Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 622 Spring 2021


Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 622 Spring 2021

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Course: Elementary School Management (622)
Semester: Spring, 2021

  1. 1 Define school organization. What are the characteristics of an ideal school organization?

As a parent, you are the major provider of your child’s education from birth through adolescence. You guide the development of her character and mental health and help form the foundation from which she’ll develop lifelong attitudes and interests. And because your home is the primary environment in which your child’s potential and personality will take shape, it’s important to make sure that you create a positive, open atmosphere that will not only support what goes on in the classroom, but will also instill the desire to learn.

It is through your love and encouragement that your kids will become motivated — first to please you, and then to please themselves. This leads to self-confidence, curiosity, the enjoyment of mastering new tasks, and other healthy attitudes, all of which contribute to successful learning.

But unless you are home-schooling, you will not be the one teaching your child science or geography. And while it’s true that all of the facts, skills, and concepts your children learn at school are influenced by what you do at home, your child’s education is equally impacted by the relationships you form with her teachers. Building an effective relationship with the teacher is a critical task, and, like you, every teacher wants to achieve this goal. As with any relationship, mutual respect, the ability to listen, and lots of communication form the foundation.

When parents and teachers work well together, everyone benefits. Parents and teachers can provide each other with unique insight and different perspectives about the same child, culminating in a more complete understanding of that child, her abilities, strengths, and challenges. The teacher will know much more about the curriculum and the school culture, while you know more about your child’s personality, tendencies, and family life. A successful parent-teacher partnership also shows a child that an entire team of adults is on her side.

A positive relationship with your child is more important to her school career than your constant presence in the classroom. Because young children identify strongly with you, your attitudes, values, and innermost feelings are contagious. They become embedded in your child’s mind at the deepest levels.

If your own experience with school was miserable, you might feel anxious about your child’s school experiences. Your child will sense this, and it could hamper her ability to throw herself wholeheartedly into learning. She may feel disloyal if she allows herself to like school and work hard, even if your words are telling her to do so.

For your child’s sake you’ll need to put the past behind you and “start over,” assuming that your child’s teachers, school, and overall experience will be good and happy. Even if you didn’t like school, the best way to help your child is to endorse her experience: Get involved, be positive, and trust her teachers. She will get the message: “School is important; I want you to engage fully.”

It might sound obvious, but today, parents’ schedules are full to overflowing. The good news is that there are easy ways to enjoy time with your child that also support learning. You can be available during play dates, snuggle on the sofa while watching a good video together, take a nature walk in the park, make appreciative comments from time to time as your child plays, cook something yummy together, or just hang out and chat. All these things support your child’s deep belief that you know her, care about her, and would never expect her to do something that isn’t possible — such as learn in school.

Most educators believe in parent participation in children’s education, but “participation” means different things to different teachers. To some, it might mean helping children with homework, returning notes and sending things in on time, and coming to a conference when notified to do so. But it should mean much more. Work with the teacher to find out some ways you can contribute to the classroom, but always be sure to do it within the guidelines she’ll provide for you. By the same token, you have valuable insight about your child — no one knows her better than you — so it’s important to take initiative and communicate that knowledge to the teacher throughout the school year.

First, be sure to provide details about your child’s home life to your teacher. The most effective teachers have a fairly complete understanding of each child in their class. You can help by telling her about your child’s family life, including any recent changes (divorce, a death in the family, or illness, for example), important traditions or rituals, languages spoken at home, and other significant details unique to your child.

Ask about ways to share your culture — food, music, photos, and traditions — with the class. Not only will this help strengthen your child’s self-esteem, it will also enrich the learning experience for the entire class and foster an appreciation of diversity. Between the ages of 3 and 8, kids are beginning to deal with a world bigger than the family, and they become keenly aware of every difference between themselves and their peers.

Plan to have a family discussion each week. Try to pick a topic that emerges from your child’s experiences at school. The more you familiarize yourself with the daily routines and activities at preschool, the more you’ll be able to encourage this type of conversation. You can even extend the idea into an art project or create a family “book club” where everyone reads something relating to this theme.

Get the entire family involved. As often as possible, try to participate in field trips and classroom events such as potlucks, story parties, art shows, and class celebrations. Include grandparents, siblings, caregivers, and family friends. Your child will be delighted.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 622 Spring 2021

For parents and teachers alike, the goal is to play active roles in your child’s life and to work towards forming a real bond. The child’s best interest is always served when she has lots of people rooting for her and all the pieces of her life fit together. A strong home-school connection will set the stage for a child who will grow up with a love for learning.

  1. 2 Describe scope and principles of school management?

This scope of school management is very vast. It includes everything regarding the efficient functioning of the educational institution, securing the greatest benefit to the greatest number through an adoption of practical measures. It interprets and clarifies the functions and the activities of an educational programed in fruitful relationships and harmonizes their mutual action. It ensures sound planning, good direction and efficient and systematic execution.

The scope of school management covers the following:

  1. Intellectual development of the child.
  2. Moral development of the child.

III. Social development of the child.

  1. Physical development of the child.
  2. Aesthetic development of the child.
  3. National and emotional integration of the child.

VII. Vocational development of the child.

In modern times, facilities offered by schools are not limited to basic functioning instead, the authorities have been looking for advanced system. This system is aimed at total user-friendly as well as efficient management of varied tasks. These tasks may range from registering new students, managing fees payment, examination management to all the essential features necessary for making the administrative division of school effective. In order to cope up with all these factors, the school management system was developed and nowadays, it has even been recognized by most of the Indian schools. As a matter of fact, this system based on smart technology has become an integral part of many schools.

At this segment, it is crucial to discuss the purpose served by school management software before proceeding. To begin with, the school management system is basically manufactured to compile all the manual activities of administrative importance in the form of software. This software further makes it easier for officials to finish off their work in a lesser span of time. Most of all, the mechanism of software is easy to understand that even if any school is utilizing it for the first time, the users will not have to toil hard to learn its function. On the other hand, there is a vast range of apps that are included in this software for different streams of management in any school. For instance, if you have purchased a school app or similar software, then, its various modules will make your work simpler yet very accurate.

In addition, it needs to be mentioned that on perfect selection only, the software will fetch exact results. To be even more precise, whether you have to fulfill the formalities of managing newly enrolled student, monitor exam related works or keep a close account of monthly/annual fee, your initial planning has to be properly executed. In case, you want to use, fees management software then, the first area to be brooded over is its underlying utility. On the basis of your conclusion, you will be able to realize whether to buy this software or switch to other school management software. Besides, this smart way of keeping administrative and other important functions of schools has decreased manual efforts. Contrarily, the precise solutions are increasing further contributing to the doubling of the school’s revenue generation.

No doubt, revenue generation of any school might have been at risk, if the officials’ time is wasted in manual adjustment of different sectors. However, with the advent of school management system in India, the scenario of profit generation is treading on a productive path. Furthermore, it will not be wrong to say that this software comprises of pragmatic features that are beneficial for authorities of the school. All the domains of the school ranging from the library, hostel, transportation, registration, examination to staff management are widely covered in this software of school management software. Hence, it can be summed up that in the current times, if any school wants its amenities to be managed without any hassle, thereby, maintaining perfect balance among all its aspects of growth, then, this software is worth purchasing.

 AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 622 Spring 2021

Management Process School:

This school considers management as a process of getting things done by people who operate in the organization. Management can best be studied in terms of process that it involves. The management process can be divided in five broad functions such as: planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. It seeks to analyze the nature, purpose, structure and the underlying process of each of these functions. Henry Fayol is the father of this school of thought. The other scholars associated with this school are J.D. Mooray, A. C. Railay, Lyndall Urwick, Harold Koontz, McFarland. These scholars evolved certain principles having universal applicability. These principles are equally applicable to all types of organizations, business, government or any other organization.


The features of management process are:

(i) Management is what management does. It is the study of functions of managers.

(ii) The functions of managers are the same in all types of organizations.

(iii) The experiences of managing helps us in distilling the principles. These can be improved upon by applying them.

(iii) Principles provide useful theory of management.

(iv) The functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling are the core functions of management.

(v) Management principles have universal application.

The management process approach recognizes management as a separate discipline. It integrates the knowledge of other disciplines to improve management. There is room for innovation, research and development.

This school is criticized on the ground that under dynamic conditions it may not be worthwhile to find out principles of universal application. There is a lack of unanimity among theorists about the functions of management. These principles of management do not always stand the test of empirical scrutiny. This school has provided a conceptual frame work which can be used for further research and development of management thought.

  1. 3 Why is human resource management necessary? What are its requirements in 21st century?

A resource is anything that is needed to execute a task or project — this can be the skill sets of employees or the adoption of software. For example, if you’re planning an event, a few resources include scheduling out staff for the event, planning what vendors to use for promotional materials, investing software that allows attendees to register, and budgeting for everything from giveaways to catering. Human resource management as part of project management is all about doing more with less. Nobody likes waste, especially in business. Human resource management is centered on optimization and efficiency. When you know what you need to make a project successful, you can effectively plan out the optimal way to use those resources.

To some companies, optimum efficiency is so important that they hire someone solely devoted to human resource management; also known as a resource manager. What does a resource manager do? While project managers are responsible for creating and assigning tasks to get the project done, resource managers are accountable for allocating the resources needed to make the project a success.

  1. Avoids unforeseen hiccups: By understanding your resources upfront and planning how to use them, you can troubleshoot gaps or problems before they happen.
  2. Prevents burnout: Effective human resource management allows you to avoid “over allocation” or “dependency” of resources by gaining insight into your teams workload.
  3. Provides a safety net: Let’s say the project was not successful due to lack of resources (it happens). Resource planning and management establishes that you did everything you could with what you had.
  4. Builds transparency: Other teams can gain visibility into your team’s bandwidth, and plan accordingly if your team is at maximum capacity or available to take on new projects.
  5. Measures efficiency: With a high-level understanding of what’s needed to manage and execute an upcoming project, you can effectively plan and measure ROI.

Now that you understand what human resource management is, let’s discuss how you can start implementing it across your projects.

1. Resource Allocation

Resource allocation helps you get the most from your available resources. Based on team members’ skills and capacity, resource allocation is the process of tackling projects using the resources you have at your disposal in the most efficient manner possible.

To get a clear view into allocation, project managers will often use resource allocation reports. These can give anywhere from a high-level view to a detailed run down of resource availability — helping you avoid schedule delays and going over budget. The better the reporting capabilities at your disposal, the more transparency and efficiency you will have over your projects.

2. Resource Leveling

Another type of human resource management is called resource leveling. This technique aims to discover underused or inefficiently used resources within the organization and work them to your advantage. An example of resource leveling is having a content writer who has experience in graphic design help out the design team by taking on small content tasks that require design work. If a team member can flex their design skills, the design team won’t need to hire a freelancer if they suddenly get flooded with design requests.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 622 Spring 2021

3. Resource Forecasting

Having a human resource management plan is critical to optimizing people, materials, and budget efficiency. Resource forecasting allows you to predict your future resource requirements before a project begins. During the planning stages of a project, resource forecasting determines the project’s scope, possible constraints, unforeseen costs, and potential risks.

To make these predictions, project managers must be extremely familiar with the project lifecycle and objectives, and have an overview of available resources within the organization. Project management software provides this level of visibility, as well as easy access to your projects and resources all in one place.

  1. 4 Differentiate between management functions and management roles. Explain.

Managerial functions are different from managerial roles. Managerial functions inform the ways that managers meet the requirements of their duties. Managerial roles encompass the types of skills necessary to successfully complete those duties. The difference between role and function can seem subtle, but it is a meaningful difference.

Managerial roles can be defined as the types of skills necessary for successful managers. Roles are how managers navigate the organizational structure. These roles define managerial capabilities that are both internal and external to the organization.

Managerial functions define managerial processes that are used by managers to achieve business goals. Functions are how managers can successfully achieve their goals. Functions define managerial tools and techniques that are implemented by managers.

Managerial functions can be viewed as the processes by which a manager achieves desired outcomes and goals. Managerial functions were originally identified by Henry Fayol, who was an early theorist of management theory. Fayol originally identified five functions, but now there are only four that are widely accepted managerial functions.

Each managerial function is informed by inputs resulting in outputs needed for the following function. The purpose of using managerial functions is to provide a guide for meeting business goals. Managerial functions are interrelated, and each function may be revisited or revised as necessary.

Four Managerial Functions

  1. Planning: To decide how best to achieve desired outcomes.
  2. Organizing: To determine which resources are required to meet the goals outlined during planning.
  3. Leading: To direct employees toward the business goals.
  4. Controlling: To monitor and evaluate how well the outcomes are aligned with the business goals.

They may seem similar, but leading or directing employees is not the same as controlling in management. The function of leading is to provide overall guidance and direction for employees.

Controlling is the review of performance and other factors to avoid deviations from business goals. For example, a manager may provide leadership by offering training to employees and later review effectiveness and retention through controlling.

A managerial role helps managers become more efficient in the ways that they approach activities. Roles enable managers to balance workloads by simplifying the complex concepts associated with managing people, information and decisions. Defining roles helps managers understand the skills necessary to meet their responsibilities.

Managerial roles provide guidance in defining how managers should interact with internal employees and those outside the organization. Managers must possess the skills to communicate with a variety of stakeholders. They must also be able to provide information to employees and to make decisions.

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10 Managerial Roles?

There are 10 managerial roles that were first identified by MIT professor and business authority Henry Mintzberg. These roles serve to help simplify the complexities that managers often encounter. The 10 managerial roles are divided into three broader categories: interpersonal, informational and decisional.

Mintzberg’s 10 categories of roles embody the primary types of work that managers perform. Because managers must often represent an organization in multiple capacities, the roles address both internal and external needs.


Interpersonal roles outline the types of professional relationships that managers must maintain.

  1. Figurehead: The managerial role of performing ceremonial duties that represent the organization.
  2. Leader: The managerial role of  taking responsibility for subordinates, such as motivating employees.
  3. Liaison: The managerial role of acting as liaison outside the formal chain of command.


Informational roles define how managers communicate information that is necessary to the organization.

  1. Monitor: The managerial role of seeking information to improve outcomes and operations.
  2. Disseminator: The managerial role of relaying information and delegating to subordinates.
  3. Spokesperson: The managerial role of representing the organization and brand externally.


Decisional roles define the types of authoritative actions that managers must perform.

  1. Entrepreneur: The managerial role of inspiring change or innovation and implementing new ideas.
  2. Disturbance handler: The managerial role of removing roadblocks and impediments to work.
  3. Resource allocator: The managerial role of ensuring that proper resources are provided where needed.
  4. Negotiator: The managerial role of participating in and directing negotiations internally and externally.
  5. 5 Explain the concept of educational planning. What are the steps of education planning?

1. Educational Planning:

Being the first aspect in the scope of educational management, planning implies a basic function that is how the aims and objectives are to be realized. Before launching upon a particular educational programme and implementing it the person or authority in-charge or at the helm of affairs is required to take decisions about the methods and strategies for effectively and efficiently achieving the objectives. This means planning has to be done for managing the total educational programme and for this, the basic facts and figures, background, date and profile are necessary. A plan is conceptualized as a predetermined strategy, detailed skills or programme of action related to the achievement of an objective. It implies some kind of mental activity during the course of analysis or laying out a method of achieving something. As educational plan for making efforts to plan and bring deliberate change stands in the system of education for achieving identified and relevant objectives. Modern planning which are prevailing now and top most necessity of the prevailing society needs to be democratic, scientific and decentralized. There must be adequate participation of all concerned in the planning process. The decisions which can affect others must be taken in consultation with others. “Grassroot Planning” is therefore encouraged which means planning from bottom, not from top. Decisions need be taken from within not from without. Nothing should be imposed from top, but should come from bottom. In view of the objectives and size, the plans may be long term, medium term and short term. This kind of planning usually promotes high moral, enthusiasm and motivation for work and success of the institutions or organizations.

  1. Goals and objectives:

Educational planning is a means of creating relevant present and future goals and objectives for any educational institution or organization.

  1. Team Work:

Modern educational planning doesn’t put stress on the fact that only the top administrator of the government should be involved in planning. Rather planning should be the responsibility of all people concerned with the desired change. For this a team of experts in the related area, responsible people and those who will implement the plan should determine the goals and appropriate ways of attaining them.

  1. Decision-Making:

Educational planning is the preparation of pre-courses in the decision making process. It has to help for determining the optional to be taken. While educational administration is mostly decision­ making, planning in education is only the other side of it.

  1. Forecasting:

Educational planning describes or defines determining events, needs and conditions of future time. It implies forecasting or projection of important factors in education such as number and types of pupils and expansion of facilities needed for them.

  1. Social and Economic goals:

Modem educational planning emphasizes that the goals of a democratic society should be social and economic in nature concerning with the welfare and progress of all citizens rather than the self-centered or selfish goals of some special interest groups. The expected goals of the society and needs of children and young pupils in the schools and colleges should be the broad frame of reference.

  1. Anticipation:

Modern educational planning anticipates probable developments and needed change in future, much ahead of time so that proper facilities, supporting media and required resources for implementing the planned change may be secured. Hence, relevant changes and efforts are avoided and the changes are effectively implemented.

  1. Remedial Measures:

This nature or characteristic of modern educational planning indicates that it is remedial and guidance oriented in nature and approach. With appropriate planning procedure it is possible to identify maladjustments or deficiencies in the system that causes educational problems. Identifying causes or the educational problems and suggesting relevant solution is the main objective of educational planning.

  1. Choice of best alternative:

Modern educational planning is a logical, systematic and scientific process different from the elementary kinds of procedure utilized in the part of bringing about changes in the system of education.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 622 Spring 2021

Principles of Educational Planning:

Educational planning or modem educational planning has the following principles:

  1. Educational planning must be one aspect of general national planning.
  2. Research is planning based on system analysis.
  3. Planning must be a continuous process.
  4. Planning should find a definite place in educational organization.
  5. Planning should take into consideration resources and establish conditions of work.
  6. Planning must be realistic and practical.
  7. Planning must ensure active and continuing participation of all interested individuals and groups.
  8. The content and scope of planning should be determined by the needs of the individuals and groups to be served.
  9. Planning should utilize the services of specialists without allowing them to dominate.
  10. Planning should provide opportunity for all persons and groups to understand and appreciate the plans.
  11. Planning should provide for continuous evaluation.
  12. Planning should have opportunity for modification for further action.

Characteristics of Educational Administration:

The term educational administration is characterized in the following grounds:

  1. Making all efforts and agencies work together in joint venture.
  2. Assisting in the realization of the aims and objectives of education.
  3. Rendering service to society in its progress and progress of individuals.
  4. Educational Administration is concerned with diverse human beings, the teachers, students, parents and public and co-ordination of their efforts.
  5. It is concerned with all those activities undertaken and fullest utilization of resources for education.

Functions of Educational Administration:

Educational Administration discharges the following functions:

  1. To delegate authority and responsibility.
  2. To strengthen local initiative and local control.
  3. To secure the greatest return from the money spent.
  4. To secure the goodwill of personnel, public education department and other social agencies and institutions.
  5. To implement a democratically determined programme.
  6. To determine policies and implement them.
  7. To utilize special capacities of personnel and material resources.

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