AIOU Solved Assignments code MA/M.Ed 6505 Spring 2020 Assignment 2 Course: Islamic System of Education (6505) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Islamic System of Education (6505) MSc (2 Years)
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6505 Spring 2020
Q.1 Give historical perspective of teaching in Islam. Also discuss the position of teacher in
Islamic history. (10+10)
The term ‘education’ in Islam is understood and comprehended in a totally different manner to what is understood within Western societies. As we explored, the general understanding of an educated individual within Western societies is someone who possesses critical faculties and is perceived as being autonomous with aesthetic sensitivity. From an Islamic perspective an educated individual might possess similar attributes; however the necessary component that is required is belief and knowledge of how to worship God and how to live life in accordance to the Islamic laws.
There is no one word that describes ‘education’ within the Arabic language, however scholars generally tend to use three different words. Tarbiyah comes from the root word raba (to grow, to increase, to rear, spiritual nurturing), which implies a state of ethical and spiritual nurturing in developing the individuals potential and guidance of the child to the state of complete maturity. Ta’dib is derived from the root word aduba (to be refined, disciplined, cultured, well mannered), which suggests the social aspects of a human being including the process of character development and good social behavior. Ta’lim stems from the root word of `alima (to know, to be informed, to perceive, to learn, to discern), this refers to knowledge, the imparting and receiving of it through instruction and teaching.
The very first teachers were commissioned by the Prophet, and like him they taught for free. Next to him they were the architects of an educated society whose leaders were truly its teachers. Members of this society, the teachers and the taught, were collectively and individually responsible for upholding its moral standards and correcting lapses: – bidding to honour, forbidding dishonour.’ The number of kuttabs (learned) and mu’allams (teachers) in the Muslim world increased rapidly and on a large scale until almost every village had its own kuttab if not more than one. In Palermo, for example, Ibn Hawqal on his visit to Sicily claimed to have counted about 300 elementary teachers. A contemporary of Caliph Umar’s, Jubayr b. Hayya, who was later an official and governor, was a teacher in a school in Taif. Famous men like al-Hadjadd and the poet’s al-Kumayt and al-Tirimmah are said to have been schoolmasters.
In the search for knowledge, al-Faruqi insists, – everybody felt himself to be a conscript.’ In early times it was thought wrong to take pay for teaching, especially the Qur’an and religion. This was carried to extremes; a man fell into a well and would not let a pupil pull him out, lest this should be considered payment for his teaching. A scholar bought some things at a shop, more than he could comfortably carry, so the shop-keeper offered to carry some for him. On the way the shop-keeper asked a question. Before he would answer it, the scholar took from him what he was carrying. The voluntary help would have become payment. A youth studied the traditions without paying any fee, but when he asked to read al-Mutanabbi with the commentary of Abu Zakariya, his teacher demanded a fee because it was poetry; the boy’s father paid five dinars in advance. A man took a mithqal of silver a day for teaching someone the Qur’an; the instruction lasted for five or six months but at the end the money was returned to the student because the payment had been only a test of his zeal.
How were these scholars able to devote so much to the performance of such intellectual feats? According to Pedersen, it was largely because most of them lived a life of ‘great contentment.’ Learning, the life of the intellect, was ‘intimately bound up with religion, and to devote oneself to both afforded an inner satisfaction and was [a] service to God it not only made men of letters willing to accept deprivation; even more, it prompted others to lend them aid.’ The Mosques received a wide variety of aid and grants for scholars from a number of institutions. – No matter what their social origins, the subsistence of the scholars was assured, often in ‘liberal measures’.’
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