Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8655 Spring 2021

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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8655 Spring 2021

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Course: Curriculum and Instruction (8655)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No.1

Q.1   Define model of teaching, its characteristics, functions, assumptions and elements. Elaborate the need of model of teaching.

The classic definition of teaching is the design and creation of environments. Students learn by interacting with those environment and they study how to learn (Dewy, 1916). A model of teaching can be defined as the depiction of teaching and learning environment, including the behaviour of teachers and students while the lesson is presented through that model. Models of teaching enable the students to engage in robust cognitive and social task and teach the student how to use them productively. Models of teaching are the specific instructional plans which are designed according to the concerned learning theories. It provides a comprehensive blue print for curriculum to design instructional materials, planning lessons, teacher pupil roles, supporting aids and so forth. Joyce & Weil (2014) defines A model of teaching is a description of a learning environment, including our behavior as teachers when that model is used. Eggen (1979) defines that Models are prescriptive teaching strategies which help to realize specific instructional goals. Models of teaching are really models of learning. It helps students to acquire information, ideas, skills, value, way of thinking and means of expressing themselves. Hence models of teaching train the student on how to learn.  In fact the most important long term outcome of instruction may be the student’s increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the future. Hence the main aim of models of teaching is to create powerful learners.

​ CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEACHING MODEL

The following are the chief characteristics of a good teaching model

  • Each model has built up based on particular learning theory
  • Creation of congenial learning environment in the classroom
  • Effective interaction between the teacher and students
  • Planned use of appropriate strategies
  • Teaching process are systematically, sequentially and logically arranged
  • Clear and specified roles for teachers and students
  • Large scope for supporting material
  • Ensure active participation of entire students in the class
  • It raises the students’ level of aspiration, motivation and interest in  learning
  • Every model foster and strengthen the cognitive structure of the student

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​ELEMENTS OF MODELS OF TEACHING

Element of a model of teaching represent its structure, process and teaching aids of the instruction. A model of teaching consists of syntax, social system, principle of reaction and support system. The detailed descriptions are as follows.

​Syntax

It is the steps or phases of the model being presented before the class. It illustrates the logical and sequential order of the teacher student activities of the instruction procedure. It describes the complete programme of action of the model.

Social system

Social system of a model explains its nature of learning environment. It describes the role and relationship of the teacher and students through the phases as well as designing the lesson. As each and every model is unique, the role of teacher and students in every model may vary according to the respective learning theory of the model is built. It also varies in phases to phases.

Principle of Reaction

This is the extension of social system. It deals with the rules of reaction to the students responses in the classroom interaction. The reaction of the teacher must be in accordance with the theory of which model has been built. The teacher reaction is desired when the students’ responses/ behavior are untouched with expected level responses and for giving reinforcement. It depends the family of the model is presented.

Support system

It includes all instructional aides used in a model of teaching. Eg. Books, Encyclopedia, Video clips, slides, News paper, Tab, Expert, Films, Specimen etc.

Effect of models of Teaching

Models of teaching have a very positive effect on students’ behavior. Bruce Joyce classified the effect as Instructional effect and Nurturant Effect. Instructional effects are the direct effect of an instruction on students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Nurturant effects are the indirect effect other than the teacher intends to achieve through the model.  It is the additional achievement gained by the students through the unique nature classroom interaction. Examples are the development of problem solving ability, analytical thinking, critical thinking, social skill, tolerance etc.

FAMILIES OF MODELS OF TEACHING

Joyce & Weil (2014) categorized the models of teaching in to four families. The classification has been made in accordance with the theoretical basis and fundamental aim of the teaching model. The four families explained below in detail.

THE INFORMATION PROCESSING FAMILY

Models in the information processing family focus on the cognitive activity of child.  It includes scientific inquiry for collecting original information, organizing and properly storing of the information. Some models provide the learners with information and concept, some emphasis concept formation and hypothesis testing and still other generate creative thinking.  Joyce & Weil (2014) listed eight models in Information Processing Model.

THE SOCIAL FAMILY

The focus of the social model family is to build synergy (collective energy) in the classroom for addressing ongoing problems of personal, social, national as well as international importance. Social models help the students to develop Self directed problem solving ability, sense of belongingness towards the society and make them responsible citizens of the country.

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Q.2   Discuss in detail Bruner’s “Concept Attainment of Model” and Piaget’s cognitive growth.       

The development of the original system of interaction analysis was primarily the work of Ned Bruner. Indeed, the system is often referred to as the Bruner System of Interaction Analysis (FIA) – an innovation which made possible significant insights into the analysis and improvement of instruction. Bruner’ interaction analysis system is an observational tool used to classify the verbal behaviour of teachers and pupils as they interact in the classroom. Bruner’ instrument was designed for observing only the verbal communication in the classroom and non-verbal gestures are not taken into account.

Bruner Interaction Analysis is a system of classroom interaction analysis which is concerned with verbal behaviour only, primarily because it can be observed with higher reliability than can non-verbal behaviour and more also, the assumption made that the verbal behaviour of an individual is an adequate sample of his total behaviour. Bruner Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC) is a Ten Category System of communication which are said to be inclusive of all communication possibilities. There are seven categories used when the teacher is talking (Teacher talk) and two when the pupil is talking (Pupil talk) and tenth category is that of silence or confusion.

Table 1. Bruner Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC).

In this system, all teachers’ statements are either indirect or direct. This classification gives central attention to the amount of freedom the teacher grants to the student. In a given situation therefore, a teacher has a choice. He can be direct, that is minimizing the freedom of the student to respond. His choice, consciously or unconsciously depends upon many factors among which are his perceptions of the situations and the goals of the particular learning situation. In order to make the total behaviour or total interaction in the classroom meaningful, the Bruner system also provides for the categorizing of students talk. A third major section, that of silence or confusion is included in order to account for the time spend in behaviour other than that which can be classified as neither teacher nor student talk. A summary of these categories with brief definitions is given in table 1.

 The Bruner’s system is an observational tool used to classify the verbal behavior of teachers and pupils as they interact in the classroom. Bruner’s instrument was designed for observing only the verbal communication in the class room and non –verbal gestures are not taken into account. The basic assumption of the system is that in the classroom the verbal statement of a teacher are consistent with his non-verbal gestures or with his total behavior. Ned . S . Bruner has categorized the instruction of teachers and pupils in classroom. There are 10 categories in this system.

1)Bruner’s interaction analysis categories

Table 1

Category number activity
Teacher talk response 1 Accept feeling: accepts and clarifies an attitude or the feeling tone of a pupil in a non- threatening manner. feeling may be positive or negative.
2 Praises or encourages: praises or encourages pupil action or behavior. Jokes that release tension, but not at the expense of another individual. Nodding head, or saying ‘UMHM?’
3 Accepts or uses ideas of pupils: clarifying or building or developing ideas suggested by a pupil. Teacher extensions of pupil ideas are included but as the teacher brings more of his own ideas into play, shift to category five.
4 Ask questions : asking a question about content or procedure with the intent that a student may answer.
initiation 5 Lecturing :giving facts or opinions about content or procedures; expressing his own ideas; asking rhetorical questions.
6 Giving direction: directions, commands or orders to which a pupil is expected to comply.
7 Criticizing or justifying authority: statements intended to change pupil behavior from non acceptable to acceptable pattern; stating why the teacher is doing what he is doing
Pupil talk Response 8 Pupil talk in response to teacher: talk by students in response to teacher. Teacher initiates the contact or solicits student statement.
Initiation 9 Pupil talk initiated by the pupil; talk by students which they initiate. It ‘calling on ‘ student is only to indicate who may talk next, observer must decide whether student wanted to talk. It he did, use this category
silence 10 Silence or confusion: pauses, short periods of confusion in which communication cannot be understood by the observer.

2 ) OBSERVATION PROCEDURE

The observer sit in the classroom in the best position to hear and see the participant. At the end of each three second period he decides the category that best represents the communication of events just completed. He writes down this category number while simultaneously assessing communication in the next period. He continues at the rate of 20 to 25 observations per minute.

Bruner suggests using a set ground rules to be followed while noting down the observations. Some of them are given below.

  1. When uncertain about placing a statement on one of any two categories , choose a category on the scale that is farthest from category five, with the exception of category ten.
  2. If the teacher’s behavior is either consistently direct or indirect, avoid shifting from one classification to the other unless such a shift is clearly indicated by the teacher
  3. When the teacher repeats student’s answer and if it is a correct answer, this is recorded as a 2.
  4. Record an 8 when several students respond to a narrow question.

3))RECORDING OF OBSERVATIONS IN THE CODING CHART

Let us consider an episode and try to analyse it into various categories , by indicating the relevant code numbers. The observer writes the proper category numbers in its correct sequence, in the manner indicated below.

10

2

3

2

1

5

5

5

6

6

5

5

5

10

3

3

7

5

7

9

4

9

9

4

9

7

1

2

5

1

1

9

9

1

10

10

5

6

5

(10,2),(2,3),(3,2),(2,1),(1,5),(5,5),(5,5),(5,6),(6,6),(6,5),(5,5),(5,5),(5,10),(10,3),(3,3),(3,7),(7,5),(5,7),(7,9),(9,4),……

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4) TABULATING MATRIX

The data given above can be recorded in a 10×10 matrix. The first step is to make sure that the entire series begins and ends with the same number. For that Bruner create certain groups of pairs from the observations. Each pair overlaps with the next and the total number of observations.[from the above observation,(10,2), (2,3), (3,2), (2,1),(1,5)….so on] The numbers are tallied in the matrix one pair at a time. The row is used for the first number in the pair and the column is used for the second number. The row is used for the first number in pair and the column is used for the second number.

category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total
1 l l 2
2 l l 2
3 l lll l 5
4 0
5 l lll l l 6
6 l l 2
7 l 1
8 0
9 llll ll 6
10 l 1
total 2 2 4 4 5 2 4 0 0 2 25

5) INTERPRETING THE MATRIX

From the interpretation several interference can be drawn from the matrix.

The proportion of teacher talk, pupil talk and silence or confusion.

The proportion of tallies in columns,2,3,4,5,6, and 7, columns 8,9, and column 10 to the total tallies indicates how much the teacher talks, the students talks and the time spent in silence or confusion. After several years of observing, we anticipate an average of 68 percent teacher talk, 20 percent of pupil talk and 11 or 12 percent silence of confusion.

category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total
1 l l 2
2 l l 2
3 l lll l 5
4 0
5 l lll l l 6
6 l l 2
7 l 1
8 0
9 llll ll 6
10 l 1
total 2 2 4 4 5 2 4 0 0 2 25

 

Teacher talk = 2+2+4+4+5+2+4 =23

Student talk= 0+0 = 0

Silence or conf = 2

The ratio between indirect influence and direct.

The sum of column 1,2,3,4, divided by the sum of 5, 6, 7 gives this ratio. If the ratio is 1 or more than 1, the teacher is said to be indirect in his behavior. The ratio therefore , shows whether a teacher is more direct or indirect in his teaching

The ratio between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.

The sum of column 1, 2, 3 divided by the sum of columns 6,7. If the ratio is more than 1 then the teacher is said to be good.

Student’s participation ratio

the sum of columns 8 and 9 is to be divided by total sum. The answer will reveal how much the students have participated in the teaching learning process.

Steady state cells

The following figure shows the study state cells along the diagonal from the upper left to the lower right. If these cells are heavily loaded it shows that the teacher remains in a particular category for more than three seconds. The cell with the highest frequency of the entire matrix is typically the 5-5 cell which lies on this diagonal indicating that the teacher frequently stays longer than 3 seconds when he provides information through lecture.

category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total
1 l
2
3 l
4
5 lll
6
7
8
9 llll ll
10
total

 

 

  • Content cross cells

The cells corresponding to the numbers 4 and 5 in the column and the row are known as content cross cells. If these cells are overloaded they reflect  the teachers emphasis on the subject matter.

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category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total
1 l
2
3 l
4
5 lll
6
7
8
9 llll ll
10
total

 

 

  • Constructive integration cells and vicious cells:

Two areas that are most sensitive to the positive and negative aspects of social skill is the teacher- student relationship. This is shown in following figure.

category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total
1 l
2 A
3 l
4
5 lll
6 B
7
8
9 llll ll
10
total

 

Area A might be called ‘constructive integrative cells’ while area B is called the ‘vicious cells’. The cells corresponding to numbers 1,2 and 3 are known as constructive integration cells. Cells of numbers 6 and 7 are known as vicious cells. These cells reveal the teacher’s attention to problems of classroom management and control as distinct from concern with the subject matter.

Advantages of FIACS

  1. It is an objective and reliable technique of observing and analyzing the verbal behavior of a teacher and class room interaction.
  2. It may help in understanding analytically what actually goes on in the classroom.
  3. It may help in determining the flow and pattern of teaching behaviors.
  4. By providing feedback, it helps in acquiring the desirable patterns of teaching and modifying one’s teaching behavior.
  5. Through the use of this system, student teacher may practice and learn new desirable teaching behaviours quite unknown to the traditional teaching.
  6. It supplements the training techniques like micro teaching and team teaching.
  7. It can be used for undertaking research in several areas of teaching, teacher behavior, pre- service and in-service education of teachers.
  8. As the system ‘s rule is to take  observer records almost all the behaviors of the teacher and the students.
  9. It helps to determine the classroom climate.
  10. A teacher can control his teaching behavior, so, this system is well suited to be used as a mechanism of feedback device for the modification of teacher behavior.
  11. It is used as an observation technique in teacher education programs.

Limitations

  1. The system concentrates on verbal behavior and does not describe the classroom interaction or teacher behavior in its totality.
  2. Out of 10 categories, it devotes as many as seven categories to teacher talk and just three to student talk.
  3. The use of this system envisages highly trained observers and interpreters.
  4. There is much scope for subjectivity in the observation of the behavior.
  5. It hardly takes into consideration classroom interaction in the form of student- student interaction.
  6. The system does not incorporate various essential steps teaching a particular subject.
  7. The fourth category of asking questions in this system does not classify the type of questions asked.
  8. It does not provide valued judgments about and bad teaching behaviours.

Q.3   Differentiate between individualized instruction, group instruction and classroom instruction and explain the instructional methods used for each style of instruction.      

The improvement of instruction has been a goal of educators as far back as the teachings of the Greek philosopher Socrates. Although there are a wide variety of approaches, in most cases instruction can be characterized by the following tasks: setting objectives, teaching content based on these objectives, and evaluating performance. This formula is indeed the most common; however, there have been many advocates of alternative approaches. Among the alternative approaches there is a focus on a more individualized approach to instruction, where the traits of the individual learner are given more consideration.

There are two basic extremes when the pace of instruction is considered. The first is when someone other than student, usually a teacher or instructor, controls the amount of time spent learning the material. In this case specific due dates are defined before instruction begins. This is currently the predominant model in most educational systems. The opposite extreme would be if the learner had exclusive control over the pace of instruction, without a time limit. Between these two extremes are situations where control of the pace of instruction is shared or negotiated, not necessarily equally, by the teacher and learner.

As theories of learning and instruction develop and mature, more and more consideration is given to the way in which learning occurs. In an attempt to account for the way that students learn, instructors may apply a combination of theories and principles in preparing instruction. This can influence whether instruction is designed for one homogenous group, or is flexible, in anticipation of individual differences among learners. In the majority of cases, instruction is designed for the average learner, and is customized ad-hoc by the teacher or instructor as needed once instruction begins. This type of instruction, although it does give some consideration to individual differences among learners during instruction, does not fall into the typically accepted definition of individualized instruction. For instruction to be considered individualized, the instruction is usually designed to account for specific learner characteristics. This could include alternative instructional methods for students with different backgrounds and learning styles.

To help clarify this point, the instructional method used can be considered in terms of extremes. In the first extreme, one instructional method is used for everyone. Terms like inclusion and mainstreaming have been used to describe this first case. In the second extreme, a specific instructional method is used for each individual. Between these extremes lie situations where students are arranged into groups according to the their characteristics. These groups can vary in size, and the instructional method is tailored to each group.

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Perhaps the least frequently modified component is the actual learning content. However, it is possible to vary the content taught to different learners or groups of learners. Both “tracking” and “enrichment” are examples of customizing instructional content. A renewed movement toward learner-centered principles in education has given this component more consideration in the 1990s. It has become possible to find examples of instructional settings in which students define their own content, and pursue learning based on their own interests. In most cases, however, this opportunity is limited to high-achieving students. In terms of extremes, content can be uniform for everyone, or unique to each individual. Between these extremes lie cases where the content can be varied, but only within a predefined range. The range of activities available to the learner is an indicator of how individualized the content is in an instructional setting.

The last three components indicate that the method of instruction does vary slightly from individual to individual. Although all students learn from written material and student tutors, the motivational lectures are optional. Making these lectures optional does constitute some flexibility in terms of instructional method, albeit extremely limited. Fundamentally, it is the self-pacing that more or less stands alone as the individualized component of this instructional system. Proponents of the Keller Plan cite many benefits, including better retention and increased motivation for further learning. At the same time, there are others with criticisms of the Keller Plan such as the following: limited instructional methods, high dropout rates, and decreased human interaction. The debate over the effectiveness of Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction, with its advantages and disadvantages, raises fundamental questions about the nature of self-contained, self-paced learning. There are indeed opportunities for designing instruction that lend themselves to the Personalized System of Instruction approach. This would apply especially to cases where enrollment is high, course material is standardized and stable, and faculty resources are scarce. On the other hand, when there is not a shortage of faculty, or the class size is not large, the course would be better taught with more conventional methods, yet still based on sound educational principles. Where the line is drawn on the continuum between these two extremes is a matter of opinion, and should be based on the context in which the instruction is to take place. It would be inappropriate to claim that one of the extremes is completely right, and the other wrong, given the vast number of studies and evaluations that support either side. Audio-Tutorial. Audio-Tutorial is a method of individualized instruction developed by Samuel N. Postlethwait in 1961 at Purdue University. His goal was to find an improved method of teaching botany to a larger number of college students and to effectively assist the students who possessed only limited backgrounds in the subject. The development of an Audio-Tutorial program requires a significant amount of planning and time by the instructor. Although there is some room for modification for each specific program, the general principles remain the same. Students have access to a taped presentation of a specifically designed program that directs their activities one at a time. The basic principles of Audio-Tutorial are “(1) repetition; (2) concentration; (3) association; (4) unit steps; (5) use of the communication vehicle appropriate to the objective;(6) use of multiplicity of approaches; and (7) use of an integrated experience approach” (Couch, p. 6). The major benefits of Audio-Tutorial are that “students can adopt the study pace to their ability to assimilate the information. Exposure to difficult subjects is repeated as often as necessary for any particular student” (Postlethwait, Novak, and Murray, p. 5). In addition to taking more time if they wish, students can also accelerate the pace of their learning. Other benefits are that students feel more responsible for their learning, and more students can be accommodated in less laboratory space and with less staff. Some of the major criticisms that are common to Audio-Tutorial courses were illustrated by Robert K. Snortland upon evaluating a course in graphics design. The primary criticism concerns the claim of responsibility. It seems that some students respond to the responsibility placed upon them, while others do not. There was a problem with the initial dropout rate, which seemed to be explained by the lack of willingness of some students to take on the amount of responsibility that was required in order to complete the course. Snortland advised that “since many freshmen students are not ready for additional self-discipline required of them in the A-T format, the choice of either a structured approach or an individualized approach should always remain open” (p. 8). Many other criticisms of Audio-Tutorial courses are concerned with teacher control. The instructor dictates all of the material including the learning and feedback procedures. The criticism is that this is a severe form of teacher control over the student. Like the Keller Plan, Audio-Tutorial allows the individual student to determine his or her own pace, and the content is fixed. Unlike the Keller Plan, however, there are more instructional delivery methods available when designing the course. Yet the locus of control remains with the instructor in the Audio-Tutorial as well. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Most proponents of individualized instruction saw the computer as a way to further improve the design and delivery of individualized instruction–now in an electronic environment. With the advent of the computer came the potential to deliver individualized instruction in a more powerful way. This potential was anticipated long before the proliferation of the home computer. John E. Coulson wrote in 1970: “A modern computer has characteristics that closely parallel those needed in any educational system that wishes to provide highly individualized instruction”. He also noted the specific benefits that the computer could offer:

  1. “It has a very large memory capacity that can be used to store instructional content material or…to generate such material.”
  2. “The computer can perform complex analyses of student responses.”
  3. “The computer can make decisions based on the assessments of student performance, matching resources to individual student needs.”
  1. Olds even offered some solutions to these problems, indicating that “time on-line needs to be mixed with plenty of opportunities for human interaction” and that computer should allow people to “jump around within the program structure” (p. 9).
  2. CAI became the forerunner in individualized instruction during the 1980s and early 1990s, as the home computer became more powerful and less expensive. The changes that the computer environment helped to make were predominantly a change in the delivery mechanism of individualized instruction, rather than a fundamental change in purpose or method. In a sense, the computer, especially the home computer, offered a convenience that other delivery mechanisms lacked. This convenience was accelerated with the proliferation of the Internet in late 1990s. Starting as an extension of computer-based instruction, online education became increasingly popular and eventually began to supplant CAI as the predominant form of individualized instruction.
  3. Distance education. A surge in the number of nontraditional students attending college in the 1990s, combined with the technological potential of the Internet, has caused a renewed effort to deliver instruction in a nontraditional fashion. Accessibility and convenience–not research–are the primary driving forces in this movement toward instruction in the form on online education. When reviewing more than 200 articles on online instruction over the 1990s, James DiPerna and Robert Volpe found that only one article directly addressed the impact of the technology on learning. Partnerships between businesses and institutions of higher learning have arisen to address the increased need for continuing education.
  4. Whether it is more effective or less effective than traditional education seems less a concern. In many cases, the audience addressed is nontraditional, and they have limited access to traditional education. Additionally, many students who could otherwise attend brick-and-mortar institutions are choosing online education for the convenience. In other words, what was established initially due to necessity has now expanded as students choose this route because of its convenience. The rate of expansion of online education has accelerated to a point where the general feeling among institutions of higher learning is of willing participation. In terms of pace, method, and content, there is a large variety of competing approaches to distance education, and no dominant model has emerged. Like previous iterations of individualized instruction, it is usually the pace of instruction that most often varies. The content is still fixed in most cases, as is the method (predominantly via the Internet).
  5. Individualized instruction comes in many forms, all of which seek to improve instruction in some way. As can be seen in the examples above, alternative instructional approaches most often vary the pace and method of instruction, but not the content itself. The content is usually consistent with traditional instruction, although it may be segmented differently.
  6. Other benefits are also significant, but not as consistent among approaches. Each approach has its own set of prescriptions, and each has been heavily criticized–yet that is to be expected. Even now, individualized instruction in its various forms is still a relatively recent innovation, and will remain under scrutiny until several criticisms are accounted for.
  7. Perhaps the most profound criticism comes in the article “Individualization: The Hidden Agenda,” by Ronald T. Hyman. He was concerned with the latent functions of individualization generally. In the push for individualization, the most common approach is to divide the subject matter up into segments and teach it at a self-taught level, but Hyman warns that “Segmented Junk Is Still Junk” (p. 414). There is no concern for what really is the problem, and that is the subject matter itself. He claims that individualized instruction typically does not alter the subject matter based on the needs of the student. Without doing this, there is a compromise of individualized instruction.
  8. In summary, individualized instruction has the potential to improve instruction by varying the pace of instruction, the instructional method, and the content. Most approaches allow for self-pacing, yet variation in method and content is rare, and when it does occur, is usually very limited. As of the early twenty-first century, there are no indications that this trend will change in the immediate future, although as the research base in this area increases, major improvements are certain to come.         

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Q.4   Enlist the phases of curriculum and elaborate the process of curriculum planning and development.

There are five key elements of curriculum development , according to  Tyler “it is essential as a part of comprehensive theory of organization to show just what are the elements will serve satisfactory as organizing elements.” According to Herrick and Tyler, following are the components and elements of curriculum development

  1. Situational analysis
  2. Formulation of objectives
  3. Selection of content, scope and sequence
  4. Activities, strategies and method of teaching
  5. Evaluation

Situational Analysis

Situational analysis means the analysis of different conditions such as emotional, political, cultural, religious and geographical condition of a country. This will help the curriculum planners in the selection of objectives, selection of organization of learning materials and in suggesting appropriate evaluation procedure.

Formulation of Objectives

There are four main factors for formulating the objectives of education. These are

  1. The society
  2. The knowledge
  3. The learner
  4. The learning process

All of these factors are to be considered while selecting and formulating the Curriculum objectives.

Selection of Content

One of the important elements is the selection of content for a subject. At the time of subject matter selection, the following factors are to be kept in mind:

  1. Available sources and resource
  2. Demand of the society
  3. International needs
  4. Level and age of the learner or student
  5. Methods of content organization
  6. Number of courses offered
  7. Quantity and qualification of teaching staff
  8. Scope of subject matter
  9. System of examination
  10. Type of society and culture

Strategies and Method of Teaching

These are strategies and methods of teaching adopted by the teachers during instruction and learning experiences. This will certainly not fair to ask a teacher for achieving certain objectives without giving any guidelines. In most of the countries curriculum development is a centralized process. Teachers are not directly involved in this phase. Most of the teachers do not know the process of achieving desired goals. After determining the goals and objectives the next problem is the selection of strategies and methods of teachers. What we should give to our students. Should a curriculum be fixed or flexible, constant, common or differentiated?

Evaluation

Evaluation is one of the dynamic process, which needs a continuous research and evaluation for its betterment in order to cope with the variable demands of the society and bring about desirable changes. Curriculum evaluation is not a student evaluation. It is a broader term being used to make judgment about the worth and effectiveness of it.  With the help of evaluation phase experts can modify the curriculum by bringing about desirable changes.

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Q.5   Discuss in detail the three main foundations of curriculum.         

Foundations are the forces that influence the minds of curriculum developers.

In this way they affect the content and structure of the curriculum.

The curriculum reflects the society and culture of a country and this is the desire of a society that their children should learn the habits, ideas, attitudes and skills of the adult society and culture and educational institutional are the proper way to impart these skill. The duty of teacher and school is to discipline the young of the society and provide them the set of experiences in the form of curriculum. The needs, knowledge and information of the society provide foundation in the formation of curriculum.

1.       Philosophical foundation of Curriculum

2.      , Psychological foundations of Curriculum

3.       Socio Cultural Foundation of Curriculum

4.       Historical Foundations of Curriculum

5.       Economical Foundations of Curriculum

Philosophical/ ideological foundation

It is concerned with beliefs.

What is real — ONTOLOGY

What is true — EPISTEMOLOGY

What is good – AXIOLOGY

Philosophy means the love of wisdom, it search for truth, not simple truth, It search for eternal truth, reality and general principles of life. Curriculum help in the practical use of knowledge in real life situations and understanding realities and ideas of life and this world that why curriculum is called the dynamic side of philosophy.Curriculum is used for the modification of the behavior of the students and philosophy help in the process of finding new ways and basis for teachers and curriculum planner to modify their behavior. Philosophy also helps in the exploring new methods of teaching and how to apply in the classroom situation for better achievement of the teaching learning process. It also provides new ways and methods for the evaluation of student’s achievement and evaluation of curriculum.

Philosophers of the past have made major influence in clarifying the association in the nature of knowledge and curriculum development process and also provide a foundation for curriculum; Plato presented a curriculum in his book “republic” at that times and it is still the core of the curriculum of today. Knowledge is given the high role in human life.

Today world economics and societies are changing very rapidly; it needs depth in every discipline of education in this high time. Today the world emphasis on finding new ways through which man develops new concepts of reality and knowledge and to form a new structure of knowledge in this dynamic and changing time therefore a high value is given to discovery, invention and restructuring of knowledge  and curriculum in new patterns. Now the new curriculum is open to new experiences, logical and critical thinking, and to bring about the concept of knowledge out of interpreted experience.

Philosophy and ideology of education provide rules and principles which lead the in decision-making regarding educational practices and polices planning. It Guides the curriculum planner on the basses of the philosophical and ideological belief of the society in the constructing of subject matter keeping in view the future demands and needs of the schools and help in the promoting of human life through social change in the behavior of the students. In Pakistan the ideological beliefs of the society is based on Islam. Therefore they are looking for curriculum planner to introduce such curriculum in education system, which inculcate true knowledge of Islam and preserve the culture of Muslim society in new generation that why they believe that Islamic curricula should be based on the ideology of Islamic laws and principles.

Philosophy and ideology has direct effect in curriculum planning because it guides the curriculum planner in the selection of the objectives and. As it provides guidelines in the selection of objec

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tives, Learning experiences and content of the curriculum, and how to evaluate the curriculum, learning experiences and achievements of the students. Some justification provided for the implications of curriculum given by different researcher are as under (Rud Yard K. Bent and Urruh, n.d.);

·                      Various customs values, traditions and knowledge need to be preserved by transfer them to the next generation.

·                     The students also needed the knowledge of past and present in which they live, it help them in the process of adaptation and adjusting their self to new changes and new situation in life.

All those content of a subject who helps in intellectual development rather than practical value. It teaches student how to reason, develops mental ability to solve the problems in practical life situations. It helps in using different methods for search of eternal truth and how to analyze the knowledge and methods of inquiry.

·                     The Secondary school curriculum should designed for developing maximum potentialities  of the students by including variety of leaning activities to educate each students to its highest.

·                     Schools should be a tool and leader in directing new changes in the curriculum rather than maintainers of curriculum.

·                     Students need skills and for that purpose some subject matter must be included in the curriculum to help them in acquiring these skills like experimentation and the use of laboratory techniques so they advance the knowledge.

        

 

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