Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8626 Spring 2021
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Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (8626)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Critically analyze the aims and objectives of teacher education given in the National Education Policy 2009. How far have the objectives been achieved to date?
- INTRODUCTION According to the constitution of 1973, article 25 1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law. 2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of gender alone. v The Prime Minister advised the Ministry of Education to design a new Education Policy in January 1998. v The first revised draft was submitted to the Cabinet on 18 February, 1998. v The Policy was announced in March 1998
- Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 q Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education: ü Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah ü to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. ü To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. ü Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.
- qLiteracy and Non-Formal Education : ü Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. ü The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 ü Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children ü Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education.
- qElementary Education : ü About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. ü Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system. ü Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII).
- ü Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. ü At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education. qSECONDARY Education : ü One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. ü A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. ü Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. ü The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03.
- ü To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in- service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. ü introduction of programs of FA/F.Sc education and BA/BSc education . ü The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. ü . A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created. qTEACHER‘s Education :
- qTechnical and Vocational Education : ü To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, (industry and economic development goals.) ü To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) ü Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market. ü Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures shall be reflected in the curricula. ü Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics.
- qHigher Education : ü Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. ü Merits shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. ü To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. ü Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. ü At the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement.
- ü All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. ü In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned. qInformation Technology : ü Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. ü School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
- qLibrary and Documentation Services : ü School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. ü Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. ü Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced. qPrivate Sector in Education : ü Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations.
- ü A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. ü Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. ü Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided: I. plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, II. rebate on income tax, like industry ü Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. ü The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
- qInnovative Programes : ü Qualifying tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. ü Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities
- qAnalysis: v If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points. So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that ; ü “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims” And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what the reasons are? And what is the logic behind it? ü As clearly the clash between the religious and modern school and institutions students is going on , and the battle among the modern and religious is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body.
- Now we turn ourselves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working . Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and assessment system.
- After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level. One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers. Three major successful and last stages are implementation of policy about the HE and HEC, and also they stressed the need to develop the information technology structure or the library and documentation structure to safe Your heritage and archives.
- § They are claimed to be competively successful phases for the policy makers and government all because of “Dr Ata-ul-Rehman” § HEC a successor of university grant commission in his guidance lead this phase in right direction. § And throughout they enhanced the standard of Higher education . That worked for producing quality scholars; PhD’s . § This stage insist that: “Access to the Higher Education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010”. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry to the higher Education . The Novelty in this programme is that the split-PhD programme has been created through this programme. 100 researcher and desirous student will be sent to international university and institutions. And annually we will have a trained upgraded researchers, scholars to assist our Higher education system and standard will be only merit.
- § HEC is the most reputable professional institute in this country, but few complained have been received that few eligible low status student were not selected, this is a sad thing and only God know that How much it keeps Reality. § In information Technology stage HEC tried to make PCs common, to common people. § And used PCs were imported in country at very low price. § Few year of the policy announcement no tax was imposed on computer hardwares.networking, band with low rate, intranet culture was developed here to make information easy and accessible .that’s why in elementary and secondary level computer classes were conducted, IT course was included in the curriculum . § The Expenditure of the Government on Education will be raised from present level 2.2% to 4% of total GNP by The year 2002-03 §
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8626 Spring 2021
Q.2 Explain the responsibilities of teachers in Islamic perspective, how can teachers help in improving social values?
The ancient Muslim educationists adopted a special method of teaching that promotes the recipients of knowledge. The following are some articles of the teaching methods:
Teachers ought to treat their pupils leniently and kindly and avoid any tension and cruelty since these two things impede the mental growth and author serious psychological complexes. Ibn Khuldun says, “Tensional teaching injures the pupils, especially the children and the harshly educated.”
Pupils of irregular behavior and negligence should be disciplined if they ignore the advice. The ancient Muslim teachers used to beat and detain even the kings’ sons. Abu Merriam, the educator of al-Amin and al-Mamun*, caned them so harshly that one’s arm was injured. Before his father, the boy showed his hand, and the teacher was summoned. “What for did Mohammed –al-Amin- complain you?” asked ar-Rashid. “He is full of naivete and slyness,” answered the teacher. The caliph then said, “You may kill him! His death is better than being dull.”
In his instructions to al-Ahmer, one of his sons’ educators, ar-Rashid said, “You should first reform him by means of kindness and lenience. If he refuses, then you should use tension and coarse.”
Fathers used to say to the educators of their sons, “Your share is the flesh while ours is the bones.”
Beating and tormenting were the most important means of education. This is incorrect indeed since it is undecided to Islam that regards mercy, kindness, and lenience as the most matters on which education should settle. All of the crooked ways should be avoided in the educational processes. Teachers should not exceed in disciplining the irregular and deviant pupils since it creates mental complexes and impedes the maturity and prosperity of education and personality. Ibn Khuldoun says, “If the educator uses coercion, this will distress the pupil and confine his delighted spirit and urge on indolence and lead to lie and malignancy for avoiding more coercion. In addition, this coercion will teach the pupil trickery and fraud, and the pupil may take them as customs and qualities forever. The educator, whether teacher or father, should not exaggerate in disciplining the sons.” The Prophet (s) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” Ibn Quteiba said, “Teachers are recommended not to use tension or pride.”
Teachers are compared to the compassionate father. It is said, “Teachers are the substitutes of fathers.” It is also said, “Teachers ought to care for the students’ interests and treat them like the dearest sons with kindness, courtesy, benevolence, and patience on probable alienation. Teachers should apprise of their flaws by means of advice and sympathy, not chiding and crudeness.” Al-Qabisi, one of the master educators of the fourth century –of Hegira-, was asked whether it is recommended for teachers to use coarseness or lenience with students, he answered, “Disciplining should never occupy the good teachers’ lenience and mercy to the pupils. Teachers are the substitutes of their fathers. It is discommended for teachers to be always frowning. This will make the pupils disrespect them.”
Teachers’ roughness originates mental troubles and leads to the students’ refusing the lessons.
Muslim educationists believe that the insinuative rebuke should be within the teaching methods in case pupils show irregular behavior or imperfect work since this method is more impressive than expression. They said, “Teachers who notice an irregularity or a crooked behavior should not state it directly to the pupils. They should insinuate within their common speech by referring to the disadvantages of such a behavior. This will achieve the intended convention.”
This method, in fact, is more useful than direct reproach, which may lead to rebellion and insistence on the wrong. Islam has asserted this topic in the fields of education and teaching. It is related that Imams al-Hassan and al-Hussein, the grandsons of the Prophet, once noticed an old man perform the ritual ablution incorrectly. They avoided stating to him directly; hence, they agreed on making him the arbiter who should rule of the most accurate ablution. As they performed the ablution before him, the old man said, “O masters! You both have performed the very accurate ablution, but it seems that the old man can master nothing.”
Islam has adopted this necessary practice since it saves the deviant from irregularity and aberrance and takes him back to the truth and right. Educationists said, “The pupil that is not amended by insinuative impression, owing to lack of understanding and perception, secret expression and frank warning should be used. If this method is unsuccessful, the teacher may warn openly and reproach. If this is also unsuccessful, the teacher then may dismiss and leave the pupil till he
THE LEARNERS’ MANNERS
Muslim educationists have been greatly concerned with the learners’ affairs. They constituted the considerable methods that aim at disciplining and acquiring the virtuous ethics and noble manners.
– Learners should seek knowledge for God’s sake purely, neglecting any worldly interest or valueless purpose. God will surely raise the respects of such learners, facilitate the difficulties, grant perception and intelligence, and combine the welfare of this world and the Hereafter.
– Learners should carry out the religious instructions and precepts as well as the noble morals and ritual practices. They should fear God in their hiddens as well as their appearances and purify their hearts against discommended qualities such as envy, ostentation, pride, and arrogance since these characters are the vilest and the most unassuming. An educationist says, “Prayers are invalid without extrinsic purification. Likewise, heart worship that is seeking knowledge is invalid unless the hearts are purified from ill manners and immoral qualities. Knowledge is not the abundance of narration. It is an illumination that is cast in hearts.”
– Learners should enjoy self-possession and sedateness. The Prophet (s) said, “Seek knowledge and convey to people. Use composure, tranquility, and modesty to those from whom you learn and those to whom you convey. Do not be the despotic of knowledge.” Imam as-Sadiq said, “Seek knowledge and use self-possession, composure, and modesty to those from whom you learn. Do not be the despotic of knowledge, otherwise the wrong will remove your right.” Students of such perfect moralities will naturally be the exemplars of others and influence positively in the people’s behavior and ethics.
– Learners should exert all efforts for seeking knowledge since it is not inspirational. Knowledge is acquirable. It depends upon the scope of the efforts that lead to obtaining scientific fortune. Learners should respect time as well as their lessons. Any tardiness will waste the classes and cause the teachers’ carelessness.
– Learners should not exaggerate in studying lest their powers and energy will be exhausting and the mental maturity be impeded. It is essential for learners to have sufficient time for rest and physical relaxation. Men should regard the rights of their bodies. Al-Ghezali said, “It is essential to give the pupils sufficient time for acceptable amusement and relaxation after the fatigue of teaching. Preventing the pupils from entertainment after the exhausting teaching will deaden their hearts stupefy their minds. This will also cause a life disturbance and oblige them to look for trickeries for the sake of getting rid of such a disturbance.”
– Learners should not ask rigor questions otherwise they lose prosperity owing to disrespecting the knowledge and dishonoring the teachers whose approval should precede everything else.
– Learners should respect their teachers who should enjoy rights that are preferable to the fathers. Ashafii said, “I used to reverence my teacher, Malik, to the degree that I skimmed over the books so slightly so that he will not hear the sounds of the papers.” Learners should also esteem their teachers in their presence or absence, use various styles of honoring and veneration, neglect using their names, and stand their flaws and roughness. Ashafii reported, “People informed Sufian bin Uyeina that some people, who had come from distant districts, would leave him because of his harshness.” He said, “They are surely ignorant if they leave their advantages because of my ill manners.” Learners should also be in the class before their teachers, sit in front of them, not lean to a wall or a pad, and not turn the back before them. All these affairs contradict the teachers’ rights. They should also listen heedfully to their teachers and save them against repeating the teaching materials. Moreover, learners should avoid yawning, eructing, laughing, mocking, or practicing any deed that dishonors the teachers.
– Learners should not combine two subjects of study at the same time, lest their minds will be exceedingly disturbed. Ibn Khuldoun says, “Learners must not mix two matters of knowledge at the same time, lest they will be too deficient to obtain any of them since this causes mind confusion and leaning to one on the account of the other.”
– Learners should not associate with other than the hard-working students so that they receive the good behaviors. It is said that the social life is influential and being influenced. Each individual gives and takes from the surroundings. Lazy and slender individuals will surely convey their qualities to their associates.
– Primary learners should not involve themselves in discrepancies and ambiguous opinions of the master scholars especially in conceptual theses, lest these variant opinions will weaken their mentalities and natures.
– Learners should not move to another lesson before they master the earlier. Negligence will surely cause tardiness and skillessness
Learning and Teaching in Islam
To acquire knowledge is a religious duty in Islam. The Prophet has said, “To seek knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim.” According to fully established hadiths which elucidate the meaning of this saying, knowledge here means the three principles of Islam : unity or tawhid ; prophecy or nubuwwat; and eschatology or ma’ad. In addition to these principles, Muslims are expected to acquire knowledge of the subsidiary branches and the details of the injunctions and laws of Islam according to their individual circumstances and needs.
It is clear that acquiring knowledge of the principles of religion, even if it be in summary fashion, is possible to a certain extent for everyone. But acquiring detailed knowledge of the injunctions and laws of religion through use of the basic documents of the Book and the Sunnah and technical reasoning based upon them (or what is called demonstrative jurisprudence, fiqh-i istidlali ) is not possible for every Muslim. Only a few persons have the capacity for demonstrative jurisprudence, nor is such acquiring of detailed knowledge required of everyone, for there are no injunctions in Islam requiring one to do what lies beyond his abilities.
Therefore, the study of Islamic injunctions and laws through reasoning has been limited through the principle of “sufficient necessity” (wajib-i kifa’i) to those individuals who have the necessary capability and are worthy of such study. The duty of the rest of the people, according to the general principle of the necessity for the ignorant to depend on the one who knows, is to seek guidance from capable and worthy men of learning, who are called mujtahids and faqihs. This act of following mujtahids is called imitation or taqlid. Of course this imitation differs from imitation in the principles of religious knowledge which is forbidden according to the very text of the Qur’an, “(O man), follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge.” (Qur’an, XVII, 36).
It must be known that Shi’ism does not permit imitation of a dead mujtahid. That is to say, a person who does not know the answer to a problem through ijtihad and through religious duty must imitate a living mujtahid and cannot depend on the view of a mujtahid who is not living, unless he had received that guidance while the mujtahid was alive. This practice is one of the factors which have kept Islamic Shi’ite jurisprudence alive and fresh throughout the ages. There are individuals who continuously follow the path of independent judgment, ijtihad, and delve into the problems of jurisprudence from one generation to another.
In Sunnism, as a result of consensus of opinion (ijma’) that occurred in the 4th/10th century, it was decided that submission to one of the four schools (of Abu Hanifah, Ibn Malik, al-Shafi’i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal) was necessary. Free ijtihad or imitation of a school other than these four (or one or two smaller schools that died out later) was not considered permissible. As a result, their jurisprudence has remained in the same condition as it was about 1100 years ago. In recent times certain individuals in the Sunni world have turned away from this consensus and have begun to exercise free ijtihad.
Shi’ism and the Transmitted Sciences
The Islamic sciences, which owe their existence to the ulama of Islam who organized and formulated them, are divided into the two categories of intellectual (‘alqi) and transmitted (naqli). The intellectual sciences include such sciences as philosophy and mathematics. The transmitted sciences are those which depend upon transmission from some source, such as the sciences of language, hadith, or history. Without doubt the major cause for the appearance of the transmitted sciences in Islam is the Holy Qur’an. With the exception of a few disciplines such as history, genealogy, and prosody, the other transmitted sciences have all come into being under the influence of the Holy Book. Guided by religious discussions and research, Muslims began to cultivate these sciences, of which the most important are Arabic literature (grammar, rhetoric, and the science of metaphors) and the sciences pertaining to the external form of religion (recitation of the Qur’an, Qur’anic commentary (tafsir), hadith, biography of learned men, the chain of transmission of hadith, and the principles of jurisprudence).
Shi’ites played an essential role in the foundation and establishment of these sciences. In fact, the founders and creators of many of these sciences were Shi’ites. Arabic grammar was put into a systematic form by Abu’l-Aswad al-Du’ali, one of the companions of the Holy Prophet, and by Ali. Ali dictated an outline for the organization of the science of Arabic grammar. One of the founders of the science of eloquence (rhetoric and the science of metaphors) was Sahib ibn ‘Abbad, a Shi’ite, who was a vizier of the Buyids. The first Arabic dictionary is the Kitab al-‘ayn composed by the famous scholar, Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Basri, the Shi’ite who founded the science of prosody. He was also the teacher of the great master of grammar, Sibuwayh.
The Qur’anic recitation of ‘Asim goes back to Ali through one intermediary, and ‘Abdallah ibn ‘Abbas, who in hadith was the foremost among the companions, was a student of Ali. The contributions of the Household of the Prophet and their associates in hadith and jurisprudence are well known. The founders of the four Sunni schools of law are known to have
associated with the fifth and sixth Shi’ite Imams. In the principles of jurisprudence the remarkable advances accomplished by the Shi’ite scholar Wahid Binbahani and followed by Shaykh Murtada Ansari have never been matched in Sunni jurisprudence according to existing evidence.
The Brotherhood of Islam
A Muslim is related to different people in different ways: first, he is very closely related to his family members; second, he is related to his relatives; and finally, he is related to other Muslims in the bond of religious brotherhood known as the Muslim Ummah.
The first two circles of relationship are based on family ties. You and your brother or you and your cousin are from a common fore-father. But the third relationship is not based on family ties, it is based on religious ties. All Muslims are related to one another through Islam, and this relationship is known as the “Islamic Brotherhood”. Allāh says in the Qur’ān, “Indeed the believers are brothers.” (49:10)
The basis of Islamic brotherhood is not a common forefather, but the common God, Prophet, the Book, etc. All Muslims believe in Allāh, Prophet Muhammad, and the Qur’ān, and they all pray towards the same Ka`bah.
Relationships are also based on common race, language or country. People of the same race, same language or same country feel a special fraternity towards each other. But Islamic brotherhood transcends all these boundaries of race, language, country, colour and wealth. Allāh says in the Qur’ān: “O you mankind! We have created you from a male and a female; and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know each other [more easily]. Indeed, the most noble among you in view of Allāh is the most pious of you.” (49:13)
All Muslims are brethren of each other even if they are from different families, races, and countries, or have different skin colour and language. Muslims in China, Mexico, Iraq, Kenya, USA, India, England, Turkey, Malaysia, Ghana, Japan and Tunis are all brethren of one another on the basis of their common faith and beliefs. Their colour, country, and language are less important when it comes to their relationship based on Islam.
All the Muslims of the world form a single brotherhood or community which is known as “the Muslim Ummah”. Every Muslim is a member of the ummah. The Ka`bah is a visual center of gravity for the Muslim ummah—Muslims all over the world face the same Ka`bah five times a day and confirm their brotherhood.
2. The Prophet & Islamic Brotherhood
The issue of Islamic brotherhood and fraternity was so important in Islam that soon after migrating to Medina, the first important social decree of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was on the issue of brotherhood.
The Muslim community of Medina was divided into two groups: the Ansār and the Muhājirin. “Ansār” (Helpers) was a title used for the natives of Medina, whereas “Muhājirin” (Immigrants) was a title used for those Muslims, mostly Meccans, who had migrated to Medina.
Among the Ansār, there were two tribes known as the Aws and the Khazraj who were bitter enemies and had fought each other for more than a century. The Prophet had resolved this conflict even before he migrated to Medina. With the advent of Islam, the Aws and the Khazraj put their past animosity behind and accepted the bond of Islamic brotherhood. Referring to this blessing of Islam, Allah says: “And remember the favour of Allah upon you—you indeed were enemies (of each other) and then He created fraternity between your hearts and thus you became brethren by His blessing…” (3:103)
The Prophet found that there was cultural and economic disparity among the Ansār and the Muhājirin. So with the guidance of Allah, the Prophet announced one day that he was going to establish the bond of brotherhood between the Ansār and the Muhājirin. He gathered the two groups at the mosque and then started calling out the name of one Muhājir and one Ansār, and declared them to be brothers of each other. Referring to this bond of brotherhood, Allah says: “Those who believed, migrated and fought in the way of Allah [i.e., the Muhājirin], and those who gave shelter and helped [i.e., the Ansār]—they are the true believers, for them is forgiveness and a noble sustenance…” (8:75)
Some of the Ansār went beyond the call of duty in fulfilling the rights of brotherhood: they divided their entire wealth into two and gave one-half to their immigrant brother-in-faith. Some even specified a substantial portion in their estate to be inherited by their immigrant brother-in-faith. Then Allah revealed the following verse “The blood relatives have more right to each other in the Book of Allah”.
This shows that one of the first steps towards building an Islamic community is creating the atmosphere for Islamic brotherhood and fraternity.
An interesting segment of the event of brotherhood is that when the Prophet had joined each Muhajir with an Ansar, ‘Ali bin Abi Tālib (a Muhājir) was left out. So he came to the Prophet (who was also a Muhājir) and complained that he had been left out from the bond of brotherhood between the Muhājirin and the Ansār. The Prophet said, “O ‘Ali! You are my brother in this world as well as in the hereafter.”
3. The Moral Rights of Brotherhood
Islamic brotherhood as expressed in the Qur’ān (“Indeed the believers are brothers”) is not just a fancy idea. It had been implemented by the Prophet in Medina. There are certain rights which the believers have over each other. Allah has described some of those rights immediately after the verse quoted above.
In this lesson, you will learn six of those rights from the Qur’ān: “O you who believe!
- “No people should laugh at, or make fun of, another people.”
You might laugh at others because of what you see—their appearance, dress or way of living. But you do not know anything about their hearts and minds. Their faces and dresses might look funny to you, but inside they may be better than you. Therefore, do not make fun of other people “because those who are being laughed at may be better, in Allah’s view, than those who laugh.” (49:11)
- “Do not find fault with your own Muslim brothers.” (49:11)
A Muslim should pay more attention to his own deeds and try to amend his own mistakes. There is no need to probe and find the faults or mistakes of others.
- “Do not call one another by insulting nicknames.” (49:11)
Every Muslim has a good name; call others by their proper name or by a nickname which they use for themselves. But never call names because Allah does not like that one Muslim should insult his own brother-in-faith.
After mentioning these three rights of Muslim over each other, Allah ends the verse with the following statement: “And those who (commit such sins and) do not ask forgiveness, they are the unjust people.”
This verse of the Qur’ān makes it clear that even such trivial things —making fun of others or calling names— are so much disliked by Allah that He considers such sins as “injustice”. And He surely does not like the unjust people!
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8626 Spring 2021
Q.3 Explain the existing teacher education system in Pakistan. Discuss its problems and give suggtestions to overcome them.
The 18th Amendment Act, 2010, passed in the National Assembly on April 8, 2011, introduced a number of changes in the Constitution of Pakistan-1973. It amended 102 articles and devolved 47 subjects to the exclusive legislative and executive domain of the provinces. Education is one of the key subjects being devolved to the provincial mandate. The concurrent legislative list that included education as a shared legislative jurisdiction at the federal and provincial level has been omitted, which will have a negative impact on education in general and HE in particular.
The omission of articles from the concurrent list and new entries in federal legislative list will have significant implications on the HE sector in Pakistan and Higher Education Commission (HEC). For example, one can hardly separate item 38 being devolved to provinces from Entry 12 FLL part-II. This reflects the negligence of the parliamentary committee in consulting scholars, educationists, VCs, reviewing HEC’s role, arranging seminars and conferences before devolution of the education sector.
It is important to note that articles 12, 6 and 13 were inserted as the mandate of the Council of Common Interest rather than HEC. The mandate of HEC under its ordinance of 2002, clause 10 (A, G, O and V) has been devolved to the province as per article 38 and is a significant shift. It has to justify its legitimacy as a single federal body on HE. The emerging scenario would need to re-articulate the federal, provincial and HEC’s role.
ARTICLE CONTINUES AFTER AD
The federal government is left to deal with international treaties, education in federal territories and inter-government coordination. Entry 16 (federal agencies/institutions for research), entry 17 (Pakistani students in foreign countries and vice-versa), and entry 7 (national planning and national economic coordination of scientific and technological research) remained unchanged. The federal government has to abolish inter-provincial coordination e.g., inter-board committee’s and inter-provincial education ministerial which were a part of the federal ministry of education.
The 18th Amendment redefines the role of provinces. Since its passage in April 2011, no concrete steps are being taken by the provinces, in particular the province of Balochistan, to deal with the HE sector.
Challenges for provinces
The curriculum and standard of education must be competitive at national/international levels (uniformity with national and international standards). This would need experts especially at the higher education level. New wings/sections have to be established for new responsibilities and new policies have to be approved from the cabinet or assembly e.g., Balochistan does not have the compulsory Primary Education Legislation for implementing article 25-A (Free and compulsory education for children of ages 5-16 years).
The province would require specialised arrangements to respond to the challenges confronting the HE sector. It must therefore have in place a provincial HEC or council in line with the HEC Ordinance of 2002 with clear composition, power and functions to deal with the HE sector and its standards, and it must be an autonomous body.
Legislation for special study centres
A new legislation would be required for centres of excellence, area study centres and Pakistan Study centres devolved to the provinces and previously working under Acts of 1974, 75 and 1976.
Provision of HR and financial resources
Balochistan needs to hire new staff to perform function in the HE sector. New wings/sections have to be established, delegation of new responsibilities to provincial education department e.g., Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, textbook boards setting standards for the private sector on policy and curriculum. This may require legislation from the parliament.
The legislative and administrative capacity of the provinces and provision of funds could be a serious challenge. The provinces have to project financial resources required for HE. The HE sector in Balochistan is under severe financial and HR crisis. It is not even in a position to pay salaries to its employees. Under clause (4) Article 167, the provinces can make plans to engage federal and international partners to borrow/receive assistants/loans for projects.
Impacts on HE
- The 18th Amendment Act will have a significant impact on the HE sector nationally and provincially. At the national level, no legal and legislative protection is given to the HEC as a federal unit. As per Article 38 devolved,
HEC may not justify its position as a single body on HE.
- Devolution would encourage multiplicity of standards/regulations on admissions, and minimum quality requirement for appointment, promotion, quality assurance on academics, curriculum and scholarships and would impact on overall knowledge exchange.
- HE at the national level will face serious challenges on access, quality, relevance and equity that hold fundamental positions promoting national cohesion. HEC will also face international challenges from international donor agencies on adopting economic and social change essential to education innovation at the institutional level. As devolution limits the HEC’s role in the provincial HE sector, it would also limit its role in cross borders/collaboration in sharing knowledge.
- The socio-economic development plan is very much connected with the country’s HE and science and technology programmes. For instance the HR requirements such as doctors, engineers, scientists and economists have to be determined at the national level and so is the funding that comes from the federal government. Devolution will have a negative impact on the process of national socio-economic development provincially and federally.
The devolution of the education sector especially Article 38 will have a negative impact on the HE sector at the national and provincial level as it is challenging the mandate of HEC.
The HEC and the provinces will face national/international challenges. Article 129 (“the provincial government subject to the Constitution, the executive authority of the province shall be exercised in the name of governor by the provincial government consisting of chief minister or ministers” will deeply politicise the appointment of VCs, rectors and presidents.
Uniformity, standards/regulations compatible with the national/international standards may not be maintained in the HE sector in all provinces. The 18th amendment would be a failure as far as the HE sector is concerned.
Challenges such as access, quality, relevance and equity require further response from the HEC.
Entry 38 may have to be placed in the concurrent FFL Part II. This requires HEC to approach the Council of Common Interest/federal government for reconsideration by the National Assembly. The dissenting note from Mr Ahsan Iqbal (member of the committee, now federal minister) that Entry 38 should be in the FFL Part II is already on record.
The HEC ordinance 2002 must be enacted from the Parliament.
The provinces need legislation for devolved subjects. There should also be specialised arrangements responding to challenges confronting the HE sector e.g., administrative and resource capacity. Policy and planning wings in the provincial education secretariat also need to be established. Besides, the development of autonomous bodies such as the HEC or councils is needed at the provincial level. Heads also need to be put together to come up with financial resources for HE.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8626 Spring 2021
Q.4 Discuss the nature and scope of In-service Teacher Education. Highlight it Significance.
Induction training has many benefits for organizatio
ns and its employees. For the organization, an effective induction training system has the following advantages:
- Saves a lot of time and company money:Induction training provides all the information needed to help a new hire to start performing his duties. The better and more effective the training, the faster a new employee can start delivering results quickly.
- Reduces employee turnover:When a new employee starts in a company, he has a thousand questions about his new role and the company itself that need to be answered. The fastest he can get an answer for those questions, the more prepared and confident he will feel about his new position and what he can accomplish inside the organization.
- Ensures operational efficiency:An effective training helps employees understand the company culture, its values, its place in the world, and where they, as employees, fit in the puzzle. Also, keeping all new hires and employees on the same page ensures quality and consistency across all the company’s products and services.
For the employee:
- Makes the new employee feel respected and valued:good induction training is like a warm welcome: it helps employees feel valued, respected and a part of something bigger than themselves. It motivates them to give their best.
- Provides the necessary information:A comprehensive induction training helps the employee get the necessary information to do his job and clarifies the companies’ expectations of him. Learning the company culture, rules and policies makes it easier to adapt to the work environment.
- Helps establishing good communication:By learning how the company operates, its structure and the people he has to answer to, the new employee knows exactly where and who to look for when he needs information, or has questions.
The disadvantages don’t really come with the fact of conducting induction training itself, since training employees is always something positive, except when the training is poorly designed and does not meet the needs of the employees and may get them started off on the wrong note.
The worst consequence of that, which would be similar of not providing any training at all, is high (and costly) employee turnover. And even if the employee stays in the company, he will be ill equipped to perform his job well, could be embarrassed to ask questions and might lose trust in the company.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8626 Autumn 2021
Q.5 Elaborate the structure of Teacher Education in Pakistan. Critically analyze the quality of teacher education across the country.
Areas of continuous development for teachers:
- Updated knowledge
- Use of Instructional tools, strategies
- Monitoring, and assessing of student learning outcomes.
- Cultivating ethical dispositions in students
- Standard based approaches to development of teachers
- Scholarly preparation of all subjects
- In depth knowledge of the subjects
- Knowledge of general and content-specific methods
- Knowledge of learning theories.
- Working according to professional code of conduct
- Foster creative teachers.
2: Standard Based Teacher Education and Quality Assurance
Standards states that teacher must know
- What is good teaching and successful learning
- Teacher’s in-classroom experiences
- Levels of acceptable performance for teachers
- Environment Scan
There are 227, 791 institutions in Pakistan comprises of 73.5% Rural, 26.5% Urban teaching variety of curricular schemes including public and private pre-primary, primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary, universities, technical, mosques, Deeni Madaris O and A Levels.
Number of teaching staff:
Total teachers 1,356, 802 50.7% Rural and 49.3% Urban.
Male: 41.2% and Female 58.8%
- Professional Standards for Initial Preparation of Teachers in Pakistan
|1: subject matter knowledge||Teachers understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry, structures of the discipline, especially as they relate to the National Curriculum/content standards, and designing developmentally appropriate learning experiences making the subject matter accessible and meaningful to all students.|
|2. Human growth and development||Teachers understand how children and adolescents develop and learn in variety of schools, family and community contexts and provide opportunities that support their intellectual, social, emotional and physical development|
|3. Knowledge of Islamic ethical values/social life skills||Teachers understand the Islamic ethical and practices in the light of Quran/Sunna and other religious contexts, and the implications of these values for bringing nations global peace, unity and social adjustment.|
|4. Instructional planning and strategies.||Teachers understand instructional planning, design long-term plans based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, community, curriculum goals, employ a variety of developmentally appropriate strategies in order to promote critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills of all learners.|
|5. Assessment||Teachers assess students’ learning using multiple assessment strategies and interpret results to evaluate and promote students’’ achievement and to modify instructions in order to foster the continuous development of students.|
|6. Learning environment||Teachers create a supportive, safe and respectful learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning and self-motivators.|
|7. Effective communication and proficient use of information communication technologies.||Teachers use knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal and written communication techniques and tools of information processing to foster the use of inquiry, collaboration and supportive interactions with students and parents. Teachers are able to use instructional and information communication technologies for curriculum enrichment, instruction, assessment and evaluation of learning outcomes.|
|8. Collaboration and partnerships||Teachers build relationship with parents, guardians, families and professional organization in the community to support learning.|
|9. Continuous professional development and code of conduct.||Teachers participate as active, responsible members of the professional community, engage in reflective practices pursuing opportunities to grow professionally and establish collegial relationships to enhance the teaching and learning process. They subscribe to a professional code of conduct.|
|10. Teaching of English as second/foreign language.||Teachers understand pedagogy of English as second/foreign language and effectively communicate in English language.|