AIOU Solved Assignments code B.ed 8603 Spring 2020 assignment 1 & 2 Course: Curriculum Development (8603) spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No. 1 & 2
Curriculum Development (8603) B.ed 1.5 Years
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Spring 2020
Q.1 Analyze various definitions of curriculum and write a comprehensive definition of curriculum. Evaluate the curriculum development process in Pakistan at the university level.
Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. Arising in medieval Europe was the trivium, an educational curriculum based upon the study of grammar, rhetoric, and logic. The later quadrivium (referring to four subjects rather than three as represented by the trivium) emphasized the study of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These seven liberal arts should sound a lot like what you experienced during your formal education.
The emphasis on single subjects persists even today. Very likely you moved from classroom to classroom, particularly throughout your secondary education, studying a different subject with each teacher. Yet there was more to your education. Perhaps you participated in athletics, or the band, or clubs, or student government, or made the choice not to participate in any extracurricular activities. All of these (including the option not to participate) are part of what we might call the contemporary curriculum. But there is more.
Some educators would say that the curriculum consists of all the planned experiences that the school offers as part of its educational responsibility. Then there are those who contend that the curriculum includes not only the planned, but also the unplanned experiences as well. For example, incidents of violence that have occurred at a number of schools across the nation are hardly a planned component of the curriculum. However, the manner in which violence is addressed before, during, and after the actual event sends a very definite message about how people in our culture interact and how the laws of our nation are applied.
Another perspective suggests that curriculum involves organized rather than planned experiences because any event must flow of its own accord, the outcome not being certain beforehand. For instance, competitions, whether academic or athletic, can be organized, but the outcomes will depend on a myriad of factors that cannot be planned.
Which brings us to the notion of emphasizing outcomes versus experiences. This shift to the notion of outcomes is very much in keeping with the current movement toward accountability in the public schools, that is, the perspective that there are indeed specific things that the schools are supposed to accomplish with children. District personnel, school administrators, and you as one of many teachers are to be held accountable by the public/taxpayers for ensuring that those objectives are met.
Curriculum, it turns out, is indeed much more than the idea of specific subjects as represented by the trivium or the quadrivium. And, as we will see in the next section, it can be characterized not only by what it does include but also by what it intentionally excludes.
The Purpose of Curriculum
We have suggested that curriculum refers to the means and materials with which the student interacts. To determine what will constitute those means and materials, we must decide what we want the curriculum to yield. What will constitute the “educated” individual in our society? In other words, what purpose does the curriculum serve?
The things that teachers teach represent what the larger society wants children to learn. However, beyond teaching reading and writing, what are the necessary things that they should be taught? Is it really necessary to teach science? Does teaching mathematics really lead to logical thinking, or does it just provide students with some basic computational skills that may or may not come in handy at some future time? You may feel that answering such questions is not something a teacher has to be able to do, but rest assured that at some point a parent will ask you questions like these. As a teacher, you will be the representative of “the curriculum” to whom parents and students turn for answers. The purpose of the curriculum is to prepare the student to thrive within the society as it is—and that includes the capacity for positive change and growth.
You Actually Have Four Curriculums
There are essentially four curriculums at work in most educational settings: the explicit, implicit, null, and extra-, or co curriculum. You are probably familiar with the notions of explicit curriculum and extracurricular activities. The real intrigue of curriculum debate and design comes into play with the implicit and null curriculums.
There are four curriculums:
Explicit curriculum: subjects that will be taught, the identified “mission” of the school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire
Implicit curriculum: lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture
Null curriculum: topics or perspectives that are specifically excluded from the curriculum
Extra curriculum: school-sponsored programs that are intended to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience
The Explicit Curriculum
Explicit means “obvious” or “apparent,” and that’s just what the explicit curriculum is all about: the subjects that will be taught, the identified “mission” of the school, and the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire. If you speak with an administrator at your school or where you do your observations or practicum work, ask about the curriculum; it is this publicly announced (and publicly sanctioned) explanation of the message of school that will be explained to you. The explicit curriculum can be discussed in terms of time on task, contact hours, or Carnegie units (high school credit courses). It can be qualified in terms of specific observable, measurable learning objectives.
The Implicit Curriculum
Sometimes referred to as the hidden curriculum, the implicit curriculum refers to the lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that characterize that culture. While good citizenship may be part of the explicit curriculum, a particular ethos that promotes, for example, multiethnic acceptance and cooperation may also characterize a particular school. This is not to say that parents, teachers, and administrators sat around a table and said, “Hey, let’s promote acceptance of diverse ethnic values in the context of the American experience.” That would be nice, of course, but then it tends to fall into the category of the explicit curriculum. By virtue of a high multiethnic enrollment, a particular school may have a culture of multiethnic cooperation. Another school, isolated in that its enrollment is primarily that of one ethnic group, would develop a different sort of culture. Individual schools within a district, or even classrooms within a school that share a common explicit curriculum, can differ greatly with regard to the implicit curriculum. This is not an altogether bad situation, but to a great degree the implicit curriculum is subjected to less scrutiny than is the explicit curriculum.
There are other aspects to the implicit curriculum, and interestingly enough it is the students who pick up on these messages. Notice how the classrooms and common areas are decorated. These decorations will demonstrate what the implicit curriculum of the school values. Watch the children to see how they interact with each other within the class and throughout the building. Does the school display student work throughout the building? Is there an unwritten rule that children are to be seen and not heard? All of these contribute to a very particular message sent to students about expectations, demands, and codes of conduct.
If you want to investigate the notion of the implicit curriculum further, speak with some elementary school students. Ask them what is required to get good grades or the approval of the teacher. Don’t be surprised when rather than telling you about studying for an hour every night or completing homework correctly, they tell you things like “sit up straight” or “be quiet in class” or “be on time.” The implicit curriculum, difficult as it is to identify and articulate, is something that students understand very quickly. When young children explain the expectations for a student in school, it will likely be the implicit curriculum that they discuss.
The Null Curriculum
Just as compelling as the notion of the implicit curriculum is Eisner’s (1994) concept of the null curriculum. This aspect of curriculum refers to “the options students are not afforded, the perspectives they may never know about, much less be able to use, the concepts and skills that are not a part of their intellectual repertoire” (p. 106-107). The teaching of evolution provides an example. For more than seventy-five years this topic has been an issue of debate. The decision by individual states or school districts within states not to include this topic within its explicit curriculum places it in the category of the null curriculum. In other words, the decision to exclude particular topics or subjects from a curriculum nonetheless affects the curriculum by its very omission.
Another example would be the topic of sex education. Sex education has long been an issue with regard to the degree to which it should be included in the school curriculum, but the newer issues of gender orientation, alternative lifestyles, and alternative family configurations—just to mention a few—exemplify how exclusion from the explicit or implicit curriculum, and thus inclusion in the null curriculum, affects the overall educational experience.
The fourth aspect of curriculum is that of the extra curriculum or co curriculum. This curriculum represents all of those school-sponsored programs that are intended to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience. Athletics, band, drama, student government, clubs, honor societies and student organizations, and school dances and social events all fall under the heading of extracurricular activities. Participation in these activities is purely voluntary and does not contribute to grades or credits earned toward advancement from one grade to the next or to graduation. Extracurricular activities are typically open to all, though participation often depends on skill level.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Spring 2020
Q.2 Compare the recommendations regarding curriculum reforms contained in the last two educational policies and highlight the main differences.
After 18th constitutional amendment
- To move the discussion a little more broadly, it might be worth summarizing the following points:
- Our basic understanding of cosmology is essentially a story of universal evolution. We form and test these hypotheses just as we test hypotheses about biological evolution.
- The Solar System, the Earth, and all its initial conditions (distance from the Sun, size, rotational parameters) had a great influence on the evolution of life.
- Tectonics, the unifying theory of earth sciences, is responsible for the oceans and atmosphere (as well as earthquakes, mountain building, seafloor spreading, subduction, etc.) and without it life could not exist (and does not exist on other planets).
- Radiometric dating provides “absolute dates” (in numbers of years), compared to the “relative dates” given by typical geologic methods of matching strata. Hence these methods are independent, and do not rely on preconceptions of evolutionary history read from fossils. Radiometric dating doesn’t depend on the geologic record at all, but on the principles of physics and chemistry.
Evolution is the central unifying theory of biology
2. Evolution is integrally related to other sciences
3. About half of science is neither experimental nor quantitative
Goals are seen here as broad concepts that form an individual’s literacy and worldview.
1A. Everything on Earth, including the Earth, has “evolved” (changed through time), and carries the marks of its history. Deciphering these marks is the reconstruction of that history.
B. The similarities of organisms, from adaptations to molecular structures, cannot be explained fully either by assumptions of optimal design or by a transcendental plan.
C. Not only organisms and their structures, but ecological levels of organization, such as guilds, faunas, floras, communities, and biotic provinces, have evolved through time. Their features can be traced readily, and their histories can be similarly reconstructed.
2A. Evolution cannot be roped off from other sciences, because everything has evolved.
B. Historically, the understanding of evolution comes from discoveries made in and dependent on other sciences, including their basic principles and methods.
C. Evolution is an explanation of patterns and phenomena seen in other sciences.
3A. In purely experimental sciences, time, age, and other historical factors do not influence their phenomena and hence they are universally predictive (“lawlike”). Newtonian physics and simple aspects of chemistry apply here.
ONE APPROACH TO DEVISING A CURRICULUM IN EVOLUTION
A.Explain what evolution is and isn’t. It is a unifying theory that explains phenomena from cosmology to immunology. It is not speculation poorly grounded in imperfect fossil records, assumptions about leaps between major body plans, and extrapolations from poorly controlled experiments on populations. It is a theory subject to naturalistic testing. It isn’t anti-religious and it doesn’t claim that everything is random nor that there is necessarily no direction or purpose to life.
B.Separate the various levels of evolution to avoid misconceptions. Biological evolution is descent with modification. The modification is heritable, which separates biological evolution from the evolution of non-living things. Microevolution is what happens in populations, between successive generations of organisms. Speciation is the separation of one lineage into two. Macroevolution describes the processes and patterns that take place between species and larger lineages of organisms and communities in their environments, which also change through time. The definition of evolution as “a change in gene frequency” is like a definition of the Internet as “where you get your e-mail.” The word “evolution” has different meanings in biology and in other sciences (the fact, the theory, the process), but so do many other words such as “species,” “adaptation,” and so on. The more we learn, the more concepts expand. But this is equally true in common parlance with no loss of clarity in discourse among reasonable people (think of the various meanings of the word “business”).
C.Take an historical approach so that students can see how the idea gained acceptance. One advantage to this is that it temporarily shifts the focus from scientific knowledge to historical knowledge, and postpones the role of the teacher as advocate of a scientific theory that makes some students (at least initially) uncomfortable. Another advantage is that it actually shows how the pieces of the theory were assembled. Because they all made sense individually, they made better sense as a unified theory. This introduces students to the inductive method as well as to the ways in which theories in the historical sciences (or historical theories in the sciences) are formed and tested.
HOW THE UNDERSTANDING OF EVOLUTION EVOLVED
- Alignment of rock layers throughout England by civil engineers (William Smith, late 18th C.) showed common and deep geological history, far beyond the few thousand years sometimes proposed.
- Succession of fossil-bearing rocks in the Paris Basin (Cuvier and Brongniart, early 19th C.), representing sequences of ancient marine and terrestrial environments, gave evidence of many great changes in Earth’s surface through time, not evidence of a single deluge.
- Discovery of fossil animals such as the mosasaur, found nowhere on Earth today, demonstrated the reality of extinction (Cuvier, early 19th C.).
- Fossil-bearing sequences through the geologic column showed that faunas become quantitatively more similar to living forms as the present is approached (Lyell, early 19th C.).
- The sequences of fossils in rocks leads to general scientific acceptance that evolution on a grand scale has occurred (early 19th C., Britain and Europe).
Evolutionary process of curriculum in Pakistan
Education plays a vital role in nation building.
Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for the national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the states.
Federal Ministry of Education is responsible in making of:
National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBTC)
Also known as curriculum wing.
Supervise curriculum and textbooks.
Approves and maintain curriculum standards from the primary to the higher secondary levels
Provincial curriculum Centre
Every province has a provincial curriculum centre
To ensure provincial collaboration.
Involve in all activities falling within the purview of the federation.
Each Province has its own Provincial Textbook Board (PTTB)
PTTBs are responsible for:
Marketing school textbooks
Curriculum Design and Development Process
Curriculum Design and Development
Evolution of curriculum objectives.
Development of scheme of studies.
Development of syllabus of each subject.
Development of textbook, instructional material.
Approval of textual material.
Objectives are derived from
Recommendation of the National Education Policy
National Level Seminars
Forums of research studies
Inter Board Committee of Chairmen
NBCT prepares the draft of objectives.
Circulated in provincial institutions responsible for curriculum development.
Objectives are finalized.
Translated to the specific teaching objectives
Factors considered in finalizing the objectives
Assist in the selection of teaching strategy
Produce a designated behavior pattern
Enables teachers to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of learning.
The studies scheme
It is based on three key factors:
The national education policy
Task work in this area is undertaken with the participation of:
Research organizations and experts
Feedback of the IBCC
Development of syllabi
It is based on objectives and scheme of study.
Subject specific syllabi is prepared in consultation with:
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Spring 2020
Q.3 Select any subject from the curriculum of B.Ed 1.5 AIOU and identify the different foundations of the curriculum from it. Also, highlight the focused foundation that is reflected at this level of the curriculum with examples.
Evaluation is the process of examining a program or process to determine what’s working, what’s not, and why. It determines the value of learning and training programs and acts as blueprints for judgment and improvement.
Evaluations are normally divided into two categories: formative and summative.
A formative evaluation (sometimes referred to as internal) is a method for judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming (in progress). They can be conducted during any phase of the ADDIE process. This part of the evaluation focuses on the process.
Thus, formative evaluations are basically done on the fly. They permit the designers, learners, instructors, and managers to monitor how well the instructional goals and objectives are being met. Its main purpose is to catch deficiencies ASAP so that the proper learning interventions can take place that allows the learners to master the required skills and knowledge.
The various instruments used to collect the data are questionnaires, surveys, interviews, observations, and testing. The model or methodology used to gather the data should be a specified step-by-step procedure. It should be carefully designed and executed to ensure the data is accurate and valid.
Questionnaires are the least expensive procedure for external evaluations and can be used to collect large samples of graduate information. The questionnaires should be trialed (tested) before using to ensure the recipients understand their operation the way the designer intended. When designing questionnaires, keep in mind the most important feature is the guidance given for its completion. All instructions should be clearly stated . . . let nothing be taken for granted.
History of the Two Evaluations
Scriven (1967) first suggested a distinction between formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation was intended to foster development and improvement within an ongoing activity (or person, product, program, etc.). Summative evaluation, in contrast, is used to assess whether the results of the object being evaluated (program, intervention, person, etc.) met the stated goals.
In Paul Saettler’s (1990) history of instructional technology, he describes the two evaluations in the context of how they were used in developing Sesame Street and The Electric Company by the Children’s Television Workshop. CTW used formative evaluations for identify and defining program designs that could provide reliable predictors of learning for particular learners. They later used summative evaluations to prove their efforts (to quite good effect I might add). While Saettler praises CTW for a significant landmark in the technology of instructional design, he warns that it is still tentative and should be seen more as a point of departure rather than a fixed formula.
Saettler defines the two types of evaluations as: 1) formative is used to refine goals and evolve strategies for achieving goals, while 2) summative is undertaken to test the validity of a theory or determine the impact of an educational practice so that future efforts may be improved or modified.
Thus, using Misanchuk’s defining terms will normally achieve more accurate measurements; however, the cost is higher as it is highly resource intensive, particularly with time because of all the pre-work that has to be performed in the design phase: create, trial, redo, trial, redo, trial, redo, etc.; and all preferably without using the target population.
However, most organizations are demanding shorter design times. Thus the formative part is moved over to the other methods, such as the use of rapid prototyping and using testing and evaluations methods to improve as one moves on. Which of course is not as accurate but it is more appropriate to most organizations as they are not really that interested in accurate measurements of the content but rather the end product — skilled and knowledgeable workers.
Misanchuk’s defining terms puts all the water in a container for accurate measurements while the typical organization estimates the volume of water running in a stream.
Thus, if you are a vendor, researcher, or need highly accurate measurements you will probably define the two evaluations in the same manner as Misanchuk. If you need to push the training/learning out faster and are not all that worried about highly accurate measurements, then you define it closer to how most organizations do and how Saettler describes the CTW example.
Student evaluation and feedback
Student feedback is a rich and valuable source of information for both formative and summative purposes. For this reason, student feedback and evaluation are key components of the University’s Quality Enhancement Framework, as well as providing summative evidence for staff promotion, probation and awards, and for internal and external quality assurance reporting requirements. Methods of obtaining student feedback may be formal or informal, structured, semi-structured or unstructured. They include surveys, minute papers, focus groups and student consultations.
Peer observation and review
Colleagues from your own and other disciplines are often a good source of data for evaluating your teaching and units, providing professional feedback and guidance. You can find out how they perceive your teaching, how your unit prepares students for involvement in subsequent units, and any aspects of your teaching you might try to improve. Peer observation and review of teaching and/or curriculum can be undertaken for a range of purposes, both formative and summative. Approaches range from informal, semi-structured observation by, and feedback from, a friendly work colleague, to highly structured, formal schemes aimed at providing evidence for promotion and other reward processes.
Self-observation, self-assessment and critical reflection
Macquarie University encourages critically reflective practice in all areas of academic work, including teaching and curriculum development. All the feedback you can obtain from other sources is, of course, of little use unless you have a reflective and critical approach to your own practice. In addition, for summative purposes such as promotion, it’s important for you to be able to demonstrate, through examples and accounts of practice, that you have reflected on, and acted constructively in response to, formative feedback and evaluation.
Method for the evaluation in AIOU
Evaluation method can be judge and analyze by the rivew of examination process in AIOU. Examination Department remains associated with every student till the award of Degree/certificate. Department perform the following tasks:
- Collection of result of continuous assessment component from Regions and its inclusion in the final result.
- Conduct of term final examination at the centers like conventional system and compilation/processing of the result.
- Issuance of Certificate/Degrees to successful students.
Assessment of students in distance education system is made by two mode:
- Continuous Assessment
- Term. Final Examination on
Students are required to do two assignments for each half-credit course and four assignments for each full credit course. The marks obtained in the assignments contribute to the final course result. For successful completion of the course, it is imperative to obtain a minimum 40% from Matric to Master level programmes and 50% for M.Phil Ph.D. programmes. Students failing in continuous assessment (assignments) are not eligible to appear in the final examination.
Purpose of Assignments
The main purpose of assignments is to test the student’s comprehension of syllabus of course and books, the students received from the University and also to help them to get through these courses.
The students are advised to take the assignments seriously. A simple omission on their part may cause considerable loss to them, which can be avoided by exercising proper care.
Submission of Assignments
The students should submit complete answers to all assignments’ questions in their own words and before submitting the assignments they should ensure that they have answered all questions in all assignments. Normally after evaluation, teacher returns the marked assignments to the students with comments and grading. All assignments are required to be submitted within due date and no assignment will be accepted after due date. It is the responsibility of the students to get back their duly evaluated marked assignments along with a copy of the assessments sheet containing comments of the teacher on their performance.
Term Final Examination /
Need of Examination
Final examination is another component of overall assessment system of a course. Exams help the students to review their studies and see the course as a whole. At the end of each semester the University arranges a final three hours, written examination in each course on the set dates, usually at the convenient center established near the home town of students..
The final examinations carry 70% weightge in the determination of final results. In order to be eligible to appear in the final examination in any course, the student are required to obtain at least minimum 40% from Matric to Master level programme and 50% for M.Phil & Ph.D. programmes qualifying marks in the assignments. The minimum passing marks in the final examinations are 40% from Matric to Master level programme and 50% for M.Phil & Ph.D. programmes. In case a student fails to get minimum qualifying marks in the final examinations, he/she is allowed to re-appear in the examination of the same course during the next semester. In case he again fails, one more final chance is given to qualify the examinations in the next semester. If he does not obtain minimum passing marks in 3 rd attempt in the final examinations, he/she is considered fail in overall evaluation of the course; no matter he has secured passing marks in the assignments. In this circumstance, he/she will have to re-enroll in that particular course(s) after paying the requisite admission fee of course(s).
Viva Voce In Post-Graduate Programme thesis component is involved which also carries weightge. After evaluation of the thesis by the external experts, the student has to appear before a viva-voce committee to defend thesis .
Issuance of Roll No. Slips
The University send Roll Number Slip to each student to appear in the final examination at least 10 days before the examinations in which Roll Number, Registration, address of examination center and dated on which paper is held are mentioned. If any student does not receive this intimation slip 10 days before the commencement of examinations, he/she can contact Deputy Controller Examination (Results) Block 3, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Telephone No. 051 9250015 & Incharge, Complaints & Information Cell Phone No. 051 9250014 or concerned Regional Office for obtaining duplicate Roll No. Slip. The same could also be got printed from AIOU web site: www.aiou.edu.pk
Change of Examination Centre:
The University does not entertain the request for change of Examination Centre except in exceptional circumstances wherein the student has genuine reasons for this change. For this she/she has to apply at least 45 days before the commencement of examinations.
Eligibility for Appearing in Examinations :
It is the duty of the student to check whether he/she is registered for that particular course and whether he/she is eligible to appear for the examination or not. If he/she neglects this and take the examinations without being eligible for it, his/her results is cancelled. The student must bring their National Identity Cards while appearing in the examination centers to prove his/her identity.
Declaration of Results of Examinations
The results of examinations are declared within three months of completion of examinations and dispatched at his/her postal address by ordinary mail. Results can be downloaded from AIOU web site .
Weightge of Assignments & Final Examination
For calculation of final result of a student weightge of assignments & final examination is considered as 30% and 70% respectively .
Preparation of Certificates/Degrees
On successful completion of the required number of courses for a programme, the student has to apply to Certificate Section of Examinations Department for the issuance of Certificate/Degree. The certificate/degree to the successful student is issued within the period of two years.
The University has adopted the following grading scheme for its students:
|80% and above||A+|
|70% to 79%||A|
|60% to 69%||B|
|50% to 59%||C|
|40% to 49%||D|
(The percentage in assignment and final examination do not apply to programmes like BBA, MBA as indicated earlier).
A student who fails in the assignment component is not eligible to appear in the final examination. He/she has to take re-admission in that particular course and repeat it. A student who fails in the final examination is allowed two more chances to reappear in the examination within next three semesters on payment of reappear fee only.
Credits Required for Certificates, Diplomas and Degrees: Qualifications are awarded on credit basis. A full-credit course contains 18 units while a half credit course consists of nine units to be studied during a semester. If assignments are completed successfully and the final examination for the course is passed, a student is awarded a credit.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Spring 2020
Q.4 Evaluate the following stages in the process of curriculum development with examples:
a) Formulation of objectives
The term curriculum is viewed in two different ways: the micro and the macro. The micro curriculum refers to subjects, while the macro curriculum refers to curricular programs. For example, the subject biology is a micro curriculum while BS in Civil Engineering is a macro curriculum. What do the micro and the macro curriculum contain? The following criteria discusses the content of these two levels of the curriculum.
Seven Criteria for the Selection of Subject-matter or Content of the Curriculum
The major criteria below can be utilized in the selection of subject matter for micro curriculum, and for the content, subjects needed for the curricular program or course, of the macro curriculum.
To help learners attain maximum self-sufficiency at the most economical manner is the main guiding principle for subject matter or content selection (Scheffler, 1970) as cited by Bilbao et al., (2008). Economy of learning refers to less teaching effort and less use of educational resources; but students gain more results. They are able to cope up with the learning outcomes effectively.
This means that students should be given chance to experiment, observe, and do field study. This allows them to learn independently.
With this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week. However, this should be carefully planned by the teacher. When the students return, they should present outputs from the activity.
The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organized for the development of learning activities, skills, processes, and attitude. It also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills, and considers the cultural aspects of the learners. Particularly, if your students come from different cultural backgrounds and races, the subject matter must be culture-sensitive.
b) Selection and organization of content
You are working on a course design, and now it is time to decide on the content and how to organize it. As is often the case, we have far more to say about a topic than we can possibly cover in a term. One rule of thumb is to have students spending from 8-10 hours per week on your course, including in-class time. So how to decide? Following are some tips to help with these time-consuming yet crucial tasks.
- Check in your department for past syllabi if you are offering a pre-existing course. Also be sure to check your institution’s course calendar and read the course description to ensure that your course meets that stated description.
- Locate similar courses at other institutions if your course is new (or you would like some new ideas). Talk to your colleagues in your discipline area or go to the Web to find courses.
- Review textbooks in your discipline area. This can be a very easy way to locate not only possible content to cover but also ready-made organizational structures. Publishers will send out texts for you to review. Keep your students in mind when choosing texts – not only their abilities and past experience with the topic areas but also their time limitations.
- If texts are not available or not appropriate, you may need to create a reading package or course notes. It will take more time to compile this type of resource, so set aside a few months for this activity. Also, be sure to factor in the time that may be needed to receive copyright clearance for copying and selling published materials. At Waterloo there is a copyright committee and a number of resources available to help you ensure that you are abiding by Canadian Copyright Law. If you have questions you may email email@example.com. Be sure to investigate what is possible in advance so you avoid basing part of your course on materials that you cannot easily secure for the students.
c) Selection and organization of methods
Set some type of criteria to help select appropriate content for your course. Course design literature suggests the following criteria. Course content should:
- Fit with your course learning goals
- Have importance in the discipline
- Be based on or related to research
- Appeal to student interests
- Not overlap excessively with student past experience or knowledge
- Be multi-functional (help teach more than one concept, skill, or problem)
- Stimulate search for meaning
- Encourage further investigation
- Show interrelationships among concepts
Many variations on concept mapping techniques exist to help you decide on an organizational structure for your content. The key idea is to name, in a word or two, the major topics or concepts for your course, then try to visually place them on the page. You can use a hierarchical approach or put the concept in the centre of the page and work out from there. Put the words into boxes or bubbles and connect them with lines or arrows to show how the material connects. You may also want to put verbs on the connectors to clarify the relationships between ideas. For an even more flexible approach, try using an index card or sticky note for each concept, instead of boxes on one sheet of paper, and physically move them around until you see an organization that makes sense. For more linear thinkers, creating lists of headings and subheadings is equally effective.
Some suggestions for ordering the topics or concepts include:
- Topic by topic – There are no set relationships amongst the topics, so the ordering is not critical. This works well for courses that revolve around current issues, for example.
- Chronological – Moving from past to present is a very common and easy to implement organizational pattern.
- Causal – The course presents a number of events or issues that culminate in some final effect or solution.
- Cumulative – Each concept builds on the previous one(s).
- Problem-centred – Problems, questions, or cases represent the principal
organizing features of the course.
- Spiral – Key topics or concepts are revisited throughout the course, with new information or insight developing each time.
Within each class, also consider how to organize your material so that students can both learn and retain it. Different philosophies of learning are represented. Some ideas to consider are:
- Start with what students already know and then move to the abstract model or theory.
- Start with concrete examples, such as cases, news items, or other real-world situations, then generate the abstract concepts.
- Start with a solution, conclusion, or model and work backwards to the question.
- Give students time to reflect, individually or through discussion, on what and how they are learning.
- Build in practice time, with feedback, either in class or on assignments so that students learn to work with the concepts and can receive assistance with problem areas.
d) Curriculum Evaluation
Student assessment and evaluation are an integral part of curriculum development. Teachers understand the complexity of curriculum which in Alberta is expressed in the form of learning outcomes. They further recognize that many learning outcomes cannot be measured using the traditional pencil-and-paper techniques. As such, students must be assessed and evaluated on the curriculum they have been taught. Classroom teachers design student evaluation based on the curriculum that students have been taught. It is unfair and unethical for teachers to evaluate students on material they have not had the opportunity to learn.
Program evaluation is an integral part of curriculum development and of the total education process and must take into consideration the goals of education, available resources, interaction among curriculum components and contributions of the total program to societal goals and student achievement. Program evaluation should be continual and carried out at all levels of the educational structure in the light of accepted educational policy and take into account unique characteristics of the school and community served.
Major purposes of program evaluation should be to render school programs more relevant and responsive to changing needs and to examine the nature and adequacy of essential education support services.
Student Assessment and Evaluation
Information about student learning is gathered for a number of different purposes, using a variety of assessment strategies depending on the purpose. The primary purposes of student assessment are to facilitate the teaching/learning process (formative assessment), diagnose areas of a student’s learning strengths and weaknesses, and make decisions about a student’s progress (summative assessment). Student evaluation occurs when a teacher uses the results of assessment and other relevant information to make a decision about the quality, value or worth of a student’s response during the learning process or a student’s overall performance for placement and reporting purposes. Large scale assessment of groups of students is conducted to determine curriculum or program effectiveness, research new ideas and demonstrate educational accountability. Judgments made on the basis of the information gathered and reported in these areas are evaluations too, but the evaluations are in reference to the performance of the group, not individual students.
In most instances, the evaluation of a student or a group of students should be on the basis of the objectives of the curriculum and the student or students’ opportunity to learn. The teacher is the professional who understands the factors in the measurement of learning and has a thorough mastery of subject matter to be tested, of written communication and of assessment techniques. The teacher translates the learning goals into course objectives and selects assessment procedures to reflect the curriculum content designed to achieve those goals and objectives. The teacher uses a variety of procedures to recognize differences in teaching methods, and students’ abilities, needs and learning styles. These procedures are fair, just and equitable; motivate students; instill confidence in students’ abilities to learn and succeed; test a variety of skills; and are consistent with the Principles of Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada. The evaluation of students is the responsibility of the teacher providing instruction. The role of the provincial government should be to facilitate teachers in carrying out their professional responsibility.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8603 Spring 2020
Q.5 Compare and contrast the humanistic model and process model of the curriculum.
Educators use guides to help them decide what, when, and how to teach. These curriculum guides are based on models. Have you ever thought about where your lesson plans came from? Let’s take a look at how curriculum models mold our teaching.
In a more post-modern worldview the Humanistic approach looks at the individual rather than the numbers. Data is much more qualitative in nature. The rationale behind this is that life has multiple perspectives to it and quantitative data only provides one perspective.
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Humanistic evaluators want to understand the complexities of the environment they are assessing. This involves capturing narratives through interviews and focus groups. Observation is used not to count frequencies but to take notes of what is happening in the classroom.
The major issues with this approach is the smaller sample size that is required. It is not feasible to interview 400 students but perhaps 20 is doable. In contrast, conducting a survey with 400 students should not be a challenge for a scientific evaluator. Furthermore, there are questions as to the objectivity of the results.
Since qualitative data is processed by the researcher their own perspective can filter what they report when they share the perspective of the respondents, In contrast, scientific approaches are more objective in that computer processes and reports the results.
Instead of having a bias towards scientific or humanistic approaches to curriculum evaluation. It is better to look at the context of what needs to be evaluated and determine the most appropriate approach. It should be the context and not the preference of the evaluators that should decide which direction to take. In many situations, a mixture of both approaches may be appropriate but this involves much more work and complexity.
What Are Curriculum Models?
To understand curriculum models we need to take a step back and talk about curriculum itself. Curriculum can be defined as a plan used in education that directs teacher instruction. Many districts and schools use a tool designed to help teachers pace their lessons, called a curriculum guide. But a curriculum and a curriculum guide don’t just come out of thin air. Time and energy goes into the creation of these documents. This process is known as curriculum development.
All of these things are based on a curriculum model. A model is really the first step in curriculum development. A curriculum model determines the type of curriculum used; it encompasses educational philosophy, approach to teaching, and methodology. The good news is, unless you’ve been hired to design curriculum, you won’t come across many curriculum models. However, it’s good for educators to be familiar with the models used in their schools.
Key Curriculum Components
Curriculum models have five areas they define, each looking at education from a different slant. The focus concept looks at a subject or a student and centers instruction on them. The approach component is a traditional or modern method and looks at the type of instruction that will be used. In the content component, a slant towards a topic-based or content-based is used, asking how units or strands will be written. The process structure looks at assessment: formative or accumulative. Finally, structure components focus on the system of review, determining how the curriculum will come up for revision.
Product and Process Models
Curriculum models can be broken down into two very broad models, the product model and the process model. Luckily, these two models are just as they sound.
- The Product Model – You may see this in portions of your curriculum. This model is focused on results, like grades or reaching an objective. The majority of the weight is focused more on the finished product than what is happening in the learning process.
- The Process Model – Conversely, this process model focuses on how things happen in the learning and is more open-ended. Curriculum focusing on the process model emphasizes how students are learning, what their thinking is, and how it will impact future learning.
Curriculum Model Frameworks
To dive in a bit further before we look at specific models, let’s talk about how some curriculum models are framed. Five broad categories can be used to define the focus of curriculum models:
- Subject- or discipline-centered – In this framework, the curriculum is organized around subjects, like math or science.
- Integrated – Just like it sounds, this framework pulls many subjects together. We see this model used in problem-based learning and experiential learning.
- Spiral – In this framework, the content is presented several times across the span of the school year. Seen mostly in math, using this design allows students to be introduced and then revisit material often.
- Inquiry- or problem-based – Not to be confused with integrated models, this curriculum focuses on a central problem or question. In this frame, all curriculum is problem-based, while in integrated it may or may not be.
- Experiential – Using this framework allows students to participate in real-life ways with their work such as, experimenting with hypothesis, working through problems, and finding solutions.
You may recognize some of the above frames in your own lesson plans. Now, let’s look at three models we also see in our current curriculum.
Popular Curriculum Models
There are countless models of curriculum, many of them blends of several styles. There are, however, two main models looked at as the basis for all curriculum. And to make things easy for us, each is named after its creator.
The Tyler Model
The Tyler model was created by Ralph Tyler in 1949. He guided his model with four questions:
- What educational purposes should the education strive for?
- What educational experiences can be provided to attain these purposes?
- How can we organize these educational experiences?
- How will we know if these purposes are being attained?
Does this look familiar? In your classroom, you may see it as identifying a goal, planning a lesson, organizing the experiences to reach your goal, and assessing whether the goal has been reached. If you want your students to perform a 2-digit addition (goal), you gather manipulatives (experiences), you plan this and other lessons (organize), and finally you quiz on comprehension (evaluate).
The Taba Model
The Taba model was developed by Hilda Taba in 1962. Her main focus was that teachers should play an integral role in curriculum development. Taba had seven steps: