AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8610 Spring 2020 Assignments 1& 2  Course: Human Development and Learning (8610) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

Human Development and Learning (8610) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q1. Briefly explain the factors that influence on child development. Give examples to support your answer. (20)

While it is much easier to determine the physical growth of your kids with few milestones, the early years of your kid can also be determined through social and emotional developmental milestones.

The role of the two major developments – social and emotional – is very important in every child’s life. It acts as a basic foundation in their life when they grow up. This foundation helps your child handle his or her personal feelings, understand the feelings of others, respect other’s thoughts, and make a positive interaction with others.

Definition of Emotional Development In Children:

Emotional learning begins at a young age and the learning grows with their age. In infancy, infants express their feelings through non-verbal communication and depend on caregivers to recognize their cues. Their expressions are related to their ability to regulate their emotions. Emotional expression is closely related to both social and cultural influences of family and the surroundings. A child’s relationship with the caretaker gives it the ability to express both positive and negative emotions in a socially and culturally acceptable manner.

From Baby To Adulthood: Overview Of The Stages Of Social Emotional Development In Children:

The development of social and emotional skills is extremely important for your kid.

  • It helps him behave in an appropriate way later, gives a good understanding about the life he lives and helps him gain control during his transition stage to reach adulthood.
  • Social and emotional development helps a kid to shape his future. This allows him to decide his ambitions while having proper control over his emotions.
  • Development of social skills allows a child to cooperate and play with peers, pay attention to the instructions offered by parents or teachers and obtain good transition while indulging in one activity or another.
  • Development of emotional skills allows your child to undergo a learning process which would educate him about the ways he can understand and control the emotions.
  • The social and emotional development of a child is categorized into different phases to help parents determine which stage your child is in now.

You must look out for the following milestones in your child to know how well he or she has developed so far.

1. Emotional Development From 0-6 Months:

Babies begin to learn many things in an active way almost from birth. They learn about the people in their home and about themselves.

  • During this age, your baby would:
  • Look at his hands or suck his fingers.
  • When you touch any part of his body, he will try to look where he is being touched.
  • Gain an understanding about his hands and legs.
  • Realize that he is separate from the rest.
  • Begins to learn that he needs the comfort of adults and loves being soothed.
  • Enjoys socializing and smiles at you.
  • Responds to your touch.

Social interaction is an important factor to be considered during 3 to 6 months stage. If your baby is between 3 to 6 months, he would:

Emotional Development From 6 Months -1 Year:

As your baby grows, he would begin to show liking towards family members. If you have babies who are aged between 6 months to 9 months, lookout for signs of social and emotional development such as:

  • Expressing a variety of emotions like happiness, anger, sadness and fearfulness.
  • Will be able to differentiate between strangers, family and others.
  • Exhibits frustration when you take a toy away from his hand.
  • Shows response to the words or gestures you do.

During 9 months to1 Year of age stage, your baby tends to become very social, performs certain actions like elders and becomes a bit responsible. Self-regulation is an important factor to be considered at this stage. By now, your baby would be able to:

  • Holds a cup while drinking from it.
  • Imitates simple actions.
  • Try to eat by himself by putting small pieces of food in his mouth.
  • Show anxiety when separated from you.

3. Emotional Development From 1-2 Years:

When your kid is within this age group, he will tend to spend a lot of time in exploring things around him, observing people at home and also develop a sense of self-awareness. By this age, your kid can:

  • Recognize his reflection in the mirror.
  • Take the initiative while playing.
  • Imitate the actions of adults.
  • Play separately.
  • Is pleased when you appreciate for accomplishing something.
  • Tries to help you.
  • Puts toys away after playing.
  • Negative emotions such as frustration or anger surfaces.
  • Becomes very self-assertive and would try to direct you to perform few actions.

Emotional Development From 2-3 Years:

This is known as the toddler stage when your kid would become very creative and would have loads of confidence in all his actions. After your child is 2 years old, he will begin to:

  • Be aware about whether he is a boy or girl.
  • Try to put the dress on and remove it on his own.
  • Show his tastes while wearing dresses, eating food, choosing toys and while playing games.
  • Learn to say no to your requests.
  • Enjoy the company of other kids and play with them.
  • Show a defensive attitude about the toys he owns.

5. Emotional Development From 3-4 Years:

Your 3 year old toddler would be able to perform various activities physically which would improve his self confidence levels. It will also help him become very independent during this stage. From 3 years of age, your kid would be able to:

  • Follow the directions you give him.
  • Perform few activities without any assistance.
  • Begin to share the toys with siblings or friends.
  • Create some new game ideas and invite friends to join in.
  • Become much interested in pretend play.

6. Emotional Development From 4-6 Years:

When your child is four years old, he would begin to gain awareness about his individuality. When he is interested in physical activities, he will tend to develop his motor skills and reasoning skills. This would help him achieve good levels of confidence and feel proud about himself. At this age, your kid would try to:

  • Differentiate between good behavior and bad behavior.
  • Create friendship with other kids.
  • Make a comparison between himself and the rest.
  • Try to understand other’s feelings.
  • Enjoy an imaginative game which is a bit dramatic with other kids.
  • Like to involve in competitive games.
  • Try to lead a group of friends while playing.
  • Cooperate with other people.
  • Follow instructions correctly.
  • Show interest in creative drawing.

7. Emotional Development From 7-12 Years:

This stage is known as the age of going to school. This stage would make your kid experience lots of emotional outbursts and learn a number of skills such as:

  • Blend well with peers.
  • Follow rules well.
  • Follow a well-structured play style with rules.
  • Form a team in a formal way.
  • Show interest in learning major subjects like maths, social studies, etc.
  • Have a self-disciplined approach while learning.
  • Take initiative to do some activities.
  • Feel pride when bestowed with new responsibilities.

Understand that all children are special in their own ways, so your kid may or may not show the above signs at the particular age. The one thing to remember always is to let your child know that you love him, no matter what. Share your views on according to you how you can improve emotional development in children with us.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q2.  1. Discuss the course of physical growth in Early childhood . (10)

 One of the distinctive features of the science of early childhood development is the extent to which research findings evolve under the anxious and eager eyes of millions of families, policy makers, and service providers who seek authoritative guidance as they address the challenges of promoting the health and well-being of young children. Moreover, as a public issue, questions about effective practices in the care and protection of children confront basic traditional values in areas that include personal responsibility, individual self-reliance, and the role of government involvement in people’s lives.

Many policies have changed at the federal and state level since the initial publication of From Neurons to Neighborhoods, some because of the scientific advances catalyzed by the report. More emphasis is placed upon early childhood education than it was a decade ago. State and federal maternal health legislation has expanded to include home visiting programs throughout the states. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has moved away from formulas toward packages for providing food for families. At the same time, socioeconomic and demographic trends have created new challenges, with a greater percentage of children growing up in poverty and to foreign-born mothers. More than 200 million children under the age of five in the developing world are at risk of not reaching their full development potential because they suffer from the negative consequences of poverty, nutritional deficiencies and inadequate learning opportunities (Lancet 2007).  In addition, 165 million children (one in four) are stunted, with 90 percent of those children living in Africa and Asia (UNICEF et al, 2012).  And while some progress has been made globally, child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem with enormous human and economic costs.  Child death is a tragedy.  At 6 million deaths a year, far too many children perish before reaching the age of five, but the near certainty that 200 million children today will fall far below their development potential is no less a tragedy.

Literature on the determining influence

There is now an expanding body of literature on the determining influence of early development on the chances of success later in life.  The first 1,000 days from conception to age two are increasingly being recognized as critical to the development of neural pathways that lead to linguistic, cognitive and socio-emotional capacities that are also predictors of labor market outcomes later in life. Poverty, malnutrition, and lack of proper interaction in early childhood can exact large costs on individuals, their communities and society more generally.  The effects are cumulative and the absence of appropriate childcare and education in the three to five age range can exacerbate further the poor outcomes expected for children who suffer from inadequate nurturing during the critical first 1,000 days.

The Good News: ECD Interventions Are Effective

The following are important inputs into the development of healthy and productive children and adults, but unfortunately these issues are often not addressed effectively:

Maternal  Health. Maternal undernutrition affects 10 to 19 percent of women in most developing countries (Lancet, 2011) and 16 percent of births are low birth weight (27 percent in South Asia).  Malnutrition during pregnancy is linked to low birth weight and impaired physical development in children, with possible links also to the development of their social and cognitive skills. Pre-natal care is critical for a healthy pregnancy and birth. Yet data from 49 low-income countries show that only 40 percent of pregnant women have access to four or more antenatal care visits (Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems, 2009). Maternal depression also affects the quality of caregiving and compromises early child development.

Child Care and Parenting Practices. The home environment, including parent-child interactions and exposure to stressful experiences, influences the cognitive and socio-emotional development of children.  For instance, only 39 percent of infants aged zero to six months in low and middle-income countries are exclusively breast-fed, despite strong evidence on its benefits (Lancet, 2011).  Also, in half of the 38 countries for which UNICEF collects data, mothers engage in activities that promote learning with less that 40 percent of children under the age of six.  Societal violence and conflict are also detrimental to a child’s development, a fact well known to around 300 million children under the age of four that live in conflict-affected states.


  1. As a teacher which activities you can used for physical development of children at elementary level (10)

Healthy and well-nourished children are more likely to develop to their full physical, cognitive and socio-emotional potential than children who are frequently ill, suffer from vitamin or other deficiencies and are stunted or underweight.  Yet, for instance, an estimated 30 percent of households in the developing world do not consume iodized salt, putting 41 million infants at risk for developing iodine deficiency which is the primary cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage, and also increases the chance of infant mortality, miscarriage and stillbirth.  An estimated 40 to 50 percent of young children in developing countries are also iron deficient with similarly negative consequences (UNICEF 2008).  Diarrhea, malaria and HIV infection are other dangers with a deficit of treatment in early childhood that lead to various poor outcomes later in life.

Preprimary Schooling. Participation in good quality preprimary programs has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cognitive development of children and their longevity in the school system.  Yet despite gains, enrollment remains woefully inadequate in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa.  Moreover, national averages usually hide significant inequalities across socio-economic groups in access and almost certainly in quality. In all regions, except South Asia, there is a strong income gradient for the proportion of 3 and 4 year olds attending preschool.

Impediments to Scaling Up

So what are the impediments to scaling up these known interventions and reaping the benefits of improved learning, higher productivity, lower poverty and lower inequality for societies as a whole?  There are a range of impediments that include knowledge gaps (especially in designing cost-effective and scalable interventions of acceptable quality), fiscal constraints and coordination failures triggered by institutional organization and political economy.

Knowledge Gaps. Despite recent advances in the area, there is still insufficient awareness of the importance of brain development in the early years of life on future well-being and of the benefits of ECD interventions.  Those who work in this area take the science and the evaluation evidence for granted. Yet awareness among crucial actors in developing countries—policymakers, parents and teachers—cannot be taken for granted.

At the same time much of the evaluation evidence from small programs attests to the efficacy of interventions, we do not yet know whether large scale programs are as effective. The early evidence came primarily from small pilots (involving about 10 to 120 children) from developed countries. While there is now considerable evidence from developing countries as well, such programs still tend to be boutique operations and therefore questions regarding their scalability and cost-effectiveness.

Fiscal Constraints.  Fiscal concerns at the aggregate level are also an issue and force inter-sectoral trade-offs that are difficult to make.  Is it reasonable to expect countries to put money into ECD when problems persist in terms of both access and poor learning outcomes in primary schools and beyond?  Even though school readiness and teacher quality may be the most important determinants of learning outcomes in primary schools, resource allocation shifts are not easy to make for policymakers.  In addition, as discussed above, we do not yet have good answers to the questions around the cost implications of high quality design at scale.

Advocacy. There is a need for a more visible global push for the agenda, complemented by advocacy at country or regional levels and a strong role for business leaders.  It should be brought to the attention of policymakers that ECD is not a fringe issue and that it is a matter of economic stability to the entire world. It is also in the interest of business leaders to support the development of young children to ensure a productive work force in the future and a thriving economy.  Currently, there is insufficient recognition of the scale of the issues and the effectiveness of known interventions. And while there are pockets of research excellence, there is a gap in the translation of this work into effective policies on the ground.  The nutrition agenda has recently received a great deal of global attention through the 1000 days campaign and the Scaling up Nutrition Movement led by the United States and others.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q3. How does children logical thinking develop across the following stages of Piaget’s theory, proportional, concrete operational and formal operational stages? (20).


From infancy to adolescence, children grow physically, mentally and socially into mature beings. During the first 18 years of life, brain functioning expands, enabling children to develop from simple understandings at birth to complex levels of thinking during adolescence. Muscles, bones and internal organs become fully functioning. Personality and social skills begin as simple smiles and develop into unique, individual identities. What an exciting process for parents to watch and marvel over as your sweet baby grows into an adult!

Infancy and Toddlerhood

According to Robert S. Feldman, Dean of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, children develop more rapidly during their first three years than any other time in life. Infants begin at an average weight of seven pounds and increase to 30 pounds by the age of three. Feldman notes that babies develop motor skills from learning to roll over at three months to jumping in place at two years old. Mental improvements start with your baby’s laughter at six weeks, mimicking sounds at eight months, and saying their first words at a year old. By the time your child is three years old, he or she will speak in sentences and ask many questions. Feldman states that attachment is an important social development during infancy. Babies who successfully form a bond between themselves and their caregiver learn to feel secure and to trust others.

Preschool Years

From ages three to six, it may seem like your child is constantly saying, “Mommy, watch me do this!” According to, preschoolers stay busy honing their new physical skills, like running, jumping, catching and throwing. Mentally, children become conscious of their own thoughts and understand what others around them think. Feldman explains other important cognitive milestones are computing simple math problems and learning how to use grammatical rules in speech. During this period, your child also develops awareness of maleness and femaleness, which is greatly influenced by parental guidance and social media, like television and children’s books.

Middle Childhood

For many children, the elementary school years are a time of academic achievement, involvement in sports, development of musical talent, and awareness of individual personality traits. According to the National Network for Child Care, or N.N.C.C., kids in middle childhood control their larger muscles better than their smaller ones. Mentally, children can comprehend rules in games and think ahead to figure things out. In middle childhood, the N.N.C.C. recommends that parents set clear limits with consequences and offer help and guidance when needed.


According to, adolescents grow almost as rapidly as babies to reach their adult height by the end of their teen years. You are also sure to notice your son’s voice deepening or that your daughter is shaving her legs. Feldman points out that these are outer signs of inner sexual organs maturing. Teenagers advance in their reasoning and debating skills, often trying them out on their parents. While teens are the size of an adult and have the capability to talk like one, Feldman reminds parents that adolescents are subject to egocentric thinking, or to put it another way, they believe that they are bulletproof. Social activities and the advice of friends often take the place of family time and parental guidance. Feldman remarks that, in the end, an adolescent’s individual identity is a culmination of parental and peer influences, along with life experiences.

Paigetian theory of cognitive development

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence. Piaget’s stages are:

  • Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years
  • Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7
  • Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11
  • Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up

Piaget believed that children take an active role in the learning process, acting much like little scientists as they perform experiments, make observations, and learn about the world. As kids interact with the world around them, they continually add new knowledge, build upon existing knowledge, and adapt previously held ideas to accommodate new information.

How Piaget Developed the Theory

Piaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and was a precocious student, publishing his first scientific paper when he was just 11 years old. His early exposure to the intellectual development of children came when he worked as an assistant to Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon as they worked to standardize their famous IQ test. Much of Piaget’s interest in the cognitive development of children was inspired by his observations of his own nephew and daughter. These observations reinforced his budding hypothesis that children’s minds were not merely smaller versions of adult minds. Up until this point in history, children were largely treated simply as smaller versions of adults. Piaget was one of the first to identify that the way that children think is different from the way adults think.

Instead, he proposed, intelligence is something that grows and develops through a series of stages. Older children do not just think more quickly than younger children, he suggested. Instead, there are both qualitative and quantitative differences between the thinking of young children versus older children. Based on his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget’s discovery “so simple only a genius could have thought of it. Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in mental operations.

The Stages

Through his observations of his children, Piaget developed a stage theory of intellectual development that included four distinct stages:

The Sensorimotor Stage

Ages: Birth to 2 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • The infant knows the world through their movements and sensations.
  • Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, and listening.
  • Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot be seen (object permanence).
  • They are separate beings from the people and objects around them.
  • They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them.

During this earliest stage of cognitive development, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. A child’s entire experience at the earliest period of this stage occurs through basic reflexes, senses, and motor responses.

Ages: 2 to 7 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects.
  • Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective of others.
  • While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms.

The foundations of language development may have been laid during the previous stage, but it is the emergence of language that is one of the major hallmarks of the preoperational stage of development. Children become much more skilled at pretend play during this stage of development, yet still think very concretely about the world around them. At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. They also often struggle with understanding the idea of constancy. For example, a researcher might take a lump of clay, divide it into two equal pieces, and then give a child the choice between two pieces of clay to play with. One piece of clay is rolled into a compact ball while the other is smashed into a flat pancake shape. Since the flat shape looks larger, the preoperational child will likely choose that piece even though the two pieces are exactly the same size.

The Concrete Operational Stage

Ages: 7 to 11 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes

  • During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events.
  • They begin to understand the concept of conservation; that the amount of liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example.
  • Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete.
  • Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a general principle.

While children are still very concrete and literal in their thinking at this point in development, they become much more adept at using logic. The egocentrism of the previous stage begins to disappear as kids become better at thinking about how other people might view a situation.

The Formal Operational Stage

Ages: 12 and Up

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

  • At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems.
  • Abstract thought emerges.
  • Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning.
  • Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information.

The final stage of Piaget’s theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. At this point, people become capable of seeing multiple potential solutions to problems and think more scientifically about the world around them.

The ability to thinking about abstract ideas and situations is the key hallmark of the formal operational stage of cognitive development. The ability to systematically plan for the future and reason about hypothetical situations are also critical abilities that emerge during this stage.

It is important to note that Piaget did not view children’s intellectual development as a quantitative process; that is, kids do not just add more information and knowledge to their existing knowledge as they get older. Instead, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process through these four stages. A child at age 7 doesn’t just have more information about the world than he did at age 2; there is a fundamental change in how he thinks about the world.

Important Concepts

To better understand some of the things that happen during cognitive development, it is important first to examine a few of the important ideas and concepts introduced by Piaget. The following are some of the factors that influence how children learn and grow:


A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piaget’s view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child’s sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters an enormous dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include these new observations.


The process of taking in new information into our already existing schemas is known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective because we tend to modify experiences and information slightly to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above, seeing a dog and labeling it “dog” is a case of assimilating the animal into the child’s dog schema.


Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves modifying existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.


Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children can move from one stage of thought to the next.

A Word From Verywell

One of the most important elements to remember of Piaget’s theory is that it takes the view that creating knowledge and intelligence is an inherently active process. “I find myself opposed to the view of knowledge as a passive copy of reality,” Piaget explained. “I believe that knowing an object means acting upon it, constructing systems of transformations that can be carried out on or with this object. Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, to reality. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development helped add to our understanding of children’s intellectual growth. It also stressed that children were not merely passive recipients of knowledge. Instead, kids are constantly investigating and experimenting as they build their understanding of how the world works.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q4. What are social skills? As a teacher which activities you can used for social development of children at elementary level? (20)

Social skills and their development during childhood years. We will also go over why social skills are so important for children, and what strategies are used to teach them.

What Are Social Skills?

Social skills are ways of dealing with others that create healthy and positive interactions. Children who have social skills can communicate clearly, calmly, and respectfully. They show consideration for the feelings and interests of their peers. They take responsibility for their actions, are able to control themselves, and are able to assert themselves when needed. Children learn social skills through experiences with peers, examples and instructions from their parents, and time with adults.

It is vital for children to use social skills because they are the route to creating and developing relationships. They are needed for enriching social experiences, and they lessen the chance for negative interactions. Being the building blocks for friendships, social skills give children the chance to learn from their peers and learn how to be considerate with those they meet in the future. By having a positive impact on life experiences, social skills also give children a sense of confidence and mastery over their environment.

Social Development

Children come into the world immediately relying on others. Several months after their birth, they begin to be aware of themselves as individuals, with personal wants and needs. They are also bonding with their family, prefer them over strangers, and feel anxious when they are separated. Infants may watch other infants at a distance, but once entering preschool, are given their first opportunities for similar-age social interactions.

This is also the time when children slowly become accustomed to separating from their parents. Over the next couple of years, children begin recognizing the desires and feelings of other children. They are given the chance to learn how to see things from another perspective and to take turns, as well as compromise. When development goes as it should, and children are instructed accurately, they continue growing their social skills.

Teaching Strategies

Some children tend to gravitate naturally towards healthy social interactions, while for others it may not be so easy. But in all cases, it is the combination of both healthy development and learning that cultivates those skills. The good news is that even when children are struggling with social skills, there are many tools parents and teachers can use in order to help them develop. Let’s review some strategies that teach children about the skills and how to use them.

Provide Opportunities for Social Interaction

First and foremost, children need to learn through experience how to interact with others. They also need to have the chance to practice the skills they learn. It is good for parents to invite other children to the home, and provide outings for parents and their children. Outings are especially important for children who are homeschooled. There are few strategies as useful for teaching social skills as giving a child hands-on experience developing them.

Teach to Use Words Rather Than Actions

Children can be emotional and lash out physically with aggression or frustration. They need to learn how to calm and control themselves, and then how to find words to express how they feel. If a child cries or lashes out, the parent can calm him down and ask him to share what he is thinking. It is important for the child to learn how to voice what he feels rather than becoming aggressive.

Parents can encourage their children to share with them and to ask for what they need. Parents can then talk with the child about his requests. When discussion is promoted, it can teach the child how to communicate with others. For example, instead of a mother responding to a child, ‘You aren’t doing (this or that), because I said so,’ she could explain some of the reasons behind her decision.

We all struggle with social interactions and knowing what is or is not appropriate. This lesson offers tips for improving social skills. Improving our social skills can help to improve confidence and the quality of our relationships.

Why Social Skills Are Important

First, let’s break down how social skills impact our life. Social skills are important because they influence how we get along with others. Our ability to communicate, attract and understand the people we interact with at school, work, and home can dictate our level of self-confidence and quality of life. If we lack social skills, we may feel alone or frustrated. On the other hand, if we have good social skills, we are likely to have more meaningful relationships both personally and professionally.

Next, understanding what constitutes poor social skills can help us to further understand the importance of developing effective social skills. Poor social skills are usually linked to a bad attitude, rudeness or inappropriate behavior. For example, consider someone who is always negative. Who wants to be around someone that constantly complains? Did you know that physical appearance and body language are a part of your social skills? How long can you sit and chat with someone that smells bad or is constantly texting?

Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills are how we communicate and interact with people on a daily basis. Have you heard of the phrase, ‘treat people how you want to be treated’? That principle applies here. Let’s start with listening. When we speak, we want to be heard. Being an active listener means expressing interest. You can use body language by making eye contact, nodding, or verbally responding. When someone tells a story with great enthusiasm, you should emulate their excitement to a degree. It also helps to repeat or paraphrase what they are saying to show that you are actually listening.

Has someone ever complimented you and it made your day? Giving compliments is also a part of being a good listener and being observant. If someone is wearing a new outfit, lost weight or told you about something they achieved, recognizing their efforts with a compliment will improve your likability. This will associate you with kindness. Since interpersonal skills are about how we interact with people on a daily basis, you should focus on being cooperative. Some examples include being helpful, supportive and a team player. There will be tasks that we don’t want to do, but those around you will recognize your selflessness and will want to return the favor. In a work setting, people will want to work with you again.

2. Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify your own emotions and the emotions of others. Once you recognize those emotions, it’s all about how you respond. This topic is fairly complex, but a great exercise is to reflect on how you behave when you feel certain emotions and determine if the behavior is helpful in your relationship with others.

Being able to manage emotions, especially during an intense moment, will help you avoid poor decision-making. Think about a time you overreacted or regretted something you said. Was it worth it? On the other hand, how you respond to other people’s emotions will also improve your relationships. Let’s use crying for example. If someone is crying at work, what do you do? Do you pretend like you didn’t see it or do you console that person?

Social Skills Curriculum

It can be said that schooling has as much to do with the socialization of children as it does with teaching academic content. At school, students learn to interact and communicate effectively with their peers and with authority figures. It is important that schools recognize this role with an explicit social skills curriculum to help students of all ages and developmental levels. These topics fall into a few basic categories, each with several possible lesson ideas to instruct children and adolescents. These categories include:

  • Communication
  • Being part of a group
  • Expressing feelings
  • Caring for oneself and others
  • Social problem solving
  • Managing conflict
  • Listening

Let’s see what some lessons could be for each category.


Communication can be verbal or nonverbal. There are several ways to teach effective verbal and nonverbal communication. Students can share something special about themselves, including values and special interests. They should learn how to introduce themselves and remember others’ names, get to know others, or make a new friend. Students benefit from learning to give and receive a compliment and find common ground. Nonverbal communication skills to teach include using tone and volume of voice, eye contact, facial expressions, and gestures in communicating. Students should also learn about managing appearances, personal space, using touch and posture, and interpreting these body language signals and emotional cues in others.

Being Part of a Group

Effectively managing interaction within a group is a necessary skill for students, and it doesn’t always come naturally to everyone. Several lessons can help children learn to navigate being part of a group. Specific skills to learn may include: how to join a group and meet new people, cooperating and sharing, asking questions and following rules, making group decisions and following rules, being a good sport and a role model, accepting differences and fostering group identity, identifying true friends, and understanding cliques.

Expressing Feelings

Knowing how to identify and articulate one’s feelings is a priceless lesson for students that can be taught with lessons about empathy for others and expressing feelings with I-messages. I-messages reduce accusatory language and reduce defensive reactions by framing discussions to focus on the speaker’s feelings. Teachers model this with statements like ‘I feel like my efforts to make a safe place to learn are ignored when children put their backpacks in the walkway.’ Students can be taught how to exert self-control with self-talk, deal with change, and recognize mixed emotions. Another important lesson for students to learn is how to deal with anger toward others and to recognize and deal with anger in other people.

Caring about Oneself and Others

Empathy and self-care are very important lessons for children to learn. These skills are not necessarily inherent to a particular personality type or gender and can be taught. Students need to know how to seek help from adults and offer help to others. They should understand the impact of their behavior on others (empathy) as well as the impact of other people’s behavior on them (self-care). Students can be taught to show interest in others, to be a good friend, and care about people with kindness and prosocial behavior. Students also can learn how to show respect, to give advice when requested, and respond to positive advice offered by others.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8610 Spring 2020

Q5. Why social development is an important aspect of child development? Give reasons to support your answer. (20)

The social development of children has a strong influence on self-esteem. In this lesson, we will explore the way children feel about themselves and look into several ways caretakers can improve a child’s self-esteem.

Self-Esteem and Development

As children are developing socially, they are also developing their self-esteem. Self-esteem is the way we feel about ourselves. We may have high self-esteem and feel confident and content with who we are, or we may have low self-esteem and feel that we are not as valuable as others.

High self-esteem often leads to healthy social interactions, which then leads to higher self-esteem. There are several actions parents and caretakers can follow in order to build their child’s self-esteem during these key developing years.

  1. Show attention and care

When parents are attentive and show care toward their children, they give their children the message that they are important. Physical affection can make the child feel loved and more able to show affection to their own children one day. Statements like ‘I love you’ or ‘You are so special to me’ are like deposits into a child’s self-esteem account. When children hear these statements frequently, they feel securely loved and valued by their parents.

When they feel valuable to their parents, they feel good about themselves. Parents are a child’s first exposure to the world and to relationships with others. There is a relational bond in a parent-child relationship that far exceeds any other bond. Therefore, the way parents treat their children can deeply affect self-esteem both during childhood and even into adulthood.

  1. Foster safety and independence

While it is crucial that parents make a child feel safe, it is also crucial that parents encourage children to explore. Take Johnny, for example. Johnny loves crawling on the living room floor and investigating every corner. Johnny’s mother doesn’t want him exploring just yet. She is worried he is going to get into some kind of trouble. She tells him to stop over and over, picking him up and telling him to stay on her lap.

Johnny’s father, however, tells her not to worry and encourages Johnny to look around. He calls his son from another room and acts excited when he makes it there. Johnny’s mother may not realize it, but if she continues this overprotective behavior, she will limit Johnny’s confidence as he grows. He may only feel safe when she is around, which will make him feel inadequate if he is in day care or grade school.

Adolescents often go through a process of discovering what they believe and who they are. In this lesson, we will examine how a teenager develops his or her self concept and identity. We will also take a look at common factors that influence a teen’s identity.


Adolescence is a unique time. It’s the stage between childhood and adulthood, when many teenagers are trying to figure out who they are and what they’re about. It’s a time when they feel they should be given more responsibility than kids, but a time they do not yet feel ready for the duties of being an adult. With activities, school, home life and plans for their future, adolescence can be a turbulent but exciting time for teens to learn about themselves.

As already mentioned, part of the natural process of teenagers is the development of their self-concept. Self-concept refers to a set of abilities, opinions and thoughts by which we define and categorize ourselves. For adolescents, their self-concept begins being much more complex and tangible than it was when they were children. Let’s say a researcher wanted to show the difference between the self-concept of a child and that of a teenager.

Eight years ago, Susan was seven years old and was interviewed with basic questions about her self-concept. When asked to describe herself, she said, ‘I am nice,’ and ‘I am good at drawing and singing.’ Even though she had just played a game with her brother that she had lost, she tells the researcher, ‘And I won the game with my brother.’ Fast-forward eight years, and Susan is now 15 years old.

When asked about herself, she says things like:

  • ‘I’m nice to people, but sometimes I could be nicer.’
  • ‘I’m not good at sports, but I’m pretty good at the artsy stuff.’
  • ‘I lose every time I play card games with my brother.’
  • ‘My friends say I’m fun to be around.’

Not surprisingly, adolescents like Susan are able to describe and define themselves with more complexity than they could as children. A child may not realize how she can be nice and not nice at the same time, but an adolescent can. He or she may not be able to think realistically, as Susan once said she beat her brother in a game. Adolescents are also much more focused on the way they are viewed by others, which can affect their self-esteem and self-concept.

A teen may point to their values and morals as part of who they are. They may talk about careers or goals, schools they want to attend, awards they have received or activities in which they excel. Other teens may point out they don’t know yet who they are, or that they’re still getting to know themselves. Teens are much more focused on what is expected of them and how they compare to others than they were as children.

Identity Status

In another lesson, we learned about Erikson’s stage of identity development through our lifespan. Psychologist James Marcia focused on teen identity development and expanded on Erikson’s concepts of identity crisis and identity confusion during adolescence.

He explained that teens go through four unique stages in their quest toward forming an identity and called each stage an identity status. Each status describes where an adolescent is in the process of exploring values, beliefs and goals that will make up their self-concept. Here we have a group of four high school seniors who are close friends, but each hold a different identity status. Let’s meet Darla first. Darla is going through identity diffusion.

This means she has not explored any particular path or chosen to follow it. Her parents are putting pressure on her to go to college, but she is not sure what she thinks about continuing school. She doesn’t know what she wants to do with her future, and she isn’t interested in giving it much consideration. Her friend Lucy, however, is in identity foreclosure. This means she has not explored what it is she wants, but has committed to what is presented to her.

Cooperative Games

Gym class is often all about playing, and this is great, because play is probably the number one way children develop socially. Every time students play a new game or sport or enter into a familiar one, they have to make decisions about leadership, cooperation, and mutual respect. One thing you can do to promote social development is incorporate as many cooperative games, or games that involve cooperation rather than competition, into your class. For instance, instead of playing a competitive game like dodge ball, have your students work as a group to keep a ball in the air as long as possible. When students work together toward a mutual goal, they see each other as whole and worthy people and learn to pay attention to the strengths, weaknesses and needs of others in their community.


As a P.E. teacher, it is also important for you to remain constantly alert to your students’ self-esteem, or how they think and feel about themselves. Children with low self-esteem often struggle socially as they feel they have nothing to offer in a group. Some signs of low self-esteem that might surface in gym class include:

  • reluctance to participate
  • unwillingness to take risks
  • self-deprecating remarks
  • depressed facial expression or body language

Help your students build their self-esteem by involving them in games, sports and activities where they can shine and offering plenty of positive reinforcement.

Process, Play, Process

Playing sports and games is not the whole story to P.E. class. If you are interested in promoting social development, you also need to dedicate time to processing how games and sports went. In fact, it can be a good idea to follow a process, play, process framework. This means that first, you talk to your students about what to expect from a game. Then, they play. Finally, you discuss how the game went, what felt good and bad, and what they learned about themselves and each other. Questions to ask during the final process session include:

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