AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code MSc 4686 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course:Introduction to Sociology: Social Change & Social Institutions (4686)  Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

Introduction to Sociology: Social Change & Social Institutions (4686) MSc (2 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

Q.1      The process of social change involves multiple factors; discuss this statement with

reference to different theories of social change in detail. (25)

Sociology is the study of all aspects of societies. Sociologists study the role of social institutions, of interpersonal relationships, and of social problems. This involves both the pressure of people on society as well as the pressure of society on people. Most sociologists view society as a purely man-made invention. As such, societies are not stagnant they are constantly reforming and evolving in response to the actions of people. Sociologists who study these phenomena are studying social change.

Functional Theory:

Functional theorists believe that individuals within a society evaluate their peers and place them in the social order according to how well that person performs in terms of values. Social stratification insures an effective role in allocation; the most qualified people within a society hold the highest ranking positions. Functionalists tend to focus on the individual and how social forces influence behavior. They are less focused on freewill and the ability individuals have to shape their own destiny.

Structural Theory:

Structuralism is the study of the relationship between people rather than the individual. It emphasizes relations between elements within a culture, such as kinship and language. Linkage principles are the heart of structuralism. Structural theorists focus on the order of social structure without consideration for individual influence. For instance, families, schools and churches are social structures. A structural theorist studies the relationship between the social structure and its members, but not how or why an individual within the social structure may have control over other members.

Marxism Theory:

Marxism theory bases social life on conflicts of interest and attempts to explain how and why societies change. It is the belief that class conflict brings about change through opposition within social classes. Marxists theories are not focused on individuals but on social structure and how individuals act together as a social class. Marxists believe that alienation is a form of control as well as a reason for unlawful actions among individuals.

Theory Combinations:

Structural functionalism follows the belief that each institution, relationship and individual role collectively serves a purpose in the whole of a society. It focuses on positive and negative functions of social structures in an attempt to explain the structures role in society. It is the study of the positions held by individuals and not the individuals themselves.

Structural Marxism is the belief that social phenomena serve to legitimate and reproduce inequality and exploitation. Studies focus on the effects of political influence on lower class communities, realizing the vast size of these communities can be used to influence other social classes.


In order for social change to occur, some theorists believe that a group of people must have certain characteristics. These include a belief that they are at risk for a problem with serious consequences, a belief that a suggested behavior will lessen or eliminate the problem and the skills and intention to perform the suggested behavior. The aforementioned qualities are key components of some of the most common theories on social change.

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AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 4686 Spring 2020

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