AIOU Solved Assignments code M.Sc 4651 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2 Course:Gender and Development (4651) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Gender and Development (4651) MSc 2 Years
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 4651 Spring 2020
0.1 Define development. Compare and contrast the approaches women in development (WI D) and gender and development (GAD). (20)
Over the years development programs have been criticized for ignoring gender roles and the impact it has on women in the global south. However we see a shift to integrate women into development programs in hopes of eradicating poverty and low social economical status. The six main theoretical approaches are: “(1) the welfare approach; (2) women in development (WID); (3) women and development (WAD); (4) gender and development (GAD); (5) the effectiveness approach (EA); and (6) mainstream gender equality (MGE). Martinez tries to understand the various outcomes and effectiveness of all 6 development theories.
Despite the effort to reinforce gender mainstreaming into society we still see a vast number of gender inequality especially in the developing world. Women make up the 70% of individuals living in poverty and in sub-Saharan Africa 57% of HIV infected individuals are women. This also includes the disproportionate ratio of women to men in the job market and at leadership position, low level of education among women, and low socio-economic status among women.
The term “Women, Gender and Development” could be seen a discipline much like ever other area of knowledge. However, what sets it apart from various disciplines is that, its major contributors are individuals that raise issues and concerns, concerning women, gender and development. These are academics, feminist activists and development practitioner.
In 1972 Ann Oakley, was able to distinguish the difference between sex and gender. Gender refers to one’s sexuality based on masculinity and femininity and sex refers to the biological features of one physiology. With the rise and popularity of the term gender, came with its misusage of its actual meaning. For example, as Most development agencies and NGO’s supported its terminology, however they used it as a reference point when talking about mainly women issues. Today the term gender has become more popularized, that it is usually linked to a wide range of sectors like politics, economics, environment and health.
Social assistance or the “welfare approach” originated back 1950s to the 1970s during the era of decolonization and political transitioning in most African and Asian countries. The welfare approach was a response to most of the newly independent countries outcomes of inequalities among the local elites and the common man in each nation.
Most international development agencies applied a very western approach towards helping these nations develop. Some of these theories where the modernization theory, and the Malthusian theory (Population vs. Resources). These brought about a negative impact and outcome towards most developing nations development and it also help to further impede on its progress.
Concerning feminine conditions
Women in development (WID) approach, was originated as a result of three major feminist moments/waves concerning feminine conditions. The first two were due to the feminist waves. The first wave also known as women’s suffrage movement, originated in the North America back in the late 19th century, when women fought for the equal right to vote and participate in politics. The second-wave of feminism sought to deal with the remaining social and cultural inequalities women were faced with in everyday affair i.e. sexual violence, reproductive rights, sexual discrimination and glass ceilings. The second wave was very controversial however the women’s movement was very influential that the UN organized the first global conference on women back in 1975 at Mexico. The conference sought to address nations role on fighting gender inequalities and support women’s right. The third.
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