AIOU Solved Assignments code MSc 4652 Spring 2020 Assignment 2 Course:Women and Development (4652) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Women and Development (4652) MSc 2 Years
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 4652 Spring 2020
Q 1. Describe the functions performed by women as agents of rural development. Also highlight the obstacles in the formal recognition of women as agents of rural development. (20)
Rural women, who constitute one-fourth of the world’s population, continue to face more difficulty than men in accessing public services, social protection, employment and markets, due to cultural norms, security issues and lack of identification documents. According to the United Nations, rural women account for a great proportion of the world’s agricultural labour force, produce the majority of food grown, especially in subsistence farming, and perform most of the unpaid care work in rural areas.
Agriculture provides a livelihood for 86 percent of rural women and men and employment for about 1.3-billion smallholder farmers and landless workers — 43 percent are women. Their rights and contributions have been largely overlooked to date.
The UN’s World Food Programme Gender Policy and Strategy have indicated that gender inequality is a major cause and effect of hunger and poverty, estimating that 60 percent of chronically hungry people are women and girls.
Facts and figures drawn from the inter-agency report, “Rural Women and the Millennium Development Goals”, show that men’s average wages are higher than women’s in both rural and urban areas.
Rural women typically work longer hours than men — they also have domestic and child care responsibilities. In Benin and Tanzania, women are said to work 17.4 and 14 hours more than men per week, respectively.
In some countries, the amount of time spent collecting water alone significantly impacts on women’s employment opportunities. In sub-Saharan Africa, women collectively spend about 40-billion hours a year collecting water.
If rural women had equal access to productive resources, agricultural yields could reduce the number of chronically hungry people by between 100 and 150-million. However, studies show persistent gaps that impact the lives of rural women.
Education, literacy key
Education remains another area in which more has to be done to help reduce the rate of illiteracy. Women make up more than two-thirds of the world’s 796-million illiterate people.
According to global statistics, just 39 percent of rural girls attend secondary school. This is far fewer than rural boys (45 percent), urban girls (59 percent) and urban boys (60 percent).
Staying in primary school alone means, every additional year increases girls’ eventual wages by 10-20 percent. It also encourages them to marry later and have fewer children, and leaves them less vulnerable to violence.
The UN indicated that progress has been made in reducing the gender gap in urban primary school enrolment, but data from 42 countries shows that rural girls are twice as likely as urban girls to be out of school. In Egypt, Indonesia and several African countries, building local schools in rural communities increased girls’ enrolment. Educating women would also mean that a large gender gap in their access to decision-making and leadership can be curtailed.
Women’s empowerment for rural development
- a strategy for women’s empowerment for rural development. Empowerment can enable women to
participate, as equal citizens, in the economic, political and social sustainable development of the rural
communities. The findings outlined in this paper suggest that, designed and implemented in ways that
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