AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 3608 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code M.A/M/Ed 3608 Spring 2020 Assignments 1& 2  Course:Physical Handicaps—II (3608) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

Physical Handicaps-II (3608) MA/M.Ed  2 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 3608 Spring 2020

Q.1 Describe the Muscular Dystrophy in detail. How does the Muscular Dystrophy affect the musculoskeletal system of a child?     (10+10)

Muscular Dystrophy,

Muscular diseases in children can be very debilitating and tend to cause a lot of concern for parents. Between muscular dystrophy and metabolic disease of the muscles, children experience symptoms of weakened muscles that are important for various aspects of physical functioning such as running, walking and even the functioning of enzymes that help break down glucose (sugar).

Muscle wasting can be caused by a number of neuromuscular diseases. Muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy are two of the most common. These neuromuscular diseases can be subdivided into more specific disorders that lead to muscle wasting as a result of slightly different processes. Despite minor differences, they are all characterized by the weakening and wasting of muscle tissue. Muscle wasting is progressive in nature and the extent of degeneration is often unpredictable. Although many muscle wasting illnesses are slow onset, many are apparent and destructive to individuals throughout childhood.

Neuromuscular Disease

For muscle wasting to occur, abnormalities must be present in certain systems of the body. Neuromuscular diseases include a broad collection of illnesses and they arise as a result of impairment of the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system. These major systems in the body include the brain and spine and the nerve muscle junctions, peripheral nerves in limbs and motor nerve cells in the spinal cord. These nerve cells are also known as motor and relay neurons.


Muscle wasting diseases vary in form and severity greatly. In children the strands of muscular dystrophy likely to be seen are Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and myotonic muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy symptoms are usually seen between ages 2 and 6; Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is apparent by age 10, and myotonic muscular dystrophy may begin in the teen years.


Muscle wasting in children is caused by recessive defective genes that are passed on from parent to offspring or a present as a result of a random mutation. The outcome of defective genes being present varies and the impairment caused by them will dictate the severity of the muscle wasting and the manner in which it occurs. In general, the defect in the genes cause muscle wasting by adversely affecting or hindering the synthesis of proteins–directly or indirectly. In rare cases, the defective gene results in degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Consequently, nervous impulses from the brain are unable to be sent down motor neurons to muscle cells, causing the muscle to deteriorate and waste. According to research done by the University Hospital of Columbia and Cornell, this type of wasting affects around four in every 100,000 people.


Symptoms associated with muscle wasting vary with the illness. Children suffering from muscle wasting illnesses can often be born floppy and weak, causing feeding and breathing problems. If signs do not appear at birth, symptoms may be detected later. These symptoms in children include general weakness and increasing weakness in muscles around the body. Respiratory problems and heart failure are also associated with muscle wasting.


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AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 3608 Spring 2020

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