Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8654 Spring 2021
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Course: Teaching and Learning Strategies (8654)
Semester: Spring, 2021
- What is meant by maxims of teaching and also discuss the role of maxims in effective teaching and learning process?
Teaching is a complex, multifaceted activity, often requiring us as instructors to juggle multiple tasks and goals simultaneously and flexibly. The following small but powerful set of principles can make teaching both more effective and more efficient, by helping us create the conditions that support student learning and minimize the need for revising materials, content, and policies. While implementing these principles requires a commitment in time and effort, it often saves time and energy later on.
- Effective Teacher involves acquiring relevant knowledge about students and using that knowledge to inform our course design and classroom teaching.
- When we teach, we do not just teach the content, we teach students the content. A variety of student characteristics can affect learning. For example, students’ cultural and generational backgrounds influence how they see the world; disciplinary backgrounds lead students to approach problems in different ways; and students’ prior knowledge (both accurate and inaccurate aspects) shapes new learning. Although we cannot adequately measure all of these characteristics, gathering the most relevant information as early as possible in course planning and continuing to do so during the semester can (a) inform course design (e.g., decisions about objectives, pacing, examples, format), (b) help explain student difficulties (e.g., identification of common misconceptions), and (c) guide instructional adaptations (e.g., recognition of the need for additional practice).
- Effective Teacher involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning objectives, assessments, and instructional activities.
- Taking the time to do this upfront saves time in the end and leads to a better course. Teaching is more effective and student learning is enhanced when (a) we, as instructors, articulate a clear set of learning objectives (i.e., the knowledge and skills that we expect students to demonstrate by the end of a course); (b) the instructional activities (e.g., case studies, labs, discussions, readings) support these learning objectives by providing goal-oriented practice; and (c) the assessments (e.g., tests, papers, problem sets, performances) provide opportunities for students to demonstrate and practice the knowledge and skills articulated in the objectives, and for instructors to offer targeted feedback that can guide further learning.
- Effective Teacher involves articulating explicit expectations regarding learning objectives and policies.
- There is amazing variation in what is expected of students across American classrooms and even within a given discipline. For example, what constitutes evidence may differ greatly across courses; what is permissible collaboration in one course could be considered cheating in another. As a result, students’ expectations may not match ours. Thus, being clear about our expectations and communicating them explicitly helps students learn more and perform better. Articulating our learning objectives (i.e., the knowledge and skills that we expect students to demonstrate by the end of a course) gives students a clear target to aim for and enables them to monitor their progress along the way. Similarly, being explicit about course policies (e.g., on class participation, laptop use, and late assignment) in the syllabus and in class allows us to resolve differences early and tends to reduce conflicts and tensions that may arise. Altogether, being explicit leads to a more productive learning environment for all students. More information on how clear learning objectives supports students’ learning.(pdf)
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- Effective Teacher involves prioritizing the knowledge and skills we choose to focus on.
- Coverage is the enemy: Don’t try to do too much in a single course. Too many topics work against student learning, so it is necessary for us to make decisions – sometimes difficult ones – about what we will and will not include in a course. This involves (a) recognizing the parameters of the course (e.g., class size, students’ backgrounds and experiences, course position in the curriculum sequence, number of course units), (b) setting our priorities for student learning, and (c) determining a set of objectives that can be reasonably accomplished.
- Effective Teacher involves recognizing and overcoming our expert blind spots.
- We are not our students! As experts, we tend to access and apply knowledge automatically and unconsciously (e.g., make connections, draw on relevant bodies of knowledge, and choose appropriate strategies) and so we often skip or combine critical steps when we teach. Students, on the other hand, don’t yet have sufficient background and experience to make these leaps and can become confused, draw incorrect conclusions, or fail to develop important skills. They need instructors to break tasks into component steps, explain connections explicitly, and model processes in detail. Though it is difficult for experts to do this, we need to identify and explicitly communicate to students the knowledge and skills we take for granted, so that students can see expert thinking in action and practice applying it themselves.
- Effective Teacher involves adopting appropriate teaching roles to support our learning goals.
- Even though students are ultimately responsible for their own learning, the roles we assume as instructors are critical in guiding students’ thinking and behavior. We can take on a variety of roles in our teaching (e.g., synthesizer, moderator, challenger, and commentator). These roles should be chosen in service of the learning objectives and in support of the instructional activities. For example, if the objective is for students to be able to analyze arguments from a case or written text, the most productive instructor role might be to frame, guide and moderate a discussion. If the objective is to help students learn to defend their positions or creative choices as they present their work, our role might be to challenge them to explain their decisions and consider alternative perspectives. Such roles may be constant or variable across the semester depending on the learning objectives.
- Effective Teacher involves progressively refining our courses based on reflection and feedback.
- Teaching requires adapting. We need to continually reflect on our teaching and be ready to make changes when appropriate (e.g., something is not working, we want to try something new, the student population has changed, or there are emerging issues in our fields). Knowing what and how to change requires us to examine relevant information on our own teaching effectiveness. Much of this information already exists (e.g., student work, previous semesters’ course evaluations, dynamics of class participation), or we may need to seek additional feedback with help from the university teaching center (e.g., interpreting early course evaluations, conducting focus groups, designing pre- and posttests). Based on such data, we might modify the learning objectives, content, structure, or format of a course, or otherwise adjust our teaching. Small, purposeful changes driven by feedback and our priorities are most likely to be manageable and effective.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8654 Spring 2021
Q.2 Highlight the significance of learning objectives. How learning objectives are developed and stated?
|Definition||Examples – These are intended to be a bit extreme, but perhaps you will get the points.|
|Aims||Aims are general statements that provide direction or intent to educational action. Aims are usually written in amorphous terms using words like: learn, know, understand, appreciate, and these are not directly measurable. Aims may serve as organizing principles of educational direction for more than one grade. Indeed these organizing principles may encompass the continuum of educational direction for entire programs, subject areas or the district.||Students will understand and become proficient at identifying the different types of spoken English.|
|Goals||Goals are statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims. Goals too may encompass an entire program, subject area, or multiple grade levels. They may be in either amorphous language or in more specific behavioral terms.||Students will be able to identify and use American slang terms and phrases.(This example is a subset of the aim above, but the area becomes more specific. This goal moves from generic spoken English to the more detailed area of American slang. One verb used is still “identify,” although this goal does not specify how students are to identify, and the verb “use” has been added. The objectives related to this goal should specify how the students will identify and use new knowledge.)|
|Objectives||Objectives are usually specific statements of educational intention which delineate either general or specific outcomes.There are advantages and disadvantages to different types of objectives.
· Behavioral objectives
· Holistic objectives
· Nonbehavioral objectives
· Problem solving objectives
· Expressive activities that lead to expressive outcomes.
All of the above are legitimate ways to write curriculum and lesson plans. However, currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive (head), affective (heart), and physical (hand)
*Note: The examples to the right are meant to be a bit silly intentionally as to help my students remember them. Of course I would not do this in a classroom, although I am sure students would think it rather fun!
|Objectives can be written in a number of ways. Currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive (head), affective (heart), and physical (hand).
· Cognitive: Students will identify and list 5 slang terms they have heard from their peers.
· Affective: Student will choose 3 of the most offensive slang terms from a list developed by the entire class.
· Physical: Students will create expressive gestures to go with their favorite slang terms.
Q.2 Comparatively discuss Bloom’s Taxonomy and Solo Taxonomy with the help of relevant examples.
The taxonomy was published in 1956, has sold over a million copies, has been translated into several languages, and has been cited thousands of times.
The Bloom taxonomy has been extensively used in teacher education to suggest learning and teaching strategies, has formed the basis of many tests developed by teachers (at least while they were in teacher training), and has been used to evaluate many tests.
It is thus remarkable that the taxonomy has been subject to so little research or evaluation.
Most of the evaluations are philosophical treatises noting, among other criticisms, that there is no evidence for the invariance of these stages, or claiming that the taxonomy is not based on any known theory of learning or teaching.
- The Bloom taxonomy presupposes that there is a necessary relationship between the questions asked and the responses to be elicited, whereas in the SOLO taxonomy both the questions and the answers can be at differing levels.
- Whereas Bloom separates ‘knowledge’ from the intellectual abilities or process that operate on this ‘knowledge’ , the SOLO taxonomy is primarily based on the processes of understanding used by the students when answering the prompts. Knowledge, therefore, permeates across all levels of the SOLO taxonomy.
- Bloom has argued that his taxonomy is related not only to complexity but also to an order of difficulty such that problems requiring behaviour at one level should be answered more correctly before tackling problems requiring behaviour at a higher level. Although there may be measurement advantages to this increasing difficulty, this is not a necessary requirement of the SOLO method. It is possible for an item at the relational level, for example, to be constructed so that it is less difficult than an item at the unistructural level. For example, an item aiming to elicit relational responses might be ‘How does the movement of the Earth relative to the sun define day and night’. This may be easier (depending on instruction, etc.) than a unistructural item that asks ‘What does celestial rotation mean?’
- Bloom’s taxonomy is not accompanied by criteria for judging the outcome of the activity (Ennis, 1985), whereas SOLO is explicitly useful for judging the outcomes. Take for example, a series of art questions suggested by Hamben (1984).
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8654 Spring 2021
Advantages of the SOLO model for evaluation of student learning
- There are several advantages of the SOLO model over the Bloom taxonomy in the evaluation of student learning.
- These advantages concern not only item construction and scoring, but incorporate features of the process of evaluation that pay attention to how students learn, and how teachers devise instructional procedures to help students use progressively more complex cognitive processes.
- Unlike the Bloom taxonomy, which tends to be used more by teachers than by students, the SOLO can be taught to students such that they can learn to write progressively more difficult answers or prompts.
- There is a closer parallel to how teachers teach and how students learn.
- Both teachers and students often progress from more surface to deeper constructs and this is mirrored in the four levels of the SOLO taxonomy.
- There is no necessary progression in the manner of teaching or learning in the Bloom taxonomy.
- The levels can be interpreted relative to the proficiency of the students. Six year old students can be taught to derive general principles and suggest hypotheses, though obviously to a different level of abstraction and detail than their older peers. Using the SOLO method, it is relatively easy to construct items to assess such abstractions.
- The SOLO taxonomy not only suggests an item writing methodology, but the same taxonomy can be used to score the items. The marker assesses each response to establish either the number of ideas (one = unistructural; _ two = multistructural), or the degree of interrelatedness (directly related or abstracted to more general principles). This can lead to more dependability of scoring.
- Unlike the experience of some with the Bloom taxonomy it is relatively easy to identify and categorise the SOLO levels.
- Similarly, teachers could be encouraged to use the ‘plus one’ principle when choosing appropriate learning material for students. That is, the teacher can aim to move the student one level higher in the taxonomy by appropriate choice of learning material and instructional sequencing.
Q.3 Explain with examples holistic lesson planning. Prepare a sample holistic lesson plan for the subject of history at secondary level.
You have set yourself up for success by learning everything there is to know about school and district policies and where to find correct answers to questions; setting up an organized classroom with every book, paper, and handout ready to go; working out basic rules to create a classroom that is a welcoming and safe place for intellectual development; determining consequences to support the rules; and planning for procedures, schedules, and seating charts that make sense. Now it is time to get to the actual purpose of the job—teaching students.
With the standards and pacing guide in hand, you are ready to write lesson plans that will inspire students and generate success. The eight-phase lesson plan template described in this chapter delineates the key components of great lessons, making the best use of every teaching moment. When lessons flow sequentially, always reviewing prior knowledge and then constructing deeper understanding based on new concepts and skills, learning is relevant, organized, and comprehensible. Yesterday’s learning is complemented by today’s lesson, which leads to achievement tomorrow and beyond.
Two French instructors stand out in my mind for deeply expanding my knowledge of the language. Mme. Holistic was ornery and frightening, and she taught grammar with the power of a hurricane, making clear her extremely high expectations. Each night we had a pile of homework to complete. The next day she would call on one or two of us to go to the board to translate a complicated sentence she had written there. Any mistakes meant a demeaning tirade that each of us dreaded.
Whenever she chose me, I committed errors and then endured her ridicule, which caused me to feel helpless and hopeless as a student of language. No matter how I studied or performed at the board, my work was never of the quality that Mme. Holistic demanded. I did learn—though through tyranny and fear—and I memorized and eventually mastered her required skills. Fortunately, I loved French so much that she could not defeat me.
The second professor who stands out in my mind is Dr. Bertollo. A tiny man physically, his immense adoration of the language brought magic to everything we did in class, whether it was reading, writing, speaking, discussion, or just taking in his mesmerizing lectures. Each moment in his presence increased my confidence and my love of French.
When Dr. Bertollo described and explained great literary authors and their works, he closed his eyes and transported his learners into an enchanted world of learning. Each class was inspirational and motivational and multiplied my knowledge and understanding. He treated each of us as if we were uniquely bright and gifted. He wanted us to love French language and literature as he did. And we did.
These two instructors were each teaching the same subject area to college students, but they possessed very different attitudes about igniting student learning. They were both passionate and knowledgeable, but very dissimilar in their lessons and delivery. I learned, but which teacher and type of lessons best illuminated my learning?
Lesson Plans: Success by Design
It is strange, but some teachers do not complete detailed lesson plans every day and then wonder why students do not learn. Although years of experience can shore up less-than-complete planning, nothing compares to well-planned lessons. Comprehensive plans increase the likelihood that lessons run smoothly, so that students receive quality instruction.
By planning ahead, you are always set for the day. If you become ill, you do not have to drag your sick body from a cozy, warm bed to write plans and then drive in a semiconscious state to the classroom to organize each aspect of the upcoming day, including additional activities and backup materials for a substitute. How nice to remain inert and under the covers knowing that thorough lesson plans are complete and on the desk, with all supplementary material prepared!
Few factors are as vital to teaching success as having well-designed lessons. Imagine a doctor who does not plan adequately for surgery, a contractor who builds a house as he pounds along using scrap lumber and duct tape wherever he finds them, or a teacher teaching a lesson with no foundation or clear direction. Students attain desired learning outcomes through excellent lessons. Creating the plans should not take longer than presenting the actual lesson—but it may feel that way at first.
Textbooks and supplementary materials for the subject or grade level provide many lesson plan outlines, strategies, and activities. Being fully familiar with the materials and with grade-level and subject requirements leads to solid instruction. Excellent materials sit on shelves or are available online while teachers spend hours trying to design lessons instead of taking advantage of what already exists. Refer to and implement ideas and lessons from these materials, and then modify or fill in when no available tool can adequately meet instructional needs.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8654 Spring 2021
Lesson Plan Phases
After studying, observing, and reflecting upon lessons and lesson plans for many years, I have manipulated and adapted ideas to create a sequential design that reaches each diverse learner. Although on-the-spot modifications are almost always necessary while teaching, I use an eight-step model that engages students by building on their knowledge. The design provides many opportunities for teachers to recognize and correct students’ misconceptions while extending understanding for future lessons.
Phase 1: Introduction
- Set a purpose.Describe the overarching reason for this lesson.
- Introduce the key concepts, topic, main idea.Get students on the right track. This step may be a note on the board, a diagram, or a probing question of the day’s lesson focus.
- Pull students into the excitement of learning.Seize students’ attention with items like an amazing fact, a funny quirk, a challenge, or other mind tickler.
- Make the learning relevant.Explain how this lesson extends past learning and leads to future learning—that is, the significance of the concepts, skills, and focus of the lesson.
Phase 2: Foundation
- Check on previous knowledge.Verify what students already know.
- Clarify key points.Double-check on learning from the past.
- Focus on specific standards, objectives, goals.Link the lesson to the standards, and let students know exactly what they will know and be able to do as a result of this lesson.
- Check for correctness and add to background knowledge.Add extra information for the day’s learning and beyond—just enough to launch into the main lesson.
- Introduce key vocabulary.See it; say it; read it; write it.
Phase 3: Brain Activation
- Ask questions to clarify ideas and to add knowledge.Engage students in the learning and build background with probing questions.
- Brainstorm main ideas.Fill students’ heads with ideas, concepts, possibilities; allow them to expand and clarify their thinking.
- Clarify and correct misconceptions.Engage students in activities that will inform you as to whether students are confused or have incorrect ideas so corrections can be made before the misconceptions become worse or detrimental to learning.
Phase 4: Body of New Information
- Provide teacher input.Lecture, add key points and new information, read the text or articles, and solve problems. Present the body of the lesson. This may be a whole-class lecture, a small-group activity with teacher supervision, or a partner activity with teacher supervision. The learning is active (not silent reading without specific goals or mindless completion of a worksheet).
Phase 5: Clarification
- Check for understanding with sample problems, situations, questions.Have students practice with the information just taught. Guide the learning.
Phase 6: Practice and Review
- Provide time for practice and review.Allow students time to practice under your supervision. You and the students work together.
Phase 7: Independent Practice
- Supervise students’ independent practice.Select additional strategies for small groups of students who still do not “get it.” Other students may begin to work independently, with the final goal being that all students can work on their own. This practice prepares students for successful homework, and it prepares them for future learning.
Phase 8: Closure
- Bring the lesson to closure.Link the lesson phases and information together. Summarize the learning of the day, and discuss how it fits into the big vision for learning. Have students demonstrate what they know and can do by writing a brief note to hand in as they leave; the note may include questions, problems, or ideas on the learning. Alternatively, they may write in their journals or explain their understanding to a partner.
Lesson Plan Template
Figure 7.1 shows a sample lesson plan for an 8th grade history lesson on the Civil War. The key parts of the template underlying the lesson plan are the following:
- Time allotment—How much time to spend with each lesson phase, such as the introduction and the body of new information.
- Lesson phase—An explanation of the elements of each phase.
- Details—Space for writing a supply list, page numbers, predetermined discussion questions, and other key lesson points.
The plan assumes a time slot of 50 to 70 minutes. Because a period or day has a finite number of minutes, it is critical to plan lesson phases carefully. (See Appendix A for a template you can use to plan a 50- to 70-minute lesson.)
Sample Lesson Plan
|10th Grade History Lesson on Civil War|
|Time Allotment (Minutes)||Lesson Phase||Details|
Set a purpose. Introduce the topic with a grabber and information to get students thinking. Make the learning relevant.
|Write the phrase “All men are created equal” from the Gettysburg Address. Have students explain what this phrase possibly meant in the 1860s.|
Check on previous learning. Clarify key points of the coming lesson, including standards, goals, and objectives, building background knowledge and key vocabulary.
|Quick discussion of the grabber.
Discuss slaves, women, uneducated white men, educated white men.
Goal: To explain the significance of the Gettysburg Address in American history and to link the learning to voting rights today.
Key terms: equal, conceived in liberty, dedicated, proposition
Ask questions; clarify; provide additional background knowledge. Perhaps include a brainstorm activity on the topic to check learning.
|What do the words mean?
Why did Lincoln phrase his speech this way?
What would happen today if Lincoln gave this same speech?
What do we know about the United States in the 1860s based on this speech?
How does the phrase “All men are created equal” tie to the rest of the speech? To history at the time? To a deep understanding of American history?
How does the opening paragraph lead to the ideas of paragraph two? Paragraph three?
|10–15||Body of New Information
Build background knowledge, lecture, and introduce key new points of understanding, correcting misconceptions. Read text; complete whole-class problems; conduct class discussion.
|Discuss the Battle of Gettysburg; refer to information on pages 273–281 in the textbook. Discuss pictures of battle on pages 282–285. Write key notes/ideas on overhead. Have students add information to history notes.|
Provide sample problems and situations. Pose questions to move students toward independent work.
|Students write their reflections on the information presented in the text in their notebooks/journals.|
|5–10||Practice and Review
Students work with teacher and whole class, in small groups, or with a partner to clarify learning.
|Discuss in small groups the significance of the speech, the battle, the fact that President Lincoln came to the battlefield to make the speech, the turning point of the Civil War.|
Students practice on their own. Begin homework. Struggling students get additional practice.
|Students select two or three other key phrases from the Gettysburg Address and write a brief summary of each.|
Connect the lesson details together. Answer questions and respond to wholeclass difficulties.
|Students share phrases with a partner. They write their favorite phrase with a brief explanation as to why on an “exit pass.”
Teacher collects exit passes as students leave to assess learning and understanding and to use as a guide to tomorrow’s instruction.
As the lesson is taught, the teacher pays close attention to how well students understand key concepts so she can later write notes in her lesson plan book to inform future lessons. Every detail, from the minutes necessary for each phase to notes concerning the best questions for student response, provides insight for the next lesson.
Pacing the lesson means balancing content d
elivery, practice time, and checks for student understanding. If the opening of the lesson lasts 15 minutes, less time is available for the main focus and practice that are necessary to improve skills. A brief introduction that draws students into the learning transitions them into the heart of the lesson with adequate time left for questions and practice. The same is true if the main portion of the lesson lasts for 45 minutes of a 50-minute period. Students will not have time to review and apply their learning or practice independently before they leave the classroom with homework that they may not understand. Because teachers expect homework to be done completely and correctly, they must be certain that students have the skills to accomplish the task.
A timer can help you practice pacing lessons. A kitchen timer with a short beep when time is up does not disturb the class and reminds you of the time elapsed. A timer on the overhead or projector screen is also useful for keeping students on task because they can see the seconds ticking away as they work. When students know they have a set number of minutes (always slightly less than it seems it will take them to complete the task), they stay on task and finish within the time slot. Good timing means all lesson phases can be completed.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8654 Spring 2021
Q.4 Discuss the essential components for organizing the environment of a classroom, give example of each component from your own context.
. Model ideal behavior
Make a habit of demonstrating behavior you want to see, as many studies show that modeling effectively teaches students how to act in different situations.
A straightforward way to model certain behaviors is holding a mock conversation with an admin, other teacher or student helper in front of the class. Talking about a test or other relatable topic, be sure to:
- Use polite language
- Maintain eye contact
- Keep phones in your pockets
- Let one another speak uninterrupted
- Raise concerns about one another’s statements in a respectful manner
After, start a class discussion to list and expand upon the ideal behaviors you exemplified.
2. Let students help establish guidelines
Near the start of the year or semester, start a discussion by asking students what they believe should and shouldn’t fly. At what points are phones okay and not okay? What are acceptable noise levels during lessons? This may seem like you’re setting yourself up for failure, but — depending on the makeup of you class — you may be shocked at the strictness of some proposed rules. Regardless, having a discussion should lead to mutually-understood and -respected expectations.
3. Document rules
Don’t let your mutually-respected guidelines go forgotten.
Similar to handing out a syllabus, print and distribute the list of rules that the class discussion generated. Then, go through the list with your students. Doing this emphasizes the fact that you respect their ideas and intend to adhere to them. And when a student breaks a rule, it’ll be easy for you to point to this document.
If you’re feeling creative, you can include the rule list in a student handbook with important dates, events and curriculum information.
4. Avoid punishing the class
Address isolated behavior issues instead of punishing an entire class, as the latter can hurt your relationships with students who are on-task and thereby jeopardize other classroom management efforts.
Instead, call out specific students in a friendly manner. For example:
- “Do you have a question?”, not “Stop talking and disrupting other students”
- “Do you need help focusing?”, not “Pay attention and stop fooling around while I’m talking”
This basic approach will allow you to keep a friendly disposition, while immediately acknowledging poor behavior.
5. Encourage initiative
Almost inevitably, you’ll have some eager learners in your classroom. You can simply ask them if they’d like to get ahead from time-to-time. For example, if you’re reading a specific chapter in a textbook, propose that they read the following one too. When they deliver their subsequent presentations to preview the next chapter on your behalf, you may find that other students want a bit more work as well.
6. Offer praise
Praise students for jobs well done, as doing so improves academic and behavioral performance, according to a recent research review and study.
When it is sincere and references specific examples of effort or accomplishment, praise can:
- Inspire the class
- Improve a student’s self-esteem
- Reinforce rules and values you want to see
Perhaps more importantly, it encourages students to repeat positive behavior. Let’s say a student exemplifies advanced problem-solving skills when tackling a math word problem. Praising his or her use of specific tactics should go a long way in ensuring he or she continues to use these tactics. Not to mention, you’ll motivate other students to do the same.
7. Use non-verbal communication
Many differentiated instruction strategies and techniques are rooted in these communication methods. For example, running learning stations — divided sections of your classroom through which students rotate — allows you to deliver a range of non-spoken content types. These include videos, infographics and physical objects such as counting coins.
8. Hold parties
Throw an occasional classroom party to acknowledge students’ hard work, motivating them to keep it up.
Even if it’s just for 20 or 30 minutes, they should be happy with snacks and a selection of group games to play. Clarify that you’re holding the party to reward them and they can earn future parties by demonstrating ideal behavior, collectively scoring high on assessments and more.
9. Give tangible rewards
Let’s say a few students are actively listening throughout the entire lesson, answering questions and asking their own. Before the class ends, walk over to their desks to give them raffle tickets. So others can learn, state aloud what each student did to earn the tickets. On Friday, they can submit their tickets for a shot at a prize that changes each week — from candy to being able to choose a game for the next class party.
10.Make positive letters and phone calls
Keep students happy in and out of class by pleasantly surprising their parents, making positive phone calls and sending complimentary letters home.
When the occasion arises, from academic effort or behavioral progress, letting parents know has a trickle-down effect. They’ll generally congratulate their kids; their kids will likely come to class eager to earn more positive feedback. This can also entice parents to grow more invested in a child’s learning, opening the door to at-home lessons. Such lessons are a mainstay element of culturally-responsive teaching.
11. Build excitement for content
As the bell rings and students settle, go through an agenda of the day’s highlights. These could include group tasks, engaging bits of content and anything else to pique curiosity. For example, “Throughout the day, you’ll learn about:”
- How to talk like you’re a teacher (sentence structure)
- Why you don’t know anyone who’s won the lottery (probability)
- What all the presidents of the United States have had in common (social analysis)
The goal of this classroom management technique is to immediately interest students in your agenda and thereby dissuade misbehavior.
12. Offer different types of free study time
Provide a range of activities during free study time to appeal to students who struggle to process content in silence, individually.
You can do this by dividing your class into clearly-sectioned solo and team activities. In separate sections, consider:
- Providing audio books, which can play material relevant to your lessons
- Maintaining a designated quiet space for students to take notes and complete work
- Creating a station for challenging group games that teach or reinforce curriculum-aligned skills
- Allowing students to work in groups while taking notes and completing work, away from quiet zones
By running these sorts of activities, free study time will begin to benefit diverse learners. This should contribute to overall classroom engagement.
13. Write group contracts
Group contracts should be based on expectations that students have for each other, and you have for them. You can gather the class’s thoughts by holding a discussion about what the ideal group member does, and how he or she acts. Once you’ve written the contract, encourage students to come up with consequences for violating expectations.
By having them sign a fresh version of the contract before each group task and project, you’re empowering them to hold each other accountable.
14. Assign open-ended projects
Encourage students to tackle open-ended projects — projects that don’t demand a specific product — to allow them to demonstrate knowledge in ways that inherently suit them.
This starts by giving the class a list of broad project ideas, asking each student to choose one. Be sure to provide a rubric for each project that clearly defines expectations. By both enticing and challenging students, you should notice they’ll:
- Work and learn at their own paces
- Engage actively with appropriate content
- Demonstrate knowledge as effectively as possible
With these benefits, students may actually look forward to taking on new projects.
15. Give only two marks for informal assessments
Instead, just state if a student did or did not meet expectations. Then, provide struggling students with a clear path to improve. For example, pair classmates who didn’t meet expectations with those who did, giving them a review and practice activity. When strugglers are confident they understand key concepts, encourage them to tell you. Provide a new assessment, allowing them to prove their competency.
16. Use EdTech that adjusts to each student
Give students who struggle to process your content opportunities to try educational technology that adapts to their needs.
There are many games and platforms that use adaptive learning principles to detect a given student’s skill deficits, serving him or her content to help overcome them. For example, Prodigy is a math video game that adjusts its content to help students address their trouble spots. It also offers feedback to help them solve specific mistakes, as they answer questions that use words, charts, pictures and numbers. More than 800,000 teachers currently use Prodigy, as it’s aligned with curricula across the English-speaking world.
Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8654 Autumn 2021
Q.5 Differentiate between learning objectives and learning outcomes. Explain the process of developing learning objectives.
As learning progresses it becomes more complex. SOLO, which stands for the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome, is a means of classifying learning outcomes in terms of their complexity, enabling us to assess students’ work in terms of its quality not of how many bits of this and of that they have got right. At first we pick up only one or few aspects of the task (unistructural), then several aspects but they are unrelated (multistructural), then we learn how to integrate them into a whole (relational), and finally, we are able to generalised that whole to as yet untaught applications (extended abstract). The diagram lists verbs typical of each such level.
SOLO can be used not only in assessment, but in designing the curriculum in terms of the level of learning outcomes intended, which is helpful in implementing constructive alignment. SOLO can also explain why those who use low complexity arguments in political or marital disputes usually win – in the short term. But in politics that’s all you need, as is illustrated in the 2019 Australian election: Party A, a well worked out social democrat package of benefit to most Australians; Party B, “cut taxes”, strongly to the advantage of the rich, and call the leader of Party A a liar “he lies all the time”. And yes, Party B won.
SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) provides a structured framework for students to use to progress their thinking and learning. It encourages students to think about where they are currently with there learning, and what they need to do in order to progress. There are five main stages:
This is the first stage – where students don’t really have any knowledge or understanding of the topic being studied. A student who is pre-structural will usually respond with ‘I don’t understand’.
Moving on from pre-structural, students who are unistructural have a limited knowledge of the topic – they may just know one isolated fact about the topic. So, a typical response might be:
‘I have some understanding of this topic’
Progressing from unistructural to multistructural simply means that the student knows a few facts about this topic – but is unable to link them together. So a typical response might be ‘I know a few things about this topic’ or ‘I have gathered some information about this topic’.
With relational, we are starting to move towards higher level thinking – students are able to link together and explain several ideas around a related topic.
So a typical student ‘relational response might be:
‘ I can see the connections between the information I have gathered’.
The final and most complex level is extended abstract. With this, not only are students able to link lots of related ideas together, but they can also link these to other bigger ideas and concepts. So a student response at this level might sound like:
‘By reflecting and evaluating on my learning, I am able to look at the bigger picture and link lots of different ideas together’.
In science, students might be asked the question ‘What do you understand by the term respiration’. Students may then respond in the following ways:
- Prestructural– “Err…..What?”
- Unistructural– “It releases energy“
- Multistructural– “It’s a chemical reaction that releases energy, uses oxygen and glucose and release carbon dioxide.”
- Relational– “It’s a reaction that takes place in all body cells. Products of digestion, such as glucose, are transported to cells by the blood and reacted with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide – which is breathed out. Energy is released.”
- Extended abstract– “It’s a reaction that takes place in all body cells. Products of digestion, such as glucose, are transported to cells by the blood and reacted with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide – which is breathed out via the lungs (using gas exchange and ventilation). As energy is released, respiration is an example of an exothermic reaction. The energy that is released can then be used by the body for growth of new cells, repair of tissues and keeping warm.”
Why is it so useful?
- It supports students to reflect on their own thinking
- It helps teachers to thoughtfully shape learning intentions and learning experiences.
- It makes it easy to identify and use effectives success criteria.
- It provides feedback and feedforward with regards to learning outcomes.
- It helps students to reflect meaningfully on what the next steps in their learning are.
- The diagrams provide a simple and easy to remember staged approach for students, in terms of these next steps.
Using SOLO in the classroom
The following describes one way in which a SOLO activity can be set up in a lesson:
In the next example, a student designed ‘SOLO Board’ was used to pin up examples of student work at each level – a great way of modelling exemplar work:
SOLO has also been used to create ‘Learning Journeys’ for students. This outlines the possible learning outcomes for each lesson, based on the SOLO levels. This has been given out at the start of the unit, so students can self assess themselves as they progress through the lessons. It has also been used as revision tool at the end of the unit:
Using hexagons is a great way to implement SOLO effectively in the classroom. Students are given a set of laminated hexagons and asked to write key words from the topic on them (alternatively, hexagons could be prepared in advance with the words on them). They then have to link together related words. Once they have done this, they can then start to construct sentences that link the key words together – progressing on to a full paragraph. An example follows:
This is also a great way to develop discussion and group work.