AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.ed 8601 Spring & Autumn 2020 assignments 1 and 2  Course: General Method of Teaching (8601) spring 2020. AIOU past papers

General Method of Teaching (8601) B.ed 1.5 Years
Autumn, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

Q. 1  Answer the following questions briefly:                                (5×4=20)

i.       Differentiate between active learning and cooperative learning

Active learning is any teaching method that gets students actively involved; cooperative learning is one variety of active learning which structures students into groups with defined roles for each student and a task for the group to accomplish. Lecture-based library instruction is often unsuccessful for many reasons, including poor student attention, simplified examples, and too much material presented at one time. Active and/or cooperative teaching techniques involve the students in the class and increase retention of information following the class period. Active learning techniques are easier to apply and take less class time, while cooperative learning techniques require more advance planning and may take an entire class period. Choosing a teaching technique must be done carefully, with an understanding of the goals of the class session. Several possible goals are detailed, along with suggested techniques for meeting each one.

To be honest, a lot of us haven’t always been believers in cooperative learning. When a lot of us first started teaching, cooperative learning might be one of those concepts in our textbooks that sounded wonderful in theory, but left us with a lot of questions of how it would actually work in our classrooms. However, this graduate school project is pretty good at changing most teachers’ minds about cooperative learning.

For this semi-hypothetical project, students are required to implement cooperative learning for a unit and take data on their students’ progress. You might went into the project thinking it would be a disaster, but you’ll be pleasantly surprised when the data shows that all of your students made progress in their academic skills! This obviously isn’t always the case but the likelihood of improvement is statistically significant enough that its likely to change most student-teachers’ minds.

In cooperative learning, students work together in groups to complete a project or task. The goals are for students to learn how to contribute to a team, demonstrate individual responsibility, and also share accountability for the outcomes of the group.

Now that we know what cooperative learning is, let’s take a look at some of the benefits of this powerful strategy.

Benefits of Cooperative Learning

As we saw from our opening example, one of the main benefits of cooperative learning is that it can positively impact academic achievement. However, academics aren’t the only thing that get a boost! Cooperative learning can also increase students’ self-esteem because students learn they are important to a group’s success. It can also improve their social skills by teaching students how to communicate or work through conflict.

Additionally, students engage in higher-level thinking in cooperative learning. As students talk with others in their group, they hear differing thoughts and opinions. Finally, cooperative learning strategies allow for more students to be actively involved in the lesson because each must contribute in order for the group to be successful.

With the knowledge of these benefits, let’s discuss some cooperative learning strategies that you can use in your classroom.

ii.      Write down the five merits of lessons planning for the teachers.

Read on to know about the advantages of a lesson plan for teachers:

  • Helps evaluate lessons: Just like teachers conduct exams to assess the understanding levels of students, educators also require a system that would help them evaluate their own performance as a teacher. If you compare your teaching technique with your lesson plan, you would immediately be more aware of how helpful your explanations are to your pupils. It would make education more student-friendly and really interesting.
  • Adds confidence: A lesson plan makes you more confident as you impart lessons to your students. Therefore, you start sounding smarter, thanks to your increased self-esteem. This happens since you know exactly what you are about to teach and how you would go about it. For instance, you can refer to your lesson plan to check what kind of assignments you would allot to learners to assess their knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Stimulate student interest: Most students seem to dislike the idea of sitting through a boring lecture irrespective of the subject! But your lesson plan can be an excellent value-add to your lectures that has the potential to make your students eagerly await your next learning session. A good lesson plan might contain a few attractive illustrations that can make a topic seem easier for most students.
  • Allows visualization: When you have a plan right in front of you, you are instantly able to visualize each and every step of your teaching procedure. It prepares you for your class as you start forming ideas about how to introduce a topic and continue with it. You also get hints about how you must simplify the core concepts of a particular topic. Successful teachers always use lesson plans to make their lectures innovative.

Gives scope for improvement: Topics like Calculus or Organic Chemistry might prove to be slightly challenging for teachers as well as students. Now if you expect your students to score brilliant grades in such topics during their exams, you must give your best effort as a teacher. If you follow a detailed lesson outline it would greatly inspire you to improve your future teaching sessions.

  1. Define the term motivation.

Why do we do what we do? Motivation is the term that we use to describe why people move towards certain actions and goals but not others. Learn about the concept of motivation and a few important theories psychologists have developed to try and explain our behavior.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

What do you think is motivating you to read this lesson at this very moment? Motivation refers to the reasons that we act towards a goal. Psychologists understand that motivation can only be understood through behavior. Although only you can fully explain the many factors that have you reading this lesson right now, psychologists have created theories to try to understand and explain behavior.

From these theories we can make a few educated guesses about your present situation:

  • You are not worried about being hit by a car. Most likely you are at home or in another location where you feel safe.
  • You are probably not hungry to the point of starving. Perhaps you are even snacking while you read this!
  • You are not outside in freezing weather or a hurricane or sitting in a desert without water.

These are just a few of the guesses we can make based on a theory of motivation developed by famous behavioral psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow believed that basic needs must be met before we can satisfy our other, less basic needs.

  1. Enlist the methods that come under the inquiry approach.

If you’re familiar with the definition of inquiry-based learning, feel free to skip this section.

For the many educators who aren’t, it is a learning and teaching method that prioritizes student questions, ideas and analyses. To highlight the pedagogy’s nuances, it is important to define inquiry-based learning from both a learner and teacher perspective.

From a student point-of-view, inquiry-based learning focuses on investigating an open question or problem. They must use evidence-based reasoning and creative problem-solving to reach a conclusion, which they must defend or present.

From a teacher point-of-view, inquiry-based teaching focuses on moving students beyond general curiosity into the realms of critical thinking and understanding. You must encourage students to ask questions and support them through the investigation process, understanding when to begin and how to structure an inquiry activity.

Using methods such as guided research, document analysis and question-and-answer sessions, you can run inquiry activities in the form of:

  • Case studies
  • Group projects
  • Research projects
  • Field work, especially for science lessons
  • Unique exercises tailored to your students

Whichever kind of activity you use, it should allow students to develop unique strategies for solving open questions.

  • Enlist the steps to plan discussion?                                                        

the steps involved in planning a project. Each step will lay out what needs to be done before moving on to the next step. After going through the steps, you should be able to create a project plan for any project.

Planning a Project

Were you just handed your first project and now you have no idea where to start? Following the steps in this lesson will guide you through planning each step of the project. Projects are broken into phases to make it easier to manage them. Planning a project is the second phase of the project life cycle. During the first phase, the initiation phase, the scope document was created, stakeholders were identified, and high-level requirements were gathered. This lesson will walk through each step of planning the project, from creating the required documents, how and when to schedule your meetings, and getting approvals to start the work.

Project Documentation

The most important part of planning the project is creating the project plan. The project plan provides the blueprint for the project and should contain all of the information necessary to execute and monitor the project. There are multiple documents that should be included in the project plan:

  • The scope document, which defines the exact results the project is supposed to deliver.
  • The high-level business requirements, and these are the initial requirements that are provided by the customer. For example, the customer needs 35 blue widgets.
  • The budget and schedule is the estimate for how much it will cost to complete the project and how long it will take to complete.
  • The roles and responsibilities document is a formal document that describes the roles and expectations for every stakeholder on the project team.
  • The governance document details the process for making any changes to the project once the project plan has been completed. For example, if the customer decides he needs 75 blue widgets half way through the project, the project team will agree how this will be handled.
  • The communication plan is a formal plan that details the types of communication that will be sent, how often, and to whom.
  • The risk and contingencies plan is a document where the team works to identify any potential risks to the project and then develops a plan to minimize or avoid these risks.

The project plan is the document that includes every task that will be completed during the project. Each task will be assigned a resource or a task owner. At this point in the project, the project plan starts with some high-level chunks of work and during subsequent planning meetings, each team member will identify the detailed tasks to be completed.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

Q. 2  Reflect some common qualities of primary teachers. Why are these qualities required for effective classroom learning?                                                                     (20)

Every teacher wants to be a good teacher, but what is this myth about being a “good teacher”? Who is it? What are the characteristics? And how can you become one?

Almost anyone can become a teacher, but it takes a special person to be a great teacher. To inspire not just a great student, but a great person, a teacher must rise above the crowd and make a lasting impression. So what does a student remember for years to come? Which characteristics make a great teacher?


A great teacher is sensitive to their students’ needs. On a child’s first day of kindergarten, when they are crying for their parents and refusing to participate in class, a great teacher sits with them until they calm down. In middle school, when a child enters adolescence, overwhelmed by learning not just academics, but learning about themselves a great teacher is patient, understanding and available to talk. And in high school and college, when faced with the task of planning their future, a student looks for a teacher to provide insight and wisdom.


Why should a student be excited about learning when their teacher is not excited about teaching? No teacher can be great without loving what they do. To excite and inspire a student requires excitement and a passion for the material itself. Enthusiasm is contagious. All it takes for a student to get excited about going to class is a teacher who is excited and whose positive energy fills the classroom.


Creativity is key to captivating a student. So often when someone reflects on their education, they remember a particular moment in the classroom that stayed with them. They remember when a teacher turned the table of elements into a rap or used an episode of The Real World to illustrate an invaluable life lesson. They remember the group projects that involved more painting than writing, the role-plays and the fun games to test their knowledge. Showing a student something they haven’t seen before even showing them something familiar but in a new way is the surest way to leave an impression that lasts for years.


A great teacher must be dedicated to their students, with an unwavering commitment to their education and well being. It’s easy to be enthusiastic about teaching when things are going well but teaching isn’t always easy. Like with any job, teachers occasionally have their bad days, but a dedicated teacher realizes the rewards of teaching are far more important. In the face of frustration, a dedicated teacher continues trying to reach each of their students, and they exercise the patience needed to ensure that a disinterested student still learns. This requires being flexible and adapting to each student. A great teacher never gives up.


When it comes to teaching, many people associate strictness with unpopularity. On the other hand, some adults look back on their education and remember their strictest teachers as some of their best. How can this be? The truth is there are ways to enforce rules without being too strict. While it’s important to establish trust and communication with students, it’s also important to bring structure and organization to the classroom. Having fair expectations of students ensures they learn how to prioritize, manage their time and listen attentively. A great teacher imposes rules and makes demands of their students, but in a way that is not intimidating. Having structure in the classroom does not have to include being overly strict, and over time students appreciate the value of discipline.

One of the truest marks of a great teacher is the ability to bring out the best in students. A great teacher recognizes their students’ potential to become great people, and they inspire them to be just that.

What is conductive learning environment.

This is not a feel-good implication, but really crucial for the whole learning process to work.

The role of curiosity has been studied (and perhaps under-studied and under-appreciated), but suffice to say that if a learner enters any learning activity with little to no natural curiosity, prospects for meaningful interaction with texts, media, and specific tasks are bleak. (Interested in how to kill learner curiosity in 12 easy steps?)

Many teachers force students (proverbial gun to head) to ask questions at the outset of units or lessons, often to no avail. Cliché questions that reflect little understanding of the content can discourage teachers from “allowing” them. But the fact remains—if students can’t ask great questions—even as young as elementary school—something, somewhere is unplugged.

Questions are valued over answers

Questions are more important than answers. So it makes sense that if good questions should lead the learning, there would be value placed on these questions. And that means adding currency whenever possible—grades (questions as assessment!), credit (give them points—they love points), creative curation (writing as a kind of graffiti on large post-it pages on the classroom walls), or simply praise and honest respect. See if you don’t notice a change.

Ideas come from a divergent sources

Ideas for lessons, reading, tests, and projects—the fiber of formal learning—should come from a variety of sources. If they all come from narrow slivers of resources, you’re at risk of being pulled way off in one direction (that may or may not be good). An alternative? Consider sources like professional and cultural mentors, the community, content experts outside of education, and even the students themselves. Huge shift in credibility.

Inquiry-based learning, project-based learning, direct instruction, peer-to-peer learning, school-to-school, eLearning, Mobile learning, the flipped classroom, and on and on—the possibilities are endless. Chances are, none are incredible enough to suit every bit of content, curriculum, and learner diversity in your classroom. A characteristic of a highly-effective classroom, then, is diversity here, which also has the side-effect of improving your long-term capacity as an educator.

Classroom learning “empties” into a connected community

In a highly-effective learning environment, learning doesn’t need to be radically repackaged to make sense in the “real world,” but starts and ends there.

As great as it sounds for learners to reflect on Shakespeare to better understand their Uncle Eddie—and they might—depending on that kind of radical transfer to happen entirely in the minds of the learners by design may not be the best idea. Plan on this kind of transfer from the beginning.

Learning is personalized by a variety of criteria

Personalized learning is likely the future, but for now the onus for routing students is almost entirely on the shoulders of the classroom teacher. This makes personalization—and even consistent differentiation—a challenge. One response is to personalize learning—to whatever extent you plan for—by a variety of criteria—not just assessment results or reading level, but interest, readiness-for-content, and others as well.

Assessment is persistent, authentic, transparent, and never punitive

Assessment is just an (often ham-fisted) attempt to get at what a learner understands. The more infrequent, clinical, murky, or threatening it is, the more you’re going to separate the “good students” from the “good thinkers.” And the “clinical” idea has less to do with the format of the test, and more to do with the tone and emotion of the classroom in general. Why are students being tested? What’s in it for them, and their future opportunities to improve?

Criteria for success is balanced and transparent

Students should not have to guess what “success” in a highly-effective classroom looks like. It should also not be entirely weighted on “participation,” assessment results, attitude, or other individual factors, but rather meaningfully melted into a cohesive framework that makes sense—not to you, your colleagues, or the expert book on your shelf, but the students themselves.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

Q. 3  Describe all the stages involved in lesson planning.                   (20)

Lesson planning is a vital component of the teaching-learning process. Proper classroom planning will keep teachers organized and on track while teaching, thus allowing them to teach more, help students reach objectives more easily and manage less. The better prepared the teacher is, the more likely she/he will be able to handle whatever unexpectedly happens in the lesson.

Lesson planning:

  • provides a coherent framework for smooth efficient teaching.
  • helps the teacher to be more organized.
  • gives a sense of direction in relation to the syllabus.
  • helps the teacher to be more confident when delivering the lesson.
  • provides a useful basis for future planning.
  • helps the teacher to plan lessons which cater for different students.

Process lesson planning?

If Scrivener’s processes of ‘prediction, anticipation, sequencing, organising and simplifying’ resonate with you, it’s probably because you already encourage your own students to go through these processes when they produce a piece of writing. In ELT, this approach to the teaching of writing is widely known as ‘Process Writing’, and has been described as one ‘which stresses the creativity of the individual writer, and which pays attention to the development of good writing practices rather than the imitation of models. Process Writing involves students generating ideas, focusing, structuring, drafting, evaluating and reviewing their work before it is published and read by the target audience.

Could these processes be more effectively applied to lesson planning? Teachers are already doing this in one form or another (whether mentally or on paper), because essentially, that’s what planning is. Just as Process Writing aims to focus and give structure to the author’s ideas before they begin to write, adjusting planning practices to incorporate these processes may help teachers address the aforementioned problems. I call this form of lesson planning ‘Process Planning’. What follows are some concrete suggestions of how to apply Process Planning in practice.

Time limits

Before they even put pen to paper, we tell our students how long they have in order to complete the writing task we have set. Planning is no different: in order to reduce the time we spend on it, working to a deadline is a must. Generally speaking, a good planning to teaching ratio to go by is 2:1 ie. no more than one hour planning for every two hours taught. The most important thing is to set deadlines before you begin, and stick to them. One way of self-enforcing this is by arranging an appointment, such as a coffee date, when your planning time is up. Alternatively, beginning your planning shortly before your class has the same result.

Another option is to experiment with ‘pyramid’ time-keeping. On Day 1, allow yourself 60 minutes to plan the lesson, on Day 2, 50 minutes, and so on. After you teach each lesson make a note of how the time limit affected the quality of the lesson you planned. Did the extra minutes make a difference? What did you do differently in order to meet the deadline?

Covering classes at short notice are a sure-fire way to improve your confidence in planning to a deadline. A lot of teachers said that doing standbys helped them with their planning because it forced them to focus and do it quickly. If your teaching centre does not already have a standby rota in place, why not put your name forward?

Answering the question

At times, we may fall into the trap of planning activities we perceive to be ‘fun’, rather than those that achieve the aims. To remind learners to focus their answer, we often ask them to write the question at the top of their paper, and underline or highlight the key words. Teachers should do the same with their lesson aims, referring back to it at later points in the planning process.

Ideas generation

Another point to consider is the layout of your plan, and how this best reflects the way you think. One colleague, Peter, always draws his plans in the form of an elaborate mind-map, starting at one o’clock and working clockwise towards the conclusion of the lesson. He says that representing the lesson in this way helps him to ‘see’ the lesson on the paper, and supports his visual learning style. Margot, on the other hand, draws her plans as two-column tables, writing what she will do with the coursebook software on the left, and on the right a reminder of her board-work. Why not experiment with layout and see what works best for you? The most important factor to consider here is how easy the plan is to refer to during the course of the lesson itself.


As teachers, we are often encouraged to reflect upon how the lesson we taught differed from our original plan and what we would do differently in the classroom, were we to teach the lesson again. Rarely, however, is much thought given to how the plan itself could be adapted retrospectively. After each lesson, editing and annotating plans in a different colour (in the same way a student edits their first draft) is an invaluable part of this process. Plans can then be referred back to the next time the lesson is taught. In this way, the lesson constantly improves and the teacher doesn’t get stale from teaching exactly the same thing again and again and again.

Classical model of lesson planning

Principal Hunter developed her model using the science and knowledge of her time. I would classify this model as a standard behavioral technique of direct instruction, and modified operant conditioning, plus it has just the beginnings of information processing for recall. Hunter knew that the human brain lays down pathways as it learns. She wanted to assure that teachers gave learners little or no opportunity to “get it wrong” or lay down a neural pathways that were incorrect. Madeline Hunter did this because the research at the time indicated that relearning materials or skills took much more time than learning it right the first time.

The Pros and Cons:

The Hunter Model has a number of advantages, and an equal number of disadvantages. For instance, it is a great drill and practice model. The model is an excellent one for content or processes that benefit from lots of repetition. In that regard it is more readily suited for lessons which emphasize the lower tier of Bloom’s revised taxonomy – remembering (knowledge), understanding (comprehension), and applying (application).

However, without considerable thought, revision, and artful manipulation, the model’s repetitive structure it is not appropriate for open-ended learning experiences, discovery learning sessions, or exploratory educational experiences, especially ones requiring divergent thinking skills, creative problem solving, or higher level thinking skills. Too, this model is not particularly well suited for use with gifted students. This population becomes easily bored with repetitious applications and steps, especially if they are not very challenging. Gifted students may also resent tightly, teacher-controlled learning settings where learning patterns are readily apparent from the very beginning. Instructors attempting to met the learning needs of gifted/creative learners may wish to explore one of the many models better suited to this population – see Models of teaching for additional suggestions.

The 7 Classic Steps:

Within the main portions of the model – gettingstudents ready to learn, instruction and checking for understanding, and independent practice  there are basically 7 steps and these are listed below. The steps in the beginning and ending portions can be varied and changed in sequence, the portion in the middle should not be changed.

Ordering the beginning portions really depends on what you are doing as an anticipatory set as to whether you state your objectives and standards first, or if you start out with the anticipatory set and then make a statement of objectives and standards. Some variations include a review as the first step or as something incorporated into the anticipatory set. But users can also review, state objectives, and then have an anticipatory set as separate portions in the “getting students ready” portion.

Here are the different steps:

Getting students set to learn  The first two elements are interchangeable. As stated earlier a distinctive review is optional. However, typically at the beginning of the lesson the teacher may briefly review previous material if it is related to the current lesson.

1) Stated Objectives – Letting students know where they are going. Giving them a sense of where they are headed belays the feeling of being a hostage in a learning experience.  This step gives students direction and lets know what they are supposed to accomplish by the end of the lesson.

2) Anticipatory Set – Getting students ready and/or excited to accept instruction.  (Please note that giving directions may be part of the procedural dialog of a lesson, but in and of themselves directions are NOT an Anticipatory Set !!!!! The key word here is “anticipatory” and that means doing something that creates a sense of anticipation and expectancy in the students — an activity, a game, a focused discussion, viewing a film or video clip, a field trip, or reflective exercise, etc.). This step prepares the learner to receive instruction much like operant conditioning.

Direct instruction and checking for understanding – This part involves quickly assessing whether students understand what has just been demonstrated or presented.

3) Input Modeling/Modeled Practice – Making sure students get it right the first time depends on the knowledge, or processes to be shown or demonstrated by an expert, or by someone who has mastered what is to be demonstrated or shown.  In addition to the instructor, prepared students can certainly model the focused skill, process or concept for peers. Instructors could also use a video for this portion.

4) Checking Understanding – Teachers watch students’ body language, ask questions, observe responses and interactions in order to determining whether or not students are making sense of the material as it is being presented. This portion takes place as instruction is being given. This is a whole class exercise, one in which the instructor carefully monitors the actions of the learners to make sure they are duplicating the skill, process, procedure, or exercise correctly.

5) Guided Practice – Takes place after instruction has been modeled and then checked for understanding to make sure students have it right! The question here is can they replicate what you want them to do correctly? Students are given the opportunity to apply or practice what they have just learned and receive immediate feedback at individual levels.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

Q. 4  i.       What are the different types of motivation?                         (20)

Intrinsic and extrinsic are the two types of motivation. Learn more about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from definitions and examples, then test your knowledge with a quiz.

Types of Motivation

Sammy and Dani are running buddies. Sammy loves to run and will often go running just to clear his head or blow off steam. Dani, meanwhile, hates to run, but she does it because her doctor told her that she needs to lose weight or she might end up with diabetes.

Sammy is intrinsically motivated to run. Intrinsic motivation is when you do something because you enjoy it or find it interesting. Compare that to Dani, whose reason for running involves extrinsic motivation, or doing something for external rewards or to avoid negative consequences.

Now, you may think that intrinsic motivation is better than extrinsic motivation, and you’d be right up to a point. Studies have shown that people are more likely to stick to a task, invest more time in a task, and be more successful at it if they are intrinsically motivated.

However, extrinsic motivation has its place, too. After all, without extrinsic motivation, many of us would never exercise, never go to work, and never clean our houses. Many day-to-day tasks that are required to live a healthy life are extrinsically motivated. Besides, who doesn’t like to be rewarded for what they do?

The Overjustification Effect

Still, there are some issues with rewards. Giving someone a reward for doing a task can actually decrease their intrinsic motivation for that task because they begin to feel like they should only do the task for external rewards. This is called the overjustification effect.

One famous example of the overjustification effect occurred when researchers rewarded nine-and ten-year-olds for playing with math games. Before they were given the rewards, many of the kids played with the games just because they thought they were fun. But, after being rewarded for playing with the games, the children spent far less time playing with the games than they did before being rewarded.

Why do people who are intrinsically motivated to do a task suddenly change their motivation? No one is exactly sure why the overjustification effect occurs, but there are a couple of things that scientists do know about when it is most likely to occur. For one thing, the overjustification effect really only happens with tasks that have a high intrinsic motivation to begin with. If someone isn’t interested in doing the task before a reward, their interest won’t decrease after being given a reward.

For another thing, rewards for performance are less likely to cause the overjustification effect than rewards that are given just for doing a task. In other words, being given candy to play a game is more likely to decrease your intrinsic motivation for the game than being given candy to win the game.

Though psychologists aren’t completely sure why the overjustification effect occurs, there are some theories. One theory is that when people engage in a behavior, they justify their actions to themselves. If they don’t get rewards, they decide that they must like doing it, but if they get rewards, they might decide that they only do it for the rewards. Thus, they convince themselves that they don’t really like to do it. This is called self-perception theory.

Insufficient Punishment

Closely related to the overjustification effect is the power of insufficient punishment. This is when a light punishment causes a longer-lasting behavior change than a severe punishment.

Let’s look at an example. Dylan and Riley are preschoolers who like to play with a toy that is off-limits. Whenever their teacher isn’t looking, Dylan and Riley sneak the toy down off the shelf and play with it.

ii.      What are the different factors that influence student motivation?

Why do we do what we do? Motivation is the term that we use to describe why people move towards certain actions and goals but not others. Learn about the concept of motivation and a few important theories psychologists have developed to try and explain our behavior.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

What do you think is motivating you to read this lesson at this very moment? Motivation refers to the reasons that we act towards a goal. Psychologists understand that motivation can only be understood through behavior. Although only you can fully explain the many factors that have you reading this lesson right now, psychologists have created theories to try to understand and explain behavior.

From these theories we can make a few educated guesses about your present situation:

  • You are not worried about being hit by a car. Most likely you are at home or in another location where you feel safe.
  • You are probably not hungry to the point of starving. Perhaps you are even snacking while you read this!
  • You are not outside in freezing weather or a hurricane or sitting in a desert without water.

These are just a few of the guesses we can make based on a theory of motivation developed by famous behavioral psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow believed that basic needs must be met before we can satisfy our other, less basic needs.

This was structured as hierarchy of needs that is often shown in a pyramid and referred to as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Just as the ancient Egyptians built a pyramid from the bottom up, we must satisfy our needs from the bottom up, fulfilling the most important needs first. Who would build the top of the pyramid before its foundation?

One of the most important factors to achieving success with your small business is the ability to motivate your employees. No two workers are alike; it can be a challenge to understand what makes each one tick so that you can apply the appropriate motivational technique. A number of motivational theories have been developed over time that can help you get the most out of your workers.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Psychologist Abraham Maslow developed this theory. It places human needs into five categories ranging from basic survival needs like food and shelter to the need for self-actualization. According to Maslow, once one need is satisfied, an individual seeks to achieve the next level. When applied to work, the theory implies that you the employer must understand the current need level of each employee to know what will motivate them.

A new hire who has been unemployed for an extended time will likely be driven by the need for basic survival. On the other hand, a worker concerned with career advancement may be looking to achieve self-actualization, so assigning higher-level tasks may be in order.

Carrot and Stick Approach

This traditional motivational theory, attributed to philosopher Jeremy Bentham, dates back to around 1800 during the Industrial Revolution. It breaks down motivation into two primary components: incentives and fear. Some workers are motivated by the desire to attain additional compensation, a yearning to achieve status and power by “moving up the ladder,” or the need for praise. But some workers act out of fear: the fear of losing a job, being reprimanded by a supervisor or not being able to adequately perform an assignment.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Also known as the Two Factory theory, Frederick Herzberg developed this in 1959. It postulates that different factors in the work environment result in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction; Herzberg referred to these as “hygiene” factors. Factors that lead to satisfaction include achievement, recognition and advancement, while those causing dissatisfaction include work conditions, salary and peer relationships.

In general, the theory puts forth that supervisors must be able to effectively manage factors leading to satisfaction and dissatisfaction to successfully motivate employees. Management must look for ways to provide job enrichment for workers.

Choosing a Motivation Style

There are several things to consider when selecting a motivation style. One factor is your own personality: What motivates you and what type of motivation do you understand best? Using this motivation style may come most naturally to you.

Another consideration is the personality of your employee: Not everyone has the same type of character, interests, or goals. You may have to use a mix of methods to get each of your employee to work to his potential.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Spring 2020

Q. 5  Differentiate in detail between inductive and deductive reasoning            (20)   

The process of thinking about something, in a rational manner, so as to draw valid conclusions, is known as Reasoning. It is a daily activity that we use to make decisions, which involves the construction of thoughts and converting them into a proposition to give reasons on why we have opted for a particular alternative over the other.

Reasoning (logic) can take two forms – inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning. The former follows a particular flow or behaviour so as to make inferences, whereas the latter uses available information, facts or premises to arrive at a conclusion. These two logics are exactly opposite to each other. Still, they are often juxtaposed due to lack of adequate information. In this article, we are going to tell you the basic differences between inductive and deductive reasoning, which will help you to understand them better.

Comparison Chart

MeaningInductive Reasoning connotes the argument in which the premises give reasons in support of the probable truth of the conjecture.Deductive reasoning is the fundamental form of valid reasoning, wherein the premises give guarantee of the truth of conjecture.
ApproachBottom-up approachTop-down approach
Starting pointConclusionPremises
Based onPatterns or trendFacts, truths and rules
ProcessObservation > Pattern > Tentative Hypothesis > TheoryTheory > Hypothesis > Observation > Confirmation
ArgumentMay or may not be strong.May or may not be valid.
StructureGoes from specific to generalGoes from general to specific
Draws inferences withCertaintyProbability

Definition of Inductive Reasoning

In research, inductive reasoning alludes to the logical process, in which specific instances or situations are observed or analysed to establish general principles. In this process, the multiple propositions are believed to provide strong evidence, for the truth of the conclusion. It is used to develop an understanding, on the basis of observing regularities, to ascertain how something works.

These are uncertain arguments; that describes the extent to which the conclusions drawn on the basis of premises, are credible.

In inductive reasoning, there are certain possibilities that the conclusion drawn can be false, even if the all the assumptions are true. The reasoning vests on experience and observations that support the apparent truth of the conclusion. Further, the argument can be strong or weak, as it only describes the likelihood of the inference, to be true.

Definition of Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning means a form of logic in which specific inferences are drawn from multiple premises (general statements). It establishes the relationship between the proposition and conclusion. When all the proposed statements are true, then the rules of deduction are applied and the result obtained is inevitably true.

Deductive logic is based on the fundamental law of reasoning, i.e. if X then Y. It implies the direct application of available information or facts, to come up with new information or facts. In this, the researcher takes into account a theory and generates a hypothesis, which can be tested, after that the observation are recorded, which leads to particular data, which is nothing but the confirmation of validity.

Key Differences between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

The points provided below, clarifies the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in detail:

  • The argument in which the premises give reasons in support of the probable truth of the conjecture is inductive reasoning. The elementary form of valid reasoning, wherein the proposition provide the guarantee of the truth of conjecture, is deductive reasoning.
  • While inductive reasoning uses the bottom-up approach, deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach.
  • The initial point of inductive reasoning is the conclusion. On the other hand, deductive reasoning starts with premises.
  • The basis of inductive reasoning is behaviour or pattern. Conversely, deductive reasoning depends on facts and rules.
  • Inductive reasoning begins with a small observation, that determines the pattern and develops a theory by working on related issues and establish the hypothesis. In contrast, deductive reasoning begins with a general statement, i.e. theory which is turned to the hypothesis, and then some evidence or observations are examined to reach the final conclusion.
  • In inductive reasoning, the argument supporting the conclusion, may or may not be strong. On the contrary, in deductive reasoning, the argument can be proved valid or invalid.
  • Inductive reasoning moves from specific to general. Unlike, deductive reasoning moves from general to particular.
  • In inductive reasoning, the inferences drawn are probabilistic. As opposed, in deductive reasoning, the generalization made is necessarily true, if the premises are correct.


To sum up, inductive and deductive reasoning are the two kinds of logic, which are used in the field of research to develop the hypothesis, so as to arrive at a conclusion, on the basis of information, which is believed to be true. Inductive reasoning considers events for making the generalization. In contrast, deductive reasoning takes general statements as a base to arrive at an particular conclusion.

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