AIOU Solved Assignments code MSc 4688 Spring 2020 Assignment 2 Course: Methods of Social Research (4688) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Methods of Social Research (4688) MSc (2 Years)
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 4688 Spring 2020
Q.1 What are steps involved in questionnaire construction? Discuss in detail the different
types of interview. (25)
Many research questions are effectively answered by collecting data about the opinions, beliefs, and perceptions of large numbers of persons in widely dispersed areas. The questionnaire is an economical means of gathering such information. Properly designed questionnaires can collect valid and reliable data for analyzing a research problem. This article reviews fundamental principles of questionnaire design and presents a matrix to guide the construction of a questionnaire. Methods to avoid common problems and pitfalls in developing a questionnaire are also presented. Field testing is recommended to ensure validity and reliability.
A researcher’s attention to several fundamental principles for developing a questionnaire greatly enhances the likelihood that valid and reliable data will be gathered. Intended to assist the reader to develop questionnaires that collect valid and reliable data. Generally, the term validity refers to the ability of an instrument, such as a mailed questionnaire, to measure actually what the researcher intends to measure. Reliability refers to the consistency of a questionnaire in gathering data. Optimally, each time an individual responds to an item he or she should choose the same response.
To help refute or validate a hypothesis, include demographic information that can be used to test the relationship of sample to population and possibly the relationship of variables to one another. Sometimes more than one item for one hypothesis is necessary to elicit the information the researcher seeks.3, 5 For example, multiple items are needed if detailed information is sought or if the information is of a sensitive nature and must be elicited in a manner to keep the respondents inclined to provide the information.
Questionnaire for a particular study:
After carefully reviewing the advantages and limitations of using a questionnaire for a particular study, a researcher must decide if the advantages outweigh the limitations. The potential effects of using a questionnaire on the validity and reliability of the study must also be considered.4 Using a questionnaire simply because it is economical and easily administered may result in the collection of meaningless data. For example, suppose a researcher wishes to compare, one year after discharge, the functional ability of individuals who received a particular exercise regimen with individuals who did not. Using a questionnaire to ascertain individuals’ functional abilities probably would not yield valid and reliable data with the possible exception of what the subjects perceived their functional ability to be. In this example, the researcher should decide that a questionnaire is inappropriate for the study.
Because the purpose of a questionnaire is to elicit information from respondents in a consistent, and optimally, a standardized manner, the utmost care must be exercised when constructing each item. The information elicited by an item may be a fact, an attitude, or an opinion. If an item is poorly constructed, it may gather erroneous information that will be of questionable use to the researcher. Flawed items result in communication errors by respondents. These can be avoided by attention to the information desired and the format of the item.
Various forms of interview:
As a job seeker you can expect to have a number of interviews before getting a job offer. Not all of
these interviews will be the traditional kind, where you meet the interviewer one-on-one for a
discussion. You may instead be invited to a panel interview with several interviewers at once, a stress
Check Also: AIOU