AIOU Solved Assignments code MSc 4653 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2 Course: Perspectives on Gender Studies MSc Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 1& 2
Perspectives on Gender Studies (4653) MSc (2 Years)
AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 4653 Spring 2020
Q 1. What is the importance of Gender and Women Studies? Do you think it is educational arm of the Women’s movement?
Although women were primarily ignored, barred, and/or disenfranchised within most scientific communities prior to the women’s rights movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s (for a notable exception in Sociology, see Dorothy Swaine Thomas), women have contributed to scientific disciplines, methods, and theories since at least the 1830’s. Following the establishment of women’s academic conferences and coordinated protests of the American Sociological Association’s annual meetings during the 1970’s, women made significant inroads into Sociology. For example, women such as Dorothy E. Smith, Joan Acker, Myra Marx Ferree, Patricia Yancey Martin, and bell hooks were all pioneers in Sociology who developed insights and empirical findings that challenged much of existing sociological practice, knowledge, and methods. These early scholars also founded women’s academic organizations like Sociologists for Women in Society to lobby for the admittance and inclusion of minority people and perspectives within scientific disciplines. The theoretical perspectives these and subsequent scholars developed was is broadly referred to as Feminist Theory. The name derives from the ties many of these individuals had and continue to have with women’s movement organizations, the promotion of minority perspectives, their experience in relation to the subjective nature of scientific practice, and commitment to principles of social justice. Feminist Theory uncovered a vast “herstory” of women’s (and other minority) academic thinking, writing, and activism, and integrated insights from these essays and studies into the scientific enterprise. In so doing, these scholars uncovered many ways that Feminist theorists from as far back as the 1830’s had already introduced insights – such as the Social Constructionism, Intersectional, and the subjective nature and critical possibilities of scientific work -that have become crucial to scientific research and theorizing across disciplines.
Gender refers to the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave. It is not possible to determine the extent to which culture or biology determines differences in behaviors or attitudes between males or females. Although biology sets broad limits on gender definitions, there is a wide range of ideas about what it means to be feminine or masculine. Margaret Mead demonstrated this gender based variation in her classical study of sex and temperament in New Guinea.
Gender study and different forms:
Gender study has many different forms. One view exposed by the philosopher Simone de Beauvoir said: “One is not born a woman, one becomes one”. This view proposes that in gender studies, the term “gender” should be used to refer to the social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities, not to the state of being male or female in its entirety. However, this view is not held by all gender theorists. Other areas of gender study closely examine the role that the biological states of being male or female (anatomical, physiological, and genetical explanations of male and female body parts, structure and nature of functions of body organs, genetic carriers etc.) have on social constructs of gender. Specifically, in what way gender roles are defined by biology and how they are defined by cultural trends. The field emerged from a number of different areas: the sociology of the 1950s and later (see Sociology of gender); the theories of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan; and the work of feminists such as Judith Butler.
Psychology and psychoanalysis:
Gender is an important area of study in many disciplines, such as literary theory, drama studies, film theory, performance theory, contemporary art history, anthropology, sociology, psychology and psychoanalysis. These disciplines sometimes differ in their approaches to how and why they study gender. For instance in anthropology, sociology and psychology, gender is often studied as a practice, whereas in cultural studies representations of gender are more often examined. Gender studies are also a discipline in itself: an interdisciplinary area of study that incorporates methods and approaches from a wide range of disciplines.
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