AIOU Solved Assignments code B.ed 8605 Spring 2020 Assignments 1& 2 Course: Educational Leadership and Management 8605) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No. 1& 2
Educational Leadership and Management 8605) B.ed 1.5 Years
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020
Q1. Discuss different approaches to ” Educational management and Administration. POSDCORB is an acronym widely used in the field of Management and Public Administration that reflects the classic view of administrative management. Largely drawn from the work of French industrialist Henri Fayol, it first appeared in a 1937 staff paper by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick written for the Brownlow Committee. The acronym stands for steps in the administrative process: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-Ordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. Coining of the Acronym In his piece “Notes on the Theory of Organization”, a memo prepared while he was a member of the Brownlow Committee, Luther Gulick asks rhetorically “What is the work of the chief executive? What does he do?” POSDCORB is the answer, “designed to call attention to the various functional elements of the work of a chief executive because ‘administration’ and ‘management’ have lost all specific content. In Gulick’s own words, the elements of POSDCORB are as follows:
Elaborations Gulick’s “Notes on the Theory of Organization” further defines the principles of POSDCORB by explaining that if an executive’s workload becomes too overwhelming, some of the elements of POSDCORB can be organized as subdivisions of the executive, depending on the size and complexity of the enterprise. Under Organizing, Gulick emphasized the division and specialization of labor in a manner that will increase efficiency. Gulick notes that there are three limitations to division of labor. The first occurs when labor is divided to the point where any one task in the division of labor would require less than the full-time of a worker, in which case a worker may need to be employed in other tasks to fill up their time. The second limitation to division of labor arises from technology and custom, where certain tasks may only be handled by certain workers either because of a lack of technological means or customs at the time. Gulick gives the example of a single worksite in which only plumbers do the plumbing work and electricians do the electrical work, though this may not take up their full work time. Work in these areas could be re-combined in a manner to increase efficiency, however union considerations could prevent this. The third limitation to division of labor is that it must not pass beyond physical division into organic division, or intricately related activities must not be separated from each other. Gulick gives the example that while it may seem more efficient to have the front end of a cow grazing in pasture at all times and the back half being milked at all times, this would not work due to the intricate connection between the halves that is needed for the whole to function. Gulick notes that organization of specialized workers can be done in four ways which are:
- By the purpose the workers are serving, such as furnishing water, providing education, or controlling crime. Gulick lists these in his organizational tables as vertical organizations.
- By the process the workers are using, such as engineering, doctoring, lawyering, or statistics. Gulick lists these in his organizational tables as horizontal organizations.
- By the clientelle or material or the persons or things being dealt with, such as immigrants, veterans, forests, mines, or parks in government; or such as a department store’s furniture department, clothing department, hardware department, or shoe department in the private sector.
- By the place where the workers do their work.
Gulick is careful to recognize that these modes of organization can often cross, forming a complex and interrelated organizational structure where organizations like schools will include workers and professionals not in the field of education such as doctors or nurses, janitors, secretaries, police departments might include non-police professionals, a shoe department including buyers as well as salespeople, etc.
Achieve coordination Under Coordination, Gulick notes that two methods can be used to achieve coordination of divided labor. The first is by organization, or placing workers under managers who coordinate their efforts. The second is by dominance of an idea, where a clear idea of what needs to be done is developed in each worker, and each worker fits their work to the needs of the whole. Gulick notes that these two ideas are not mutually exclusive, and that most enterprises function best when both are utilized. Gulick notes that any manager will have a finite amount of time and energy, and discusses span of control under coordination. Drawing heavily from military organizational theory and the work of V. A. Graicunas, Sir Ian Hamilton, and Henri Fayol, Gulick notes that the number of subordinates that can be handled under any single manager will depend on factors such as organizational stability, the specialization of the subordinates and whether their manager comes from the same field or specialty, and space. Gulick stops short of giving a definite number of subordinates that any one manager can control, but authors such as Sir Ian Hamilton and Lyndall Urwick have settled on numbers between three and six. Span of control was later expanded upon and defended in depth by Lyndall Urwick in his 1956 piece The Manager’s Span of Control. Also under coordination, as well as organization, Gulick emphasizes the theory of unity of command, that each worker should only have one direct superior so as to avoid confusion and inefficiency. Still another theory borrowed from military organizational theory, particularly Sir Ian Hamilton and Lyndall Urwick and brought to prominence in non-military management and public administration by Gulick and Urwick is the distinction between operational components of an organization, the do-ers, and coordinating, the coordinating components of an organization who do the knowing, thinking, and planning. In the military, this is divided between “line” and “staff” functions. Gulick gives the private-sector example of a holding company performing limited coordinating, planning, and finance functions, with subsidiary companies carrying out their work with extensive autonomy as it saw fit according to the parent company’s overall direction.
Place in Management and Public Administration History POSDCORB generally fits into the Classical Management movement, being classified as an element of scientific management, which was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century. Gulick’s POSDCORB principles were instrumental in highlighting the theory of span of control, or limits on the number of people one manager could supervise, as well as unity of command to the fields of management and public administration. According to notable Public Administration scholars such as Nicholas Henry, POSDCORB, the principles it represents, and subsequent expansions upon the POSDCORB concept form the height of Public Administration in an era when it was seen as just another aspect of the field of management as a whole. Gulick’s work has been heavily cited and expanded upon by scholars and practitioners in the fields of management and public administration since the publication of Papers on the Science of Administration in 1937.
Criticisms As early as 1938, literature began appearing in the field of Public Administration challenging the validity of POSDCORB and the concept that there could even be a rigid set of principles in administration. In 1946 and 1947, prominent Public Administration scholars such as Robert Dahl, Dwight Waldo, and Herbert A. Simon released articles and books criticising POSDCORB and the principles notion. Simon’s article Proverbs of Administration challenges the POSDCORB principles by stating “For almost every principle one can find an equally plausible and acceptable contradictory principle.” Among other criticisms, Simon states that the POSDCORB principles are an oversimplification of administration. Simon’s criticisms largely center around span of control and unity of command, stating that sometimes it is necessary for a subordinate to receive guidance or directives from more than one source, as well as Gulick’s division of labor concepts.
Educational management in Pakistan The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. The system includes 180,846 public institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes.
Analysis of education system in Pakistan Pakistan has expressed its commitment to promote education and literacy in the country by education policies at domestic level and getting involved into international commitments on education. In this regard national education policies are the visions which suggest strategies to increase literacy rate, capacity building, and enhance facilities in the schools and educational institutes. MDGs and EFA programmes are global commitments of Pakistan for the promotion of literacy. A review of the education system of Pakistan suggests that there has been little change in Pakistan’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment enshrined education as a fundamental human right in the constitution. Problems of access, quality, infrastructure and inequality of opportunity, remain endemic.
Education for All (EFA) Commitment The EFA goals focus on early childhood care and education including pre-schooling, universal primary education and secondary education to youth, adult literacy with gender parity and quality of education as crosscutting thematic and programme priorities. EFA Review Report October 2014 outlines that despite repeated policy commitments, primary education in Pakistan is lagging behind in achieving its target of universal primary education. Currently the primary gross enrolment rate stands at 85.9% while Pakistan requires increasing it up to 100% by 2015-16 to fulfil EFA goals. Of the estimated total primary school going 21.4 million children of ages 5-9 years, 68.5% are enrolled in schools, of which 8.2 million or 56% are boys and 6.5 million or 44% are girls. Economic Survey of Pakistan confirms that during the year 2013-14 literacy remained much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and higher among males. Vision 2030 Vision 2030 of Planning Commission of Pakistan looks for an academic environment which promotes the thinking mind. The goal under Vision 2030 is one curriculum and one national examination system under state responsibility. The strategies charted out to achieve the goal included:
(i) Increasing public expenditure on education and skills generation from 2.7% of GDP to 5% by 2010 and 7% by 2015.
(ii) Re-introduce the technical and vocational stream in the last two years of secondary schools.
(iii) Gradually increase vocational and technical education numbers to 25-30% of all secondary enrolment by 2015 and 50 per cent by 2030.
(iv) Enhance the scale and quality of education in general and the scale and quality of scientific/technical education in Pakistan in particular.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020
Q2. What are the basic principles of “Educational Administration? Brief outlines of the six principles of educational administration are discussed in this article. The principles are: (1) Structural Democracy, (2) Operational Democracy (3) Justice (4) Equality of Opportunity (5) Prudence (6) Adaptability, Flexibility and Stability.
1. Structural Democracy:
Being the first principle of educational administration in the modern era it puts stress on democracy in structural perspective. It implies “the exercise of control” in democracy. The meaning of exercise of control in this light should be such that, it helps the students as future citizens in fulfilling their needs and requirements tending to their self-realization, safeguard the democratic government and welfare of people at local, state and national levels. This exercise of control refers to the meaning of democracy by treating each human being as, “a living, growing and potentially flowering organism.” Hence in this principle of educational administration the educational administration has to practise the principles of democracy both in structural and functional form. In this regard and educational administrator will be a fittest one who can manage autocracy as and when necessary to achieve the goals of an educational programme. For actualizing it he has to perform his duty as democratically as possible.
2. Operational Democracy:
This principle of educational administration gives priority on the practical aspect of democracy as a way of life and form of governance. To this, the essence of democracy is to give importance on the dignity of every individual and assisting him to understand his self in this context this principle considers democracy as a matter of spirit, way of life and a mode of behaviour. Keeping this in view it is the task and responsibility of an educational administrator to focus on day to day happenings in relation to democratic society in educational perspective that are relevant in wider extent. Because this sort of democracy seeks to make democracy more practical rather than formal. For example a school or an educational institution is regarded as the society in miniature or a small society. It means the entire picture of the society has been reflected in the school. The same situation lies in case of a democratic society like ours where people expect the school or an educational institution will do a lot for actualizing democracy as a matter of spirit, way of life and a mode of behaviour practically. In this light, it should be the function of the educational administrator to achieve it for which he may take the view of the students, consult with the staffs, specialists, expects and community members before taking any decision. This result in the emergence of a good and effective social order by the school or educational institution as an agency of education. Overall speaking this type of democracy as a principle of educational administration gives importance on practicability and relevance of day to day happenings of democracy in relation to educational perspective so far its administrative aspect is concerned.
Generally speaking justice refers to provide every individual his due in the society by honoring his individuality. This meaning of justice is the essence of democracy. As justice is one of the basic hallmarks of democratic administration, it is regarded as an essential principle of educational administrating which is democratic in form and practice. For practicing justice in educational administration there is the need and essentiality of giving due reward and share to every individual to his efforts and achievements. Besides, every individual is to be given task or assignment in accordance with his needs, requirements, abilities, aptitudes etc. Hence the educational administrators for practicing justice as one of the principles of educational administration must be judicious while dealing with employees, students and public. But in Practice it is not happening as the educational administrators very often arbitrarily exercise discretionary powers and too narrowly apply uniform rules in one point. And uniformity of rules in educational administration does not provide equality which is necessary to safeguard the individuals in another point. This nature of the educational administrator goes against the very essence of justice as it is to be free from such bias nature of them. Hence the educational administrators have to reduce this tendency to minimum for making justice beneficial, healthy and impartial in nature and approach as a principle of modern educational administration.
4. Equality of Opportunity:
One of the important social objective of education is to equalize opportunity or facility for enabling the backward or under privileged classes and individuals to use education as a means for improvement of their condition. In order to keep equality of opportunity in concrete shape in the field of education, educational administration plays a vital role. For this greater emphasis should be given on equality of educational opportunity for the shake of accelerating the process for building up of on egalitarian human society in which the age old social exploitation will be reduced to minimum. The principle of uniformity is not to be practiced and maintained in the field of educational administration as equality does not refer to uniformity. The cause is that opportunity means to provide adequate facility or scope to every individual for his development. In this context, the reasons for existence of inequalities of educational opportunities cited by the Education Commission (1964-66) can be highlighted which must be stressed in the field of educational administration.
These are: (а) In equal distribution of educational institutions through out the country. (b) Poverty of a large Section of the population and relative affluence of a small minority. (c) Disparity between the education of boys and girls at all stages and in all sectors of education. (d) Disparity of educational development between the advanced classes and the backward classes. Every society that values social justice and anxious to improve a lot of common man and cultivate all available talents, must ensure progressive equality of educational opportunity to all sections of the population. In this context it should be the task of educational administration to make special efforts for equalizing educational opportunities by reducing the above cited problems of it. As a result, equality of opportunity in educational process will be practiced by educational administration as one of its principles.
Overall speaking prudence refers to thinking or planning or showing thought for future. Being contextual in approach it can be said that the futuristic outlook, vision and forward looking must be incorporated it the field of administration. Like general administration educational administration has to practice the exercise of foresight skill and vision with respect to matters concerning practical living and utility of the system of administration in future by the educational administrator. This principle “Prudence” is closely related to intelligent economy which implies quality control. In order to ensure quality control in the field of education, educational administration has to make expenditure on education by accepting it as an investment on human resource. Because without necessary expenditure on education there will be no question of quality in it and then what about the matter of quality control? It is evident from several studies that now in educational administration there lies a lot of wasteful expenditure for which the system of check and balance is essential. The system of check and balance is prudential in nature which seeks to protect an educational institution or organisation, an enterprise from mis-behaviours and mis-appropriation by an official or authority as misuse of power and funds that creates mischief. It is known to one and all that misuse of power and money leads to the loss of public in general. Hence like general administration in educational administration there is the necessity of the system of “check and balance” to prevent such misuse. This will be done if educational administration accepts it as its principle in real situation. Those who are good sociable, democratic competent and welfare oriented educational administrators liberty is granted for them. Liberty is granted to them with not making the system of “check and balance” rigid. Because it is essential to give freedom to the competent and delicate persons as educational administrators who are in the interest of good administration. They give a differential treatment to different students, staffs, officials and community members as per their need remaining within the jurisdiction of educational administration. Besides an educational administrator in order to prudential in nature and work must have simplicity, understanding capacity democratic spirit and effective communication ability with him as attributes.
6. Adaptability, Flexibility and Stability:
An institution must be able to adjust with changing situations by fulfilling the developing needs and by improving its day-to-day dealings with persons or agencies involved. This characteristic of an institution is called adaptability. In the process of achieving its educational objectives, it has to deal differently with different human beings like teachers, parents and the public at large, who are affected in one way or other by the process or its products. This tendency is called flexibility. The educational institution however must be able to achieve adaptability without creating any dislocation or disruption in its process and achievements. This property is named as stability. An institution must have these three characteristics in order to be able to achieve its objectives adequately and to give due regard to all persons concerned in some way or other. These three characteristics are dynamic, adaptability and flexibility are especially so. Stability, however, is called as prudential check on the change which retains good in the old and gives up bad in the new. Hence, careful evaluation of the old as well as the new is an essential feature of stability. Adaptability is concerned with acts of change and flexibility to a great extent to counteract with uniformity and stability is mainly the counterweight to adaptability. Thus on the whole, adaptability is the capacity of an enterprise to change, to develop and to improve. Flexibility is the capacity of an institution to react in variance with persons and situations affected and to warn against the dangers of uniformity. Stability on the other hand is the capacity of an organisation to safeguard the merits of the old while it is in the process of change. Hence, all these three qualities of adaptability, flexibility and stability are complementary to each other.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020
Q3. Discuss the objective of Educational / School Management. A person who holds a management position inside an organization is required to think strategically and conceptually in order to achieve organizational goals. This lesson will describe the four functions of management and how they relate to organizational success.
Planning for Instruction
Brad is a teacher who tries to help his students learn by planning lessons and activities based on learning goals and objectives. This planning stage is important. It is necessary to identify exactly what is expected of students. This makes learning meaningful and measurable, two vital aspects of learning. Why is this? By identifying measurable goals and objectives, parents and students will know what is expected. When learning is meaningful, Brad’s students retain more information and are more successful. Brad is better able to stay on track because he is teaching with an end goal or objective in mind. Brad has a meeting today with his administrator to talk about his planning. Turns out, Brad is confusing learning goals and learning objectives. He thought they were the same thing. Let’s explore with Brad the important difference between these two.
Goals and Objectives
Depending on the context, the words ‘goals’ and ‘objectives’ can often be used interchangeably. Like we see with Brad, they’re often confused. In fact, we see many terms that mean similar things when talking about identifying student outcomes in education, like:
- Performance outcome
- Instructional objective
- Learning point
- Competency goal
- Teaching purpose
Sound confusing? It certainly can be. The real difference in these words is found in the level of application. Brad learns that objectives are concrete and goals are broad.
Learning Goals & Objectives
Brad is still a little confused, so his administrator zooms in to define learning goals. They are overall general targets for learning. Learning goals are overarching and require effort. They can be long or short term, and include differing skill levels such as learn, solve, or analyze. Brad learns that all instruction should focus on a goal. The goal is what Brad’s students will experience or do in the process of learning. Instructional goals include a verb that covers one learning outcome. Learning goals are vague and don’t cover specific subject matter. Instead, they focus on basic knowledge. In other words, a learning goal is like a target. Brad writes them to guide students forward in a specific direction. For example, a learning goal for science may be ‘Know about the solar system.’ Brad is starting to catch on and is ready for learning objectives.
In education, they are detailed statements of what students will know at the end of a learning experience. Learning objectives are clear statements used to describe what Brad wants his students to understand. They include specific skills or behaviors students will display in relation to learning goals. Learning objectives are like the arrows being thrown towards the target, or goal. They help learners reach the goal, like ‘Students will be able to name all planets in the solar system and tell specific characteristics of each.’
Developing Learning Objectives
Armed with this new understanding, Brad is ready to up his game in writing learning objectives. Remember, learning objectives state what students will specifically learn as they work towards the learning goal. How can Brad create strong learning objectives? Brad’s administrator offers him a few methods that help him develop skills and concepts his students will be expected to master. These tools will help him create effective learning objectives.
SMART & ABCD Objectives
A way many teachers in Brad’s school use write objectives is the SMART method. This approach uses an acronym that focuses on writing specific, measurable objectives that are achievable, relevant, and time bound. For example:
The Four Functions of Managers
Management involves far more than just telling others what to do. Before any of you decide that you think you can do your boss’s job, let’s take a look into more of what a manager does. The major functions that a manager completes can be categorized into four different functions known as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. For some of us, we only see the final two – leading and controlling – but you should know that for every managerial behavior you do see, there is an equal amount that you do not. Behind the manager’s closed door, he or she spends a good deal of his or her time planning and organizing, so that he or she can effectively carry out the functions of leading and controlling. Now, before you think your boss is different, you should also know that the four functions of management are standard across industries, whether that be in a manufacturing plant, a home office, a grocery store, a retail store, a restaurant, a hotel, or even an amusement park. Effective managers understand how planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are used to achieve organizational success. Unfortunately, I do not have a rebuttal for those of you who have ineffective managers, but perhaps learning a little more about the four functions of management will help to identify what steps your ineffective manager needs to take to become an effective one. Try to think about the four functions as a process where each step builds on the others. Managers must first plan, then organize according to that plan, lead others to work towards the plan, and finally evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. These four functions must be performed properly and, when done well, become the reason for organizational success.
The first of the managerial functions is planning. In this step, the manager will create a detailed action plan aimed at some organizational goal. For example, let’s say Melissa the marketing manager has a goal of increasing sales during the month of February. Melissa needs to first spend time mapping out the necessary steps she and her team of sales representatives must take so that they can increase sales numbers. These steps might include things like increasing advertisements in a particular region, placing some items on sale, increasing the amount of required customer-to-sales rep contact, or contacting prior customers to see if they are interested in purchasing additional products. The steps are then organized into a logical pattern so that Melissa and her team can follow them. Planning is an ongoing step, and can be highly specialized based on organizational goals, division goals, departmental goals, and team goals. It is up to the manager to recognize which goals need to be planned within his or her individual area.
The second of the managerial functions is organizing. This step requires Melissa to determine how she will distribute resources and organize her employees according to the plan. Melissa will need to identify different roles and ensure that she assigns the right amount of employees to carry out her plan. She will also need to delegate authority, assign work, and provide direction so that her team of sales representatives can work towards higher sales numbers without having barriers in their way.
The third function of management is leading. In this step, Melissa spends time connecting with her employees on an interpersonal level. This goes beyond simply managing tasks; rather, it involves communicating, motivating, inspiring, and encouraging employees towards a higher level of productivity. Not all managers are leaders. An employee will follow the directions of a manager because they have to, but an employee will voluntarily follow the directions of a leader because they believe in who he or she is as a person, what he or she stands for, and for the manner in which they are inspired by the leader.
Key Concepts of Systems Theory
In order to understand the theory, you must first get a firm understanding of a system. A systemis any set of distinct parts that interact to form a complex whole. Think of the universe. Its parts are as small as a subatomic particle and as large as galactic clusters. Each part is distinct but interacts to form the universe. An organization is also a system with parts such as employees, assets, products, resources, and information that form a complex system. As we noted in our definition, systems can be open or closed. A closed system is not affected by its environment. For example, a chuck of iron ore is not substantially affected by its environment. An open system is a system that is affected by its environment. A simple example is a living organism, such as an animal. Most theorists treat an organization as an open system. An open system consists of three essential elements. An organization receives resources such as equipment, natural resources, and the work of employees, referred to as inputs. The inputs are transformed, called throughputs, and then yield products or services called outputs. Outputs are released into the environment.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020
Q4. Define the conceptualize “Supervision”. Also discuss different Kinds of Supervision. In the modern educational system expansion of education relies on increasing number of educational institutions, teachers and students as well as providing all sort of facilities which are essential for proper progress of education. It will never be sufficient if we will not yield or achieve our returns or results to an adequate extent in qualitative perspective. From this description it is quite evident that quality assurance of education at any level is the prime concern of the modem educational practices. For this there is the need of quantitative expansion as well as qualitative improvement of education at all levels. This will be determined by the very concept, supervision.
Inspection: This is the first and foremost function of supervision that classes are to be inspected by the inspecting officers. It may be the headmaster of the concerned school or school inspector. This is the first supervision in the sense that the teacher becomes alert about his duties and responsibilities after being sure that his duties can be inspected all of sudden when he is in the classroom. So this type of supervision activates the teacher to have proper readiness to deliver good teaching in the classroom. Besides, there are teachers who don’t discharge their duties properly after knowing all these things. And it has been seen that they are penalized for not taking the class in time. On the contrary the sincere teachers are rewarded for rendering proper duties and responsibilities. This type of supervision is acceptable in almost all the developed countries of the world till now because of its balanced and positive effect on all the elements which are closely associated with it.
- Absolute Freedom:
This type of supervision gives absolute freedom to the teachers to deliver their teaching in his own light that he feels the best for his students. There is no hard and fast rule for him to follow guidelines of a sound teaching programme and appropriate methods of teaching for different subjects. This type of supervision is not suitable in the modern context as it stresses on the autocratic attitude of the teacher in teaching in one point and no inspecting authority to inspect his teaching. However, it is a type of supervision which was used in United States of America ones upon a time.
- Compulsion Type:
In this type of supervision autocracy goes to the inspecting personnel. It means as the supervision is meant for the teachers in relation to their teaching performance and it is desirable for him to deliver their teaching performance in a lucid manner. For this they have to act in accordance to the rules and regulations of the modern principles of teaching. But it is a matter of great regret that in this type of supervision the teacher has to teach in accordance of the guidelines prescribed by the inspecting officers themself. As there are inspecting officers who have their own principles of teaching which are not suitable compel the teachers to teach accordingly. As a result of which the teacher loses his freedom, dignity, originality in this regard. Besides he becomes afraid, frustrated and incomplete in his teaching. This type of supervision leads to creation of misunderstanding in human relationship between inspecting person and the teacher. But it can be seriously said that the inspecting officers who are good and humble in nature and having balanced personality don’t exercise their autocratic attitude in supervision. This tendency among good inspecting officers enable the teacher to teach properly.
- Training and Direction:
This type of supervision is appreciated in the modern educational system because of its positive and lasting impact on the teaching performance of teachers. To this supervision as students or pupils are the central points in the teaching learning process, the teaching programme should be in accordance to the needs of every child. For this the teachers should be given in-service training on the latest developed methods of teaching for different subjects. After that the supervision work should be done. This type of supervision develops a great deal of interest, self-confidence and creativity among teachers to teach their subjects.
- Democratic Leadership:
The importance of democracy is not only recognized in political perspective but also recognized mostly as a way of life. It means there should be the influence of democracy on all aspects and spheres of human life. In this context education is not escaped. This type of supervision is highly appreciated in the modern educational system which points out that overall development of teaching and learning is the responsibility of one and all who are directly or indirectly linked with this process. So this supervision says that there will be no improvement of teaching and learning only through teachers. Rather the high level officers as the supervisory personnel have to participate in the teaching programme actively and help the teachers by giving suggestions for improvement if any in private. For this the supervisory personnel has to become aware about the problems and issues that arise in the field of teaching and learning and will try and help the teachers to solve it. Supervising employees or tasks is not a simple matter. Supervisors need a certain set of skills in order to accomplish their jobs efficiently and effectively. In this lesson, you’ll learn about some of these core skills. A short quiz follows.
Meet Melissa. She’s a supervisor at a company that manufactures toys. Her job is to oversee employees engaged in their assigned tasks and projects. Supervisors are front line mangers, which means that they are down on the ground and in the trenches. Melissa, like all supervisors, needs a specific set of skills to successfully supervise. In fact, the American Management Association has identified six essential skills that Melissa needs to master. (You can find more information on the association’s website.) Let’s take a quick look at each of these skills.
Management & Leadership
Supervisors may be on the lowest end of the management totem pole, but their leadership and management skills are absolutely essential to the success of any organization. Melissa is where the rubber hits the road; where the business of the business is done. She’s on the production room floor making sure that her employees are getting the toys produced. She needs to be able to set goals and prioritize. She also has to be able to delegate tasks to capable subordinates. Melissa must also be able to develop and coach her employees.
Melissa also needs to have effective communication skills. She needs to be able to inspire and persuade. She also needs to be an active listener, which is being able to understand not only the content of a message, but also its intent and the circumstances that the message is being communicated. She also needs to be able to read non-verbal communication cues, such as hand gestures and facial expressions.
Melissa needs collaboration skills that allow her to work with others to accomplish group goals. This skill gives her the ability to form alliances and teams, establish rapport with superiors and subordinates and effectively negotiate.
Supervisors need to be able to solve problems, and this means they must possess critical thinking skills. Melissa must be able to use logic and research to solve problems. She must be able to identify and avoid bias and errors in reasoning. She must also be able to come up with acceptable solutions to problems. She often must be able to do this under a high degree of pressure. Therefore they designate the supervisor as a leader who has possession of the following two qualities:
- A clear perspective of the school’s goals and awareness of its resources and qualities and another is,
- The ability to help others, contribute to this vision and to perceive and to act in accordance with it.
So it is now clear that the modern concept of supervision centres round the basic concept of instructional improvement through leadership and co-operation of all the agencies concerned. Keeping this in view Neagly and Evans have strongly viewed that, “Modem supervision in school is positive democratic action aimed at the improvement of classroom instruction through the continued growth of all concerned – the educed, the teacher, the supervisor, the administrator and the parents of others interested lay person.” Supporting this Barr and Burton have rightly stated that, “No doubt the aim of supervision is the improvement of teaching but this can be facilitated through the development of the teacher, the growth of the pupil and the improvement of the teaching-learning process as a whole. It has been clearly visualized that the supervision seeks to be democratic in nature out and out which demands constant efforts on the part of inspecting officers. They have to stimulate co-ordinate, guide for continued growth of the teacher in a school, both individually and collectively in better understanding and more effective performances of all teaching activities. As a result of which teachers may be better able to stimulate and guide the continued growth of every pupil towards the most intelligent participation in modern democratic society. This new concept is based on the belief that inspection and supervision are a co-operative enterprise in which both the teacher and inspecting officers have to participate actively. From this discussion the term inspection has got priority in supervision which was not stressed on in earlier days because the degree of success of any supervisory activity or programme depends upon the degree of inspection done by the inspecting officials. Because they are the real supervisors of the educational programme. As both supervision and inspection are meant for the same purpose and inspection covers almost all the areas of supervision there is no necessity of bringing difference between supervision and inspection.
Guidance to Teachers:
The supervisor has not only to supervise but also guide the headmaster and teachers in their efforts for ensuring qualitative improvement of education. For this supervision includes the following things in its jurisdiction:
- Innovations in teaching
- Remedial instruction
- Community mobilization and support
- Conducting seminars, conferences, meetings and workshops to discuss about problems and their solution.
7. Developmental Activities:
The supervisor supervises the developmental activities of the school in the following heads:
- Justification of developmental activities, proposals for extension of the school building.
- Allotment receipt and the progress made. Difficulties faced and the steps taken by the headmaster to wipe out the difficulties, and
- Construction of the new building and its progress.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8605 Spring 2020
Q5. Define educational Planning. What are the different types and goals of Educational planning? Educational planning is the process of preparing for your post-secondary education. Effective educational planning enables you to make a smooth transition from high school to college, further technical education or military service. A good educational plan will provide you and your family with a map of your future education and career goals.
When to Begin Educational Planning
What is educational planning? That is a question that parents and students answer within their planning for college and technical training. With accelerated programs starting in middle school now, educational planning can begin as early as middle school. Parents, administrators and teachers can help middle school students take advanced courses with educational goals in mind. Carefully planning middle and high school coursework can help prepare yourself for college. Many students miss important educational opportunities because they delay in making important educational decisions.
Choosing The Right School
The definition of educational planning varies by each student’s needs but one of the most important decisions you will make in this process is deciding which college or technical school to attend in preparation for a career. You must decide which school will provide the best training for the profession you have chosen. Other important issues are whether the school you are interested in is accredited by a recognized accrediting agency and if the school will be a good fit for your personal interests and talents.
A college education requires significant financial expenditures each year you are in school. If you wait until registration day to think about how you are going to pay for your education, you will find yourself facing a serious financial problem. The high cost of a college education makes effective educational planning imperative. Prospective students must consider the cost of tuition, books, housing, lab fees and vehicle expenses over the entire period they plan to be in school.
Application for School
Successful application to college requires thorough advance planning. Interested students must consider admission requirements, financial aid possibilities and any dual enrollment courses taken during high school. Most colleges also have application and financial aid deadlines that must be met for your application to be considered for your first term. An additional major concern when applying for acceptance to college are any undergraduate admission tests you must complete before your application can be considered to be complete.
College Application Essay
Colleges require that you submit an original essay that provides the admission review staff with information about yourself. Part of the definition of educational planning looks at the college application essay. The essay allows colleges to become better acquainted with you as a prospective student separate from the objective information you provided on your college application forms. Your essay may discuss significant experiences that have shaped your life or serious personal challenges you have faced. Other acceptable topics include diversity, significant accomplishments or important people who have affected your life.
Isn’t elementary school a little early to start thinking about college? Elementary school counselors lay the foundation for college and career readiness by making sure that students are prepared both socially and academically for a high level of academic rigor in the upper grades. For example, counselors should actively seek out students who are not performing up to grade-level standards according to test data to pair the student and their families to resources that will fill in the gaps for unsuccessful students. Elementary counselors may use mentoring programs, social skill guidance, study skill training, academic support programs, and/or parenting-involvement activities to help make students college and career ready. Depending on the needs of students, elementary counselors may develop transition assistance programs between feeder schools.
Middle School Counselors
What part do middle school counselors play? During the middle school years, counselors develop college and career readiness skills in students by helping them learn to set goals. When developing a plan, middle school counselors will review all of the same data as elementary school counselors, but will also look at students’ GPA (grade point average) when identifying students that need additional support. Middle school counselors will also connect students and parents with academic support programs, study skill training, parent involvement activities, transition programs. Some additional activities that middle school counselors may implement to meet the needs of students include collaborating with school staff about attendance and grading policies, encouraging interdisciplinary planning among teaching staff, developing community connections to educate students about future career options, encouraging enrollment in advanced coursework, and providing opportunities for students to learn about local colleges.