Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8623 Spring 2021

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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8623 Spring 2021

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Course: Elementary Education (8623)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 Explain the system of Elementary Education in Pakistan. Describe the steps taken by the government for compulsory education.

Education plays a pivotal role in the rise and fall of the nation’s especially in the 21st century importance of education influence much to meet the fast growing challenges. It is mainly due to the emergence of global competition in education and technology. This competitive environment is the core need for progress of any country. All countries including Pakistan have different school systems but when we divide them we find two major categories of school systems: private and public schools. In Pakistan, private schools are getting mass acceptance today to ensure sustained progress of the country. During 1990s and 2000s, private sector emerged as a key provider of education services in Pakistan both in absolute terms and relative to the public sector. Private educational institutions are playing key role not only in eradicating illiteracy but also enhancing the level of students as well as teachers by providing better academic environment.

Private sector contributed significantly in eradicating illiteracy in the emerging economies. If private schools are properly managed they can uplift educational standard in Pakistan as well. The educational landscape of Pakistan has gone through numerous transformations in the past two decades. Enrollment levels and gender parity index have been on the rise. The changes in the education sector that have been taking place in Pakistan have created an environment with numerous opportunities as well as challenges in terms of policy development. Even though the enrollment in government schools is much bigger than any other sector, the declining trend in favor of non –state providers is significant. Education, especially primary education is mostly considered a public service which should be provided to the citizens without discrimination, irrespective of affordability and mainly as the government’s responsibility. This ideology was behind the nationalization of all education institutions in 1972, which severely interrupted the role of the robust private sector particularly at the post elementary level. However, like other services provided by the government, education provision has been severely constrained by governance, quality and effectiveness.

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After the end of nationalization in 1979, Pakistan has witnessed an exponential increase in the role of private sector service providers. The negative experiences of government schools have instigated parents to shift children from government to private schools. Private schools no longer remain an urban or elite phenomenon, but rather poor households also use these facilities to a large extent, due to their better locations, reasonable fees, teachers’ presence and better-quality learning, especially in the fields of mathematics and language. Even though private schools started off as an urban phenomenon, more recently they have mushroomed in rural areas as well. Several characteristics are responsible for making private schooling more attractive to parents compared to government schools; these include better test scores, better physical infrastructure, and lower rates of teacher absenteeism. Some of the other factors are:

  • Income of parents

2- Teacher quality factors influencing school choice:

  • Parents’ knowledge of the teacher’s educational qualifications
  • Parents’ opinion of the teacher’s regularity
  • Parents’ rating of the teacher’s teaching skills
  • Facilities in School
  • Child safety
  • Quality of education
  • School Fee
  • Medium of Instruction
  • Better results

Even if we disregard the debate of whether the learning levels are better in private or government schools, the fact remains that the learning levels for both types of institutes remain poor in an absolute sense. The private schools advantage over the public schools is marginal up if we look at the problems of education in the country holistically speaking. Therefore, the policy developers should cater to supporting and improving both the sectors and not either of the two. The outcomes of private versus public schools’ debate may be a popular discourse, however, at a policy level it is essential to understand that the current education emergency in Pakistan cannot be confronted with just a single player in the education sector. Multiple players, other than the government alone are required in the process to combat the problems. The government needs private sector’s help to contest the challenges. Various other challenges including the flood, security issues and dislocations of citizens due to the regional conflicts in the country also pose major concerns that the households and state need to plan around in the future. The need of the hour is a collective action by all the stakeholders, including the households, government, private sector and the civil society. It can be a better option if the government uses its resources not on increasing the number of schools but rather on the quality of existing schools. Increasing access to education for children by increasing the number of schools should be a policy left for the private sector and the government itself should concentrate on improving the quality of physical facilities and teachers in the existing schools. By doing this, the benchmark for the private schools will also increase, thus increasing both access to, and quality of education.

There has been much talk and debate regarding quality education in Pakistan. Ironically, they all revolve around mostly the types, sources and content of education instead of stages, particularly the most crucial and decisive stage i.e., elementary education.

There has been little progress in recent years in developing new and existing programmes for adolescent learners in government schools at elementary level. Exploratory programmes, counseling programmes and health and physical education programmes are being cut back in government schools. The education has been narrowed down to teaching of rote-skills and transmission of knowledge. This mere imitation and content-centred elementary education has shortchanged the area of personnel development of the learners. This fact of failure of government elementary education has been put in the back burner in the face of doing what is easier and less costly, but the negation of various ongoing sustained social changes experienced by the emerging learners has become the practice of the day. These social changes are:

  1. The family pattern of a mother at home and a father working is increasingly changing.
  2. The suicide rate in teenagers are increasing due to different pressures.
  3. It is estimated that pre and early adolescents spend one third of their waking hours in watching television, surfing social websites on internet and playing online games.
  4. 75 per cent of all advertising is aimed at promoting mobile brands, mobile networks and mobile packages.
  5. Lack of a stable home is a big contributor to delinquency.

The elementary level is comprised of the students with most impressionable age group where various social changes make indelible prints on their minds. These years represent the last chance for the students to master basic skills, lasting attitude towards learning and assertion of self and individualistic differences. Success at elementary school, or the future life, can be determined and predicted for this age group.

The associations such as The National Middle School Association, Pakistan Montessori Council, and Pakistan Elementary Teachers Association are striving for a balanced elementary curriculum by organising frequent conferences and workshops for the educators who are engaged in imparting basic education. However, the government should patronise the associations and educational organisations by allocating a large part of budget. Moreover, the government educationist and administrative authorities should make sure that the content is cognitive learning oriented.

It must be diversified and exploratory based on real life situations and indigenous experiences. Consequently, it could enhance the development of problem solving skills and reflective thinking process among the students. This would also help the students to acknowledge and appraise their own interests and talents. The areas of curriculum concerned with basic skills — logical, sequential and analytical — should be taught through an entertaining pedagogy. Other areas of curriculum like social, moral, emotional, and physical should be developed through integrative approach towards prevalent social issues and factors.

In short the elementary level education and knowledge must mirror the immediate culture, ethnicity, ideology and local socio-economic groups so that the students can relate themselves and concretise their knowledge coupled with critical sense. Besides, this will assist the student to comprehend what he is and help him realise his concepts, responsibilities, identities, abstractions and attitude towards society. Instead of departmentalisation of subjects there should be coordination and inter-disciplines trend among them.

Doubtlessly the teacher’s role is indispensible in modern pedagogy where the teacher is more a personal guide, a facilitator of learning, and a coordinator. The teachers should be trained to practice the methods of instruction which involve open and individual directed learning by accentuating modernly designed arrangements, collaborative work, and respecting individual differences among the students. The list of dos and don’ts is long. However, the ground reality demands more implementation than mere suggestions, planning, revising, and updating the aspects of elementary education.

For implementation the primary parameter is the following statement: “The elementary education should be projective.”

To have insightful understanding of this projective learning, some factors are inevitable. The very first is involvement. In Pakistan the planning regarding elementary education takes place without involving those who will be most directly affected by its activation: students, teachers, parents, and the community. Unluckily, the assumption which resists this involvement is that the member/actors of education are unaccustomed to the jargons related to educational policies and are unfamiliar with the trends in educational programs. But the fact is that the elementary education cannot be affectively implemented and maintained unless it involves the above mentioned strata. Their involvement in initial analysis of students needs (social, financial, emotional, physical), in drafting the documents and in providing rationale for effective elementary education is a must.

The second factor for ensuring implementation is commitment and dedication on the part of the teachers. Commitment can be interpreted as the tendency to adjust new roles (multirole) in the teachers instead of traditional designs. In this regard teachers’ sufficient and moral support should be maintained by the higher authorities. A problem witnessed in many schools is that teachers’ behaviours are prone to return to traditional patterns if sufficient attention from every perspective not maintained. Teachers’ enthusiasm and energy will understandably high if they receive such attention.

Thirdly, other important factors are budgeting/funding and resources. The observable phenomenon in elementary education is its failure due to absence of substantial finances. This stage of education, owning to the foundation, requires more energy and money to implement productively. For the low budget schools, the private school system could be the inspiration which partially run on funding by the rich families. If the community has the chance of involvement in the planning process, it definitely is going to participate in funding process.

Moreover, by doing this the allocation of vast resources could be ensured as the common pitfall in realising the implementation is exclusively relying upon the teacher made material, overlooking a consumable material budget and less updated material acquisition. Making no provision in this regard is in fact to doom the elementary education. These major factors if operated well can eliminate the causes of the failure of the elementary schools.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8623 Spring 2021

2 Explain information process model with reference to cognitive development in elementary school years.

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence.1 Piaget’s stages are:

  • Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years
  • Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7
  • Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11
  • Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up

Piaget believed that children take an active role in the learning process, acting much like little scientists as they perform experiments, make observations, and learn about the world. As kids interact with the world around them, they continually add new knowledge, build upon existing knowledge, and adapt previously held ideas to accommodate new information.

Piaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and was a precocious student, publishing his first scientific paper when he was just 11 years old. His early exposure to the intellectual development of children came when he worked as an assistant to Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon as they worked to standardize their famous IQ test.

Much of Piaget’s interest in the cognitive development of children was inspired by his observations of his own nephew and daughter. These observations reinforced his budding hypothesis that children’s minds were not merely smaller versions of adult minds.

Up until this point in history, children were largely treated simply as smaller versions of adults. Piaget was one of the first to identify that the way that children think is different from the way adults think.

Instead, he proposed, intelligence is something that grows and develops through a series of stages. Older children do not just think more quickly than younger children, he suggested. Instead, there are both qualitative and quantitative differences between the thinking of young children versus older children.

Based on his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget’s discovery “so simple only a genius could have thought of it.”

Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in mental operations.

The Sensorimotor Stage

Ages: Birth to 2 Years        

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • The infant knows the world through their movements and sensations
  • Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, and listening
  • Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot be seen (object permanence)
  • They are separate beings from the people and objects around them
  • They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them

During this earliest stage of cognitive development, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. A child’s entire experience at the earliest period of this stage occurs through basic reflexes, senses, and motor responses.

It is during the sensorimotor stage that children go through a period of dramatic growth and learning. As kids interact with their environment, they are continually making new discoveries about how the world works.

The cognitive development that occurs during this period takes place over a relatively short period of time and involves a great deal of growth. Children not only learn how to perform physical actions such as crawling and walking; they also learn a great deal about language from the people with whom they interact. Piaget also broke this stage down into a number of different substages. It is during the final part of the sensorimotor stage that early representational thought emerges.

Piaget believed that developing object permanence or object constancy, the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, was an important element at this point of development.

By learning that objects are separate and distinct entities and that they have an existence of their own outside of individual perception, children are then able to begin to attach names and words to objects.

The Preoperational Stage

Ages: 2 to 7 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects.
  • Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective of others.
  • While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms.

The foundations of language development may have been laid during the previous stage, but it is the emergence of language that is one of the major hallmarks of the preoperational stage of development.3

Children become much more skilled at pretend play during this stage of development, yet continue to think very concretely about the world around them.

At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. They also often struggle with understanding the idea of constancy.
For example, a researcher might take a lump of clay, divide it into two equal pieces, and then give a child the choice between two pieces of clay to play with. One piece of clay is rolled into a compact ball while the other is smashed into a flat pancake shape. Since the flat shape looks larger, the preoperational child will likely choose that piece even though the two pieces are exactly the same size.

The Concrete Operational Stage

Ages: 7 to 11 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes

  • During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events
  • They begin to understand the concept of conservation; that the amount of liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example
  • Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete
  • Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a general principle

While children are still very concrete and literal in their thinking at this point in development, they become much more adept at using logic.2 The egocentrism of the previous stage begins to disappear as kids become better at thinking about how other people might view a situation.

While thinking becomes much more logical during the concrete operational state, it can also be very rigid. Kids at this point in development tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.

During this stage, children also become less egocentric and begin to think about how other people might think and feel. Kids in the concrete operational stage also begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them and that not everyone else necessarily shares their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.

The Formal Operational Stage

Ages: 12 and Up

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems
  • Abstract thought emerges
  • Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning
  • Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information

The final stage of Piaget’s theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas.3 At this point, people become capable of seeing multiple potential solutions to problems and think more scientifically about the world around them.

The ability to thinking about abstract ideas and situations is the key hallmark of the formal operational stage of cognitive development. The ability to systematically plan for the future and reason about hypothetical situations are also critical abilities that emerge during this stage.

It is important to note that Piaget did not view children’s intellectual development as a quantitative process; that is, kids do not just add more information and knowledge to their existing knowledge as they get older. Instead, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process through these four stages.4 A child at age 7 doesn’t just have more information about the world than he did at age 2; there is a fundamental change in how he thinks about the world.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8623 Spring 2021

3 Elucidate Piaget’s concept of reversibility and transitivity.

In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the third stage is called the Concrete Operational stage. During this stage, which occurs from age 7-12, the child shows increased use of logical thinking. One of the important processes that develops is that of Reversibility, which refers to the ability to recognize that numbers or objects can be changed and returned to their original condition. For example, during this stage, a child understands that a favorite ball that deflates is not gone but can be filled with air again and put back into play.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligencePiaget believed that one’s childhood plays a vital and active role in a person’s development.[1] Piaget’s idea is primarily known as a developmental stage theory. The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it.[2] To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience. He believed that children construct an understanding of the world around them, experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment, then adjust their ideas accordingly.[3] Moreover, Piaget claimed that cognitive development is at the center of the human organism, and language is contingent on knowledge and understanding acquired through cognitive development.[4] Piaget’s earlier work received the greatest attention. Many parents have been encouraged to provide a rich, supportive environment for their child’s natural propensity to grow and learn. Child-centered classrooms and “open education” are direct applications of Piaget’s views.[5] Despite its huge success, Piaget’s theory has some limitations that Piaget recognized himself: for example, the theory supports sharp stages rather than continuous development (decalage).[6]

Piaget noted that reality is a dynamic system of continuous change and, as such, is defined in reference to the two conditions that define dynamic systems. Specifically, he argued that reality involves transformations and states.[7] Transformations refer to all manners of changes that a thing or person can undergo. States refer to the conditions or the appearances in which things or persons can be found between transformations. For example, there might be changes in shape or form (for instance, liquids are reshaped as they are transferred from one vessel to another, and similarly humans change in their characteristics as they grow older), in size (for example, a series of coins on a table might be placed close to each other or far apart), or in placement or location in space and time (e.g., various objects or persons might be found at one place at one time and at a different place at another time). Thus, Piaget argued, if human intelligence is to be adaptive, it must have functions to represent both the transformational and the static aspects of reality.[8] He proposed that operative intelligence is responsible for the representation and manipulation of the dynamic or transformational aspects of reality, and that figurative intelligence is responsible for the representation of the static aspects of reality.[9]

Operative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. It involves all actions, overt or covert, undertaken in order to follow, recover, or anticipate the transformations of the objects or persons of interest.[10] Figurative intelligence is the more or less static aspect of intelligence, involving all means of representation used to retain in mind the states (i.e., successive forms, shapes, or locations) that intervene between transformations. That is, it involves perceptionimitationmental imagery, drawing, and language.[11] Therefore, the figurative aspects of intelligence derive their meaning from the operative aspects of intelligence, because states cannot exist independently of the transformations that interconnect them. Piaget stated that the figurative or the representational aspects of intelligence are subservient to its operative and dynamic aspects, and therefore, that understanding essentially derives from the operative aspect of intelligence.[10]

At any time, operative intelligence frames how the world is understood and it changes if understanding is not successful. Piaget stated that this process of understanding and change involves two basic functions: assimilation and accommodation.[11][12][13][14]

Through his study of the field of education, Piaget focused on two processes, which he named assimilation and accommodation. To Piaget, assimilation meant integrating external elements into structures of lives or environments, or those we could have through experience. Assimilation is how humans perceive and adapt to new information. It is the process of fitting new information into pre-existing cognitive schemas.[15] Assimilation in which new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas.[16] It occurs when humans are faced with new or unfamiliar information and refer to previously learned information in order to make sense of it. In contrast, accommodation is the process of taking new information in one’s environment and altering pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information. This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.[17] Accommodation is imperative because it is how people will continue to interpret new concepts, schemas, frameworks, and more.[18] Piaget believed that the human brain has been programmed through evolution to bring equilibrium, which is what he believed ultimately influences structures by the internal and external processes through assimilation and accommodation.[15]

Piaget’s understanding was that assimilation and accommodation cannot exist without the other.[19] They are two sides of a coin. To assimilate an object into an existing mental schema, one first needs to take into account or accommodate to the particularities of this object to a certain extent. For instance, to recognize (assimilate) an apple as an apple, one must first focus (accommodate) on the contour of this object. To do this, one needs to roughly recognize the size of the object. Development increases the balance, or equilibration, between these two functions. When in balance with each other, assimilation and accommodation generate mental schemas of the operative intelligence. When one function dominates over the other, they generate representations which belong to figurative intelligence.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8623 Spring 2021

4 Explain the concept of physical fitness, also state the purpose of physical and health education. Suggest ways to integrate health education with other subjects.

Physical fitness is your ability to carry out tasks without undue fatigue. Learn about the components of physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and body composition and why they are important.

Physical Fitness

While on vacation last year, I had an opportunity to ride a Segway. After only a few minutes of wobbling, I felt like I had mastered this upright transportation technology, and I was able to travel long distances with very little physical effort. We certainly live in the technology age, and the advances we see in technology have simplified many physically demanding tasks. In fact, it can make you wonder if all of this technology has eased our physical burdens so much that one day we might be so physically unfit that we can no longer perform tasks without the help of technology. Our ability to carry out daily tasks and routine physical activities without undue fatigue is called physical fitness. While too much reliance on technology could make us less fit, we see that we can improve physical fitness through the performance of different exercises. In this lesson, we will take a look at the five components that make up physical fitness, how we can improve them and the benefits they bring to our lives.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

In the most general terms, a fit person is able to perform tasks with more sustainable energy and for longer periods than an unfit person. But, fitness is more than just the ability to work longer; in fact, it includes a number of components, one of which is cardiorespiratory endurance. This is a measure of the circulatory and respiratory systems’ ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to and eliminate waste products from cells. Your cells need oxygen and nutrients in order to fuel your muscles during periods of physical activity. When your cells work they produce wastes that need to be transported away. How efficiently your body does these tasks is a measure of your cardiorespiratory endurance.

You can build your cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic exercise, which is a type of exercise that uses oxygen to meet energy demands. The word aerobic means using oxygen, so aerobic exercise is literally exercise that uses oxygen. This is the type of exercise that we might consider with activities performed over time at low to moderate intensity, such as taking a comfortable jog around the neighborhood, riding your bicycle or rowing a boat. Aerobic exercise is important because it strengthens your heart and lungs by making them work harder. Did you ever hear that really fit athletes have very low resting heart rates? That’s because a high level of fitness leads to a strong heart, which is able to pump a lot of blood with fewer heartbeats.

Muscle Strength and Endurance

Another component of physical fitness is muscle strength, which is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force against resistance. Having greater muscle strength enhances physical fitness because it allows you to more easily perform tasks such as pushing, pulling and lifting. You have experienced the importance of muscle strength when you performed household tasks such as moving furniture or carrying a full trash bag out to the curb.

Muscle endurance is yet another component of physical fitness. It is defined as the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force for extended periods. Whereas muscle strength is the ability to give it all you’ve got in one maximum motion, endurance is the ability to keep going and perform repetitive motions of less intensity over time. You have likely experienced the importance of muscle endurance when you shoveled snow off your driveway or raked the leaves in your backyard.

THE PARTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS

Physical fitness is made up of 11 parts – 6 of them health related and 5 skill related. All of the parts are important to good performance in physical activity, including sports. But the 6 are referred to as contributing to health-related physical fitness because scientists in kinesiology have shown that they can reduce your risk of chronic disease and promote good health and wellness. These parts of fitness are body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular endurance, power, and strength. They also help you function effectively in daily activities. As the name implies, skill-related physical fitness components help you perform well in sports and other activities that require motor skills. For example, speed helps you in sports such as track and field. These 5 parts of physical fitness are also linked to health but less so than the health-related components. For example, among older adults, balance, agility, and coordination are very important for preventing falls (a major health concern), and reaction time relates to risk for automobile accidents. Each part of physical fitness is described in more detail in the two following features: The Six Parts of Health-Related Fitness and The Five Parts of Skill-Related Fitness.

HEALTH-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS

Think about a runner. She can probably run a long distance without tiring; thus she has good fitness in at least one area of health-related physical fitness. But does she have good fitness in all six parts? Running is an excellent form of physical activity, but being a runner doesn’t guarantee fitness in all parts of health-related physical fitness. Like the runner, you may be more fit in some parts of fitness than in others. The feature named The Six Parts of Health-Related Fitness describes each part and shows an example. As you read about each part, ask yourself how fit you think you are in that area.

Fit Fact

Power, formerly classified as a skill-related part of fitness, is now classified as a health-related part of fitness. A report by the independent Institute of Medicine provides evidence of the link between physical power and health. The report indicates that power is associated with wellness, higher quality of life, reduced risk of chronic disease and early death, and better bone health. Power, and activities that improve power, have also been found to be important for healthy bones in children and teens. How do you think you rate in each of the six health-related parts of fitness? To be healthy, you should be fit for each of the six parts. Totally fit people are less likely to develop a hypokinetic condition – a health problem caused partly by lack of physical activity – such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer, or a high body fat level. You’ll learn more about hypokinetic conditions in other chapters of this book. People who are physically fit also enjoy better wellness. They feel better, look better, and have more energy. You don’t have to be a great athlete in order to enjoy good health and wellness and be physically fit. Regular physical activity can improve anyone’s health-related physical fitness.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8623 Autumn 2021

5 Differentiate between lecture and demonstration method. Explain which one is suitable for teaching which subjects at elementary level in Pakistan.

Lecture-cum-demonstration includes the merits of the lecture as well as demonstration method. It attempts to filter out the disadvantages of both. Demonstration means ‘to show’. In Lecture method teacher just tells but in demonstration method teacher shows and illustrates certain fundamental phenomena.

 

Characteristics of good demonstration

 

  1. Visibility
  2. One major idea at a time
  3. Clear cut
  4. Convincing
  5. Rehearsal
  6. Supplemented with other teaching aids
  7. Asking relevant questions
  8. Neat, clean and tidiness
  9. Simple and speedy
  10. To write observation
  11. Teacher to act as performer
  12. Sufficient time

Steps in Lecture-cum-demonstration

1)     Planning and Presentation:  While planning a demonstration the following points should be kept in mind.

  • Subject matter
  • Lesson planning
  • Rehearsal of experiment
  • Collection and arrangement of apparatus

2)     Introduction of lesson: The lesson may be introduced on the following basis

  • Student’s personal experience
  • Student’s environment
  • Telling story
  • A simple and interesting experiment

3)     Presentation of the subject matter

  • The teacher must study the subject matter on broad basis taking into consideration the interest and experience of students
  • While demonstration is going on, question should also be asked which help the students to understand the principles
  • The teacher should try to illustrate the facts and principles
  • Language used by teacher should be simple and clear.

4) Experimentation

  • Demonstration should be properly spaced and striking, clear and convincing
  • The demonstration table should have only apparatus
  • The experiment should be simple and speedy
  • All the apparatus should not be displayed at once

5) Blackboard work

A big blackboard behind the demonstration table is necessary in order to summarize the principles and other matters of demonstration and also to draw necessary diagrams and sketches.

Advantages of Lecture-cum-Demonstration Method

Economical: This method is economical as it helps in economizing resources

Psychological Method: Demonstration method psychological as the students are shown concrete things.

This method is especially useful where

The apparatus is expensive

The experiment involves some danger

The apparatus is sensitive to break

The experiment involves some difficult and complex operation

  • ­ Student participation
  • Save time and effort
  • ­ Helpful to promote useful discussion
  • ­ More efficient method
  • ­ Activity method
  • ­ Useful for all types of students
  • ­ Helpful for teacher

Disadvantages of Lecture-cum-demonstration Method

  • ­ Ignore maxim of education: The maxim of education, ‘Learning by Doing’ and the principles of psychology of learning has no place in this method.
  • ­ Visibility: Visibility is main problem for a teacher because all the students may not be able to see the details and results of a demonstration
  • ­ Speed of experiment: Either too fast or too slow speed of demonstration sometimes  may create trouble
  • ­ Ignore individual difference: This method totally ignores the main principle of psychology.
  • ­ Hinder progress: This method somehow hinder the development of laboratory skills among the students
  • ­ Not useful for developing scientific attitude.

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