grouped in to three broader categories: social sectors, production sectors, and infrastructure sectors. Each category has an individual PC-I form of its own. Rest of the forms (PC-II to PC-V) are same for all sectors.

PC-I forms have been revised a number of times. Latest PC-I forms, as on pc.gov.pk, are as follows:

  • PC-I Form – Production Sectors
  • PC-I Form – Infrastructure Sectors
  • PC-I Form – Social Sectors

PC-II Form: Survey and Feasibility Studies

PC-II form is required for conducting surveys and feasibility studies, in respect of larger projects, intended to get full justification for undertaking the project before large resources are tied up with them.

National Economic Council decision dated 4th July 1988 regarding Preparation of Project: All development projects should be based on feasibility studies. In case of projects costing Rs. 50 million (now Rs. 300 million for social sectors and Rs. 1000 million for infrastructure sector) and above, feasibility study should be mandatory.

PC-III Form: Physical Targets and Progress Reporting

PC-III  Form is of two types:

  • PC-III (A) Form for Physical Targets based on PSDP Allocations
  • PC-III (B) Form for Monthly Progress Reporting

PC-III form is designed to furnish information on the progress of on-going projects on quarterly bases and is required to be submitted by the executing agencies or departments within 20 days of the closing of each quarter. This form gives financial as well as physical progress of the schemes with information on any bottlenecks experienced during the execution of project.

PC-IV Form: Project Completion Report

PC-IV form is required to be submitted at the time when the project is adjudged to be complete.

PC-V Form: Annual Performance Report After Completion of Project

PC-V form is to be furnished on annual basis for a period of five years by the agencies responsible for operation and maintenance of the project.

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