AIOU Solved Assignments code M.A 3607 Spring 2020 Assignment 2 Course: Physical Handicaps—I (3607) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Physical Handicaps—I (3607) MA 2 Years
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 3607 Spring 2020
Q.1 Describe the types of Spina Bifida in detail. Give the appropriate management of each condition. (10+10)
Spina bifida is the most common birth defect that afflicts newborns, with one out of every 1,000 babies being born with the condition. The literal translation for spina bifida is “open spine.” In this condition, the spine does not fully develop before a child is born and the spinal cord may literally protrude out from the lower back of the infant. The location and the extent of the defect determine the severity of each case.
Each vertebra in our spines controls different bodily functions, by way of associated nerves. With the underdeveloped lower vertebrae, children born with spina bifida most commonly face difficulties with controlling bladder and bowel function as well as with mobility.
Within minutes of birth, children born with spina bifida may be whisked into surgery to secure the spinal cord back into the body. Individuals with the least severe cases may have difficulties with excreting urine and having bowel movements, but remain able to walk without assistance. In the most severe cases, individuals never acquire the ability to walk without leg braces or may be confined to wheelchairs for life.
Types of Spina Bifida
There are three types of spina bifida. The mildest form is spina bifida occulta. Spina bifida meningocele is a moderate form, while spina bifida myelomeningocele is the most severe form. Those born with spina bifida occulta do not endure the long-terms effects of the other two more severe forms. In spina bifida meningocele, meninges push through the missing portion of the spine, forming a cyst at the back of the affected vertebra, but the cyst does not protrude through the skin. In spina bifida myelomeningocele, a portion of the spinal cord protrudes through the skin, leaving an “open spine.” The exposed cord is subject to infection.
The majority of the babies born with spina bifida myelomeningocele are also born with hydrocephalus (“water on the brain”), in which bodily fluids fail to filter out of the brain. The fluid collected in an infant’s fragile brain can cause significant brain damage if not taken care of immediately. A shunt is inserted into the baby’s head shortly after birth. Once inserted, the shunt remains an integral part of the individual for his entire life. Shunts need to be replaced whenever a blockage occurs. When a shunt ceases to function, fluid once again collects in the brain. The individual will experience an excruciating headache with continuous pressure until a new shunt is put in place.
The lower end of the spine is integral to our abilities to control bladder and bowel excretions. Due to the undeveloped spine, the majority of individuals who are born with spina bifida face challenges of incontinence.
Depending on the severity of each case, mobility impairment can range from having a slightly disordered gait to being assisted by leg braces or a wheelchair.
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