AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8611 Spring 2020 Assignment 2 Course: Critical Thinking and Reflective Practices (8611) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers
ASSIGNMENT No: 2
Critical Thinking and Reflective Practices (8611) B.Ed 1.5 Years
AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8611 Spring 2020
Q1. When can teachers conduct action research. How is it different from applied research and why it is needed.
Many teachers are making grassroots attempts to read, use, and generate research these days. Educational researchers love this. In turn, they are engaging with teachers, by organising events especially for teachers at educational research conferences and collaborating with teachers in classroom research. Schools all around Australia are currently hosting research projects involving classroom teachers. But it can be difficult for teachers to engage in research because it takes a lot of time and energy, not just in the classroom but also due to the paperwork and meetings involved. However, we don’t work with each other, teachers risk reinventing wheels or becoming trapped within an echo chamber, and researchers risk irrelevance.
There is so much to be gained by collaborating with each other. Together, teachers and researchers can develop a research literate teaching culture. Of course many teachers are already working collectively to improve their access, engagement with, and undertaking of research. In this post I want to look at what teachers are doing and how researchers might engage with them.
Formal and informal research
Educational researchers are often interested in large-scale research questions involving multiple teachers or schools, whereas classroom teachers are often looking to participate in or conduct informal research that is specific to their own classroom context and practice. Teachers regularly carry out informal research in their daily work in the classroom.
The basis for educational research is the scientific method. The scientific method uses directed questions and manipulation of variables to systematically find information about the teaching and learning process. In this scenario questions are answered by the analysis of data that is collected specifically for the purpose of answering these questions. Hypotheses are written and subsequently proved or disproved by data which leads to the creation of new hypotheses. The two main types of data that are used under this method are qualitative and quantitative.
By the nature of their role, teachers are informal researchers. Every day a teacher enters their classroom with a new lesson to try, a new strategy to test, a new thought about how to manage young Harry’s distractibility or Neville’s anxieties, help Ginny understand a difficult Herbology concept, and develop Hermione’s broomstick flying skills. However we know that teachers with better research skills, who are critically reflexive, and who look outside their own experience will find and evaluate possible solutions to teaching and classroom issues more quickly and efficiently. This can make their teaching more effective.
Looking outside to what others have done is a central part of this process. However, the constant trial and error teachers undertake to improve their classroom teaching is barely spoken about or shared. Usually, it’s undertaken independently, and the results a quiet accomplishment. Sometimes, it’s done collaboratively, and the results are shared with the community of teachers, students and their families. Occasionally, research is undertaken more formally, purposefully, with a broad goal of improving school or system-wide policies or processes.
Formal research is “hard and it is technical and there are a lot of i’s to dot and t’s to cross” (e.g. ethics applications, access to literature, participant recruitment and informed consent, and the difficult work of analysing and interpreting complicated data). It is rigorous, and accountability for validity and reliability are deeply entrenched within the system. With so many hurdles to jump, it can take a long time to complete a formal research project.
Teachers’ networks and events
While educational researchers investigate policy impacts and teaching methods, individual teachers often seek more definite and immediate resolutions to context-specific issues. Teachers are seeking what they desire through grassroots networks and events, such as Twitter, Teachmeets, and researchED conferences.
WHEN TEACHING MEETS RESEARCH
“Classroom research” always sounded very clinical to me. It was a practice that — along with statistical analysis and mice — belonged in a laboratory, not in my classroom. That was the way I looked at it until I read researcher Charles Kettering’s common-sense assessment of what research really is:
“Research is a high-hat word that scares a lot of people. It needn’t. It’s rather simple. Essentially, research is nothing but a state of minda friendly, welcoming attitude toward changegoing out to look for change instead of waiting for it to come. Research is an effort to do things better and not to be caught asleep at the switch. It is the problem-solving mind as contrasted with the let-well-enough-alone mind. It is the tomorrow mind instead of the yesterday mind.”
Characteristics of educational research in a teacher mind
- Educational research attempts to solve a problem.
- Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
- Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.
- Research demands accurate observation and description.
- Research generally employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis.
- Research emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles or theories that will help in understanding, prediction and/or control.
- Research requires expertise—familiarity with the field; competence in methodology; technical skill in collecting and analyzing the data.
- Research attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the procedures employed.
- Research is a deliberate and unhurried activity which is directional but often refines the problem or questions as the research progresses.
- Research is carefully recorded and reported to other persons interested in the problem.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611 Spring 2020
Q2. Write down a critical essay on the current syllabus of English taught in grade five.
The background, rationale and aims of English Language as a core subject in the three-year senior secondary curriculum, and highlights how it articulates with the junior secondary curriculum, post-secondary education, and future career pathways.
Curriculum Aims The overall aims of the English Language curriculum are:
to provide every learner of English with further opportunities for extending their knowledge and experience of the cultures of other people as well as opportunities for personal and intellectual development, further studies, pleasure and work in the English medium; and z to enable every learner to prepare for the changing socio-economic demands resulting from advances in information technology (IT) – demands which include the interpretation, use and production of texts for pleasure, study and work in the English medium.
Interface with the Junior Secondary Curriculum and Post-secondary Pathways
The senior secondary English Language curriculum (S4 – 6) is premised on the tenet that a person’s development is a rising continuum and that a lifelong approach should be adopted for English Language curriculum planning and development, rather than a selective approach exemplified by separate and isolated syllabuses. The senior secondary curriculum is therefore part of a common English Language curriculum designed for the full range of diversity of students. The English Language curriculum caters for all levels of school education from Primary 1 to Secondary 6. The latter looks forward towards continuing education after schooling.
While the six-year primary curriculum focusses on laying the foundation of English Language development, the secondary curriculum at both junior and senior levels focusses on the application of English for various everyday learning and developmental purposes. Specifically, the senior secondary English Language curriculum comprises a broad range of learning targets, objectives and outcomes that help learners to consolidate what they have learned through basic education (P1 – S3), as well as to broaden and deepen their learning experiences to help them to develop the necessary language knowledge and skills for their future needs, whether they choose to pursue vocational training or university education, or to work after they complete secondary education.
To enable learners to meet the challenges of the senior secondary English Language curriculum effectively, a solid groundwork must be laid at the junior secondary level. Schools are encouraged to continue with the following practices to build a strong interface between the junior and senior secondary curricula:
Make use of the learning targets and objectives and the broad learning outcomes provided in the English Language curriculum framework to plan and develop a coherent school-based language curriculum with built-in pedagogical approaches which facilitate learning progression and which suit learners’ needs, interests and abilities at both junior and senior secondary levels.
Provide a language-rich environment to encourage learners to learn and use English, and to support their learning of other subjects in English.
Make use of a broad range of activities and materials (including those involving the use of creative or imaginative texts) to enhance learners’ motivation, and to develop, inter alia, their creativity as well as critical thinking and problem-solving skills. z Promote a culture of reading among learners.
Develop skills of learning how to learn as well as positive values and attitudes conducive to independent and lifelong language learning.
Provide, if appropriate, additional support (e.g. materials adaptation, promotion of cross-curricular and extra-curricular language learning, and the development of self-access language learning (SALL) strategies and activities) to prepare classes for the switch to the English medium of instruction at Secondary 4.
By broadening and enriching students’ knowledge, skills and experience, the senior secondary English Language curriculum also provides a firm foundation for further study, vocational training or work. It opens up a variety of post-secondary educational and career pathways, particularly in the areas of media production, performing arts, teaching, business, law and social sciences.
Cross-curricular Links Consistent with the primary and junior secondary English Language curricula, the senior secondary English Language curriculum recognises the importance of fostering greater connection between English Language and other subjects through cross-curricular collaboration. Such a vision is rooted in the belief that learners should explore knowledge and gain experience in a comprehensive and integrative manner. When they are able to make connections among ideas and concepts, their motivation will be raised and their learning strengthened. Likewise, the knowledge they acquire, and the skills and positive attitudes they develop in each key learning area (KLA) will be enhanced. For more information on how cross-curricular collaboration can be achieved through language curriculum planning and development, please refer to sections 3.4.5 and 3.5.2.
The curriculum framework for English Language embodies the key knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that students are to develop at senior secondary level. It forms the basis on which schools and teachers plan their school-based curriculum and design appropriate learning, teaching and assessment activities.
The English Language Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Framework The curriculum framework for the English Language Education KLA provides an overall structure for organising learning and teaching for the subjects of English Language (P1 – S6) and Literature in English (S4 – 6). English Language is a core subject in the English Language Education curriculum, whereas Literature in English is an optional subject. The framework sets out what learners should know, value and be able to do at various stages of schooling from Primary 1 to Secondary 6. It gives schools and teachers flexibility and ownership to plan and develop a range of diverse strategies to meet their students’ varied needs.
The component of generic skills is fundamental in enabling learners to learn how to learn. Altogether, nine types of generic skills have been identified:
- collaboration skills;
- communication skills;
- critical thinking skills;
- information technology skills;
- numeracy skills;
- problem-solving skills;
- self-management skills; and z study skills.
These skills are to be developed through learning and teaching in all the. To a large extent, they are embedded in the curriculum content of English Language. Collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and study skills are in particular nurtured through its delivery.
Values and Attitudes The values that we develop underpin our conduct and decisions. They can be positive or negative in effect. Examples of positive values include honesty, self-esteem and perseverance. Examples of positive social values include equality, interdependence and tolerance. An example of a negative value is egocentricity. Attitudes are personal dispositions, which may also affect our behaviour positively or negatively. Learners need to develop positive attitudes such as responsibility, open-mindedness and co-operativeness for healthy development.
Language Items and Communicative Functions Language items include a range of grammatical forms and structures that learners need to develop as they perform the communicative functions. Learners at senior secondary level should already have encountered most of the essential structures of English and have applied them in various situations. Items learned at KS3 should be consolidated and extended to a greater degree of complexity at this level. The following list serves to illustrate the relationships between some of the language items and communicative functions for senior secondary learners. It is by no means exhaustive. Exponents may vary according to contextual elements, such as physical location and the relative social status of addresser and addressee. Teachers are encouraged to provide meaningful contexts in which the language items can be used for purposeful communication.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611 Spring 2020
Q3. How can students become a part of the assessment and evaluation process? Explain with examples.
A student portfolio is a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student’s activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects. The collection should include evidence of student reflection and self-evaluation, guidelines for selecting the portfolio contents, and criteria for judging the quality of the work. The goal is to help students assemble portfolios that illustrate their talents, represent their writing capabilities, and tell their stories of school achievement.
Two Types of Portfolios:
Process and product portfolios represent the two major types of portfolios. A process portfolio documents the stages of learning and provides a progressive record of student growth. A product portfolio demonstrates mastery of a learning task or a set of learning objectives and contains only the best work… Teachers use process portfolios to help students identify learning goals, document progress over time, and demonstrate learning mastery… In general, teachers prefer to use process portfolios because they are ideal for documenting the stages that students go through as they learn and progress.
Steps in the Portfolio Assessment Process
First, the teacher and the student need to clearly identify the portfolio contents, which are samples of student work, reflections, teacher observations, and conference records. Second, the teacher should develop evaluation procedures for keeping track of the portfolio contents and for grading the portfolio… Third, the teacher needs a plan for holding portfolio conferences, which are formal and informal meetings in which students review their work and discuss their progress. Because they encourage reflective teaching and learning, these conference are an essential part of the portfolio assessment process.
Advantages of Portfolio Assessment
- Promoting student self-evaluation, reflection, and critical thinking.
- Measuring performance based on genuine samples of student work.
- Providing flexibility in measuring how students accomplish their learning goals.
- Enabling teachers and students to share the responsibility for setting learning goals and for evaluating progress toward meeting those goals.
- Giving students the opportunity to have extensive input into the learning process.
- Facilitating cooperative learning activities, including peer evaluation and tutoring, cooperative learning groups, and peer conferencing.
- Providing a process for structuring learning in stages.
- Providing opportunities for students and teachers to discuss learning goals and the progress toward those goals in structured and unstructured conferences.
- Enabling measurement of multiple dimensions of student progress by including different types of data and materials. (Venn, 2000, p. 538)
Disadvantages of Portfolio Assessment
- Requiring extra time to plan an assessment system and conduct the assessment.
- Gathering all of the necessary data and work samples can make portfolios bulky and difficult to manage.
- Developing a systematic and deliberate management system is difficult, but this step is necessary in order to make portfolios more than a random collection of student work.
- Scoring portfolios involves the extensive use of subjective evaluation procedures such as rating scales and professional judgment, and this limits reliability.
- Scheduling individual portfolio conferences is difficulty and the length of each conference may interfere with other instructional activities.
The documentation of student learning and progress now plays a primary role in how our schools and educational programs are evaluated. Assessment in all its forms (e.g., formative, summative, self-assessment) has become one of the biggest discussion points in education today. Educational accountability, as identified through No Child Left Behind (NCLB) along with national and state standards, must now be demonstrated in the classroom through the documented collection of student learning evidence. Due to this educational reality, teachers play a central role in this process.
Why does a teacher need to be competent and skilled in the assessment of student learning?
The first and obvious answer to that question is that classroom assessment is now considered a professional requirement comparable to other expected professional skills such as content knowledge or classroom management. It is now an official “tool” that is expected to be in every teacher’s “toolbox” and this represents a national practice expectation. However, beyond the professional requirements and general accountability pressure, a more essential and important reason for the need of classroom assessment exists. Information obtained through classroom assessment can help answer the fundamental question that every educator asks of themselves: Am I truly effective with my teaching and are my students learning what they need to learn?
Through the use of effective classroom assessment procedures, teachers are able to identify and document, due to collected student evidence, whether or not appropriate progress has been demonstrated by students in the classroom. If limited progress is evidenced by the students, then the collected data can provide the justification to implement necessary instructional and learning changes in order that the intended learning outcomes and goals can be reached.
Most states have identified assessment standards that teachers are expected to meet as part of their professional practice. When viewed collectively, fundamental assessment competencies exist for teachers regardless of where they are employed.
At a minimum, teachers should be knowledgeable and competent in regards to the following assessment skills:
- Knowing and understanding basic assessment terms and procedures and how they apply to the classroom setting.
- Selecting appropriate assessment approaches (e.g., formative assessments, summative reviews, self-assessment procedures, skill diagnostic assessments, etc.) based on the purpose, need and instructional situation.
- Collecting and communicating data findings and corresponding educational decisions to various educational constituents including students, parents, related professionals as well as the general public.
- Following ethical guidelines and procedures when utilizing assessment measures and procedures in the classroom.
Does classroom assessment really matter when it comes to student achievement?
Based on research spanning several decades, classroom achievement has been found to improve when students, particularly low-achieving students, are actively engaged and receive feedback on their performance during an instructional event. According to the Assessment Reform Group (1999) based on the assessment research of Black and Wiliam (1998), students can achieve at high levels if five instructional/assessment practices are followed in the classroom:
- Effective and meaningful learning feedback is provided to students during the instructional process.
- Efforts are made to ensure that students are a part of their learning and are actively connected to it.
- Assessment information is used by the teacher to examine the learning progress of students and to adjust the instructional process when, and if, necessary.
- Assessment information is used to support and motivate students throughout the instructional process.
- Students self-assess their own learning progress and make the necessary adjustments and modifications needed in order to reach the desired educational outcomes.
What assessment types or approaches are found in the classroom?
The main assessment types or approaches that are used in the classroom include formative assessment, self-assessment, and summative assessment. Formative assessment involves the teacher providing constructive review, confirmation and/or correction to students in order to promote their learning without any formal cost (e.g., losing points, being graded) connected to the learning event. Self-assessment is the relatively new skill expectation for students. As a process, self-assessment involves students selecting and/or prioritizing individual learning goals or outcomes, monitoring one’s progress toward those learning outcomes as well as determining what individual adjustments, if any, are needed throughout an instructional experience. Summative assessment is the most recognized form of classroom assessment. This type of assessment is used to officially confirm and document a student’s performance usually in the recognized form of a grade or mark. The most recognized summative assessment measure is the classroom test. However, other forms of student work (e.g., project, rubric, portfolio) can and do serve as useful summative assessments.
In order for summative assessment to be truly effective, formative assessment and self-assessment must be utilized and directly connected to any summative product. In fact, all need to be part of the instructional process. Although designed for different purposes, collectively they provide the opportunity for academic success to be maximized for every learner in the classroom; and all are necessary when constructing and utilizing any classroom assessment system.
How are assessment and teaching connected?
Assessment exists as the essential complement to teaching. With an effective classroom assessment system in place, a valid demonstration of student learning and progress connected to classroom instruction and experience can be confirmed. Moreover, if the classroom assessment system is aligned with the intended academic content standards, then direct evidence that students have acquired expected knowledge and skills mandated by district, state, or national standards can be provided. By making assessment a part of the teaching process, it becomes an essential element of every educational experience that is provided in the classroom. Classroom assessment is, by design, a continuous process where specific student product information (e.g., pages read and review questions answered, two digit multiplication problems solved, Shakespeare project completed, questions answered in class, etc.) is examined and reviewed to make sure appropriate and genuine progress toward an identified learning goal or target (i.e. what students are expected to know and be able to do once the instruction is complete) is being met.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611 Spring 2020
Q4. On any of the social media that you use (Facebook, twitter or WhatsApp) make groups of teachers. Initiate a discussion regarding role of education in society. Write down a report of the discussion.
Social media has become ubiquitous. As of January 2014, about three quarters of online American adults were using some form of social media, according to Pew Research. Among young adults and teens, the numbers are even higher. Without a doubt, the vast majority of your students – at least those in middle school or higher – have social media accounts.
Many educators are also on social media both for personal and professional use and, for the most part, that’s great. From a professional standpoint it can enhance your network of contacts, engage you in important discussions, extend your own learning and even provide a platform for class projects. As for personal use, well, educators have lives, families, friends and interests just like everyone else so, naturally, many are drawn to social networking as a way to connect to the people they care about.
But educators also have responsibilities and concerns that could, perhaps, cause them to think twice about how they use social media. What is appropriate to post? Who should you interact with? Should you “friend,” follow or make your posts accessible to your students? How about parents and colleagues? Are there certain types of posts to avoid? And how can you control who has access to what you post?
Social media services and apps can also be used as educational tools, but there are important issues to consider including privacy, appropriate content, security and your comfort level with the apps and services. Often, the best authorities on what is useful are your students themselves. Find out what tools they’re using (new ones pop up all the time) and check them out. You might find them useful, or maybe not. But having an open mind about what your students are using and recommending not only opens you up to new horizons, but shows that you respect your students and care about what is important to them.
As is often the case, there are not always right or wrong answers to these and other important questions about social media use, but they are issues that you need to think about and, perhaps, discuss with parents, students and colleagues.
One thing we can say for sure is that social media is not something to be afraid of. We’re not saying it’s for everyone, but we are saying that – as with any powerful tools – there are some amazing and positive aspects to it as well as reasons to be careful.
This Educator’s Guide to Social Media is designed to provide a framework for thinking about how to best use social media.
Protecting your privacy on social media
There are ways you can limit who sees what you post but, if you are really worried about something getting into the wrong hands, the safest way to avoid that is to not post it on social media. For that matter, you might also avoid sending it via email or text since anything that’s digital can be copied and pasted deliberately or by accident. But these are extreme cases, such as material that would be embarrassing or get you or others into trouble. For the most part, learning how to limit the audience of what you post can provide you with a reasonable amount of privacy.
So, the first thing you should do before using any social media service is to understand its privacy settings and norms. Almost all services have some controls over who can see what you post. Some services, including Facebook, allow you to control the audience for each post. Others, including Twitter, have universal settings that control all of your posts.
Twitter allows you to create a profile where you can pre-approve everyone who follows you, but the “norm” on Twitter is to not limit who can follow you, while on Facebook the norm is to limit posts to friends or friends of friends though there are some people who opt to post at least some updates to the public – knowing that anyone can see what they post. What’s important is that you consider the settings and think about how to use them before you post.
There is no hard-and-fast rule about interacting with students on social media, but we do have some recommendations. First, you need to find out if your district has rules or policies and, if so, be sure to comply with them. It’s generally not a good idea to socialize with your students through social media but there are some teachers who use social media to discuss classroom projects, resources for students or examples of great student work. On Facebook, for example, teachers can set up Pages or Groups that their students can access without their having to “friend” their students. It’s also possible to set up Groups of students and send class-related messages to the group without sharing your other posts.
Because the Twitter norm is public posting, it is possible that your students might see your tweets, unless you use Twitter’s privacy settings to pre-approve all your followers and are careful to not allow students to follow you. So, if you do have a public Twitter account, be careful not to tweet anything that you wouldn’t want students to see.
Just as some educators have personal Facebook profiles and professional pages, some have both personal and professional Twitter accounts. The professional account can be used to post links to assignments on Twitter or photos of excellent student work. This means that the professional accounts often have few privacy restrictions and any student or parent could easily find and follow it.
We’re not saying that educators must have separate personal and professional accounts. If you want to have only one Twitter account that is used mostly professionally, go for it. There is nothing wrong with posting an image of your family or a quote from a favorite movie now and then for your students and colleagues to see. Every educator has a different comfort level with personal sharing in the classroom and in faculty meeting rooms. Consider your comfort level when making social media decisions and do what makes sense to you. Remember, you are the same person online as you are in your classroom.
Protecting student privacy
Regardless of whether your account is public or private, teachers must be careful about posting photos of students if parents have not signed the school’s media release documents. For our youngest students, it might be best practice to keep the account private and tell parents they will need to request access and get approval before having the ability to view. For middle and high school students, parents who have signed the waivers are often thrilled to see the images of their students engaged in learning posted online.
These same guidelines hold true for Instagram. The service can be used in class to showcase students’ work, document class activities or share educational content. The same could be true for Snapchat, Google Photos, Flickr and other services that allow you to post and share images. Again, be sure parents have given permission if students appear in the images. In addition to parental permission, make sure it’s OK with the students as well. Some of them might be “having a bad hair day.”
When deciding whether to friend or follow students, think about their space. It’s not so much a privacy issue if they chose to post publicly or share with you but it’s important to respect students’ personal space. Just as you probably wouldn’t hang out with them at a mall, you might not want to hang out with them online in their own spaces. Again, pages or spaces dedicated to education are an exception.
When discussing social media in class, talk with your students about their privacy settings and who will see their schoolwork posted. You might consider asking them how they protect their own privacy on social media – many kids are a lot more privacy conscious than adults give them credit for.
Interacting with parents and colleagues
It’s fairly common to use social media to interact with professional colleagues and parents. Be aware of your audience and only post what you think is appropriate, and use tools to limit your audience, as described above. LinkedIn is a great option for connecting with other educators and, in some cases, parents because it’s designed for professional networking.
Sharing and finding media
Sometimes educators are looking for infographics, photographs, artwork, or video clips to use in the classroom. Pinterest boards require each pin – the term for a post on that platform – to have an associated image. Users create and name pinboards full of images, which are linked to their sources. By clicking these images, elementary educators can find excellent classroom decoration ideas and organizational strategies. Teachers who focus on particular subject areas can also find graphic organizers, primary source images, and lessons. As you find multiple resources on a single topic, Pinterest can be a place where you categorize and save those resources to easily find later.
Instagram users can post images or 3-15 second videos. Then you can add a caption or description for the media you post. These are usually not lesson ideas, though. Instead, Instagram is a place for you to see other educators interacting at conferences or events that you might not be able to attend. Posting to Instagram is only possible on the mobile app, but Instagram is viewable on a computer browser. It’s a great way to keep up with your new connections from Twitter, Google+, and elsewhere.
For rich video content, YouTube is the place to go. Users have to be good at search terms to find what they need, but once you get the hang of searching on YouTube it can be a gold mine. Varying content delivery by using short, engaging video clips is an effective teaching strategy. Once you find a YouTube channel that has content that fits your curriculum or philosophy, follow it so that you can get notifications whenever new videos are posted. Also, YouTube videos can be “embedded” into your own blogs, Facebook posts and tweets so it’s easy to share them with colleagues or students.
As project-based learning has gained popularity, students are producing their own media to demonstrate their learning. Sometimes they might be especially proud of what they’ve created and want to share it. This is possible with YouTube, blogs, and other social media platforms. Talk with students about checking their work to make sure they have credited the sources of both information and images before they post. In addition, be sure to explain to them how to share their work using multiple social media services. For example, a student-produced documentary could be posted on YouTube and embedded in a blog post, but a link could also be shared on Twitter and Facebook to gain more viewers if the student is especially proud. A note about YouTube: Although it prohibits pornography and certain other types of material, there may be content on the service that you might consider to be inappropriate for your students. One way to mitigate this is to turn on restricted mode, which filters out content that has been flagged by users but, as YouTube explains on the site, “No filter is 100% accurate, but it should help you avoid most inappropriate content.” Restricted mode applies only to the browser on whatever machines you’ve set it on and works independently of any other filters the school might have in place.
Homework and extra credit
Teachers with Twitter and Instagram accounts dedicated to their classes often use them to send out reminders about upcoming assignments or extra credit opportunities. Students enjoy liking or commenting on a teacher’s Instagram posts to show the teacher they are paying attention. They also like to retweet a teacher’s tweet to share with their classmates as reminders. Remember, though, that not all students will be comfortable with using social media so those platforms cannot be the only place assignments are posted. An additional benefit to assignment reminders on social media is that they can reach parents as well as students, adding a new avenue for school and home communications.
Most social media services – Facebook, Google+, Instagram, Twitter, etc. – recognize hashtags as a way to label and search for posts that are focused on particular topics. Teachers can create a custom hashtag for their classes. Once the hashtag is shared with parents and students, it can serve as an alternative for those who do not want to follow or friend the teacher. Simply add the hashtag (ex: #gallagherhistory) to all posts that contain resources, reminders, excellent student work, or anything related to the class. Once you talk about appropriate use of the hashtag with students, you can welcome them to use it when they post about their learning or about their work from your class. Students can post pictures during a field trip to record their learning, links to videos or articles they happen across that relate to your curriculum, or questions they might want to pose to the teacher or classmates about an ongoing assignment. This practice can really break down the walls of your classroom and allow the learning to continue beyond the allotted class period or school day. It cannot be a required part of class, but it can be invigorating for students to know their teacher cares enough to continue the discussion on a platform they are already using.
Closing thoughts for educators
Social media is part of the world we live in and, even if you don’t use it, chances are that it affects you simply because many of the people around you – including students, colleagues and parents – are using it. That doesn’t mean that you have to use it and you certainly don’t have to use every service and app out there or spend a great deal of time on social media. You should, however, be aware of the services and apps your students are using.
How you approach it, who you friend or follow, how often (if ever) you post and how often you check in is completely up to you and, as with lots of good things in life, there may be times when you need a break from social media.
Keep in mind that, when used thoughtfully, social media can provide opportunities for professional growth, enhanced home-school communication, and conversations that allow learning to continue beyond allotted class times. If and when you choose to get started – or start over – with social media remember that general professional and personal rules of etiquette hold true online as they do in person.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8611 Spring 2020
Q5. Choose two newspapers
With publish opposite narratives of political scenario. Write down a short report of how did you notice the difference of opinion and what in your conclusion on the issue?
For the general public, the news media are an important source of information about climate change. They have significant potential to influence public understanding and perceptions of the issue. Television news, because of its visual immediacy and authoritative presentation, is likely to be particularly influential. Numerous studies have shown that television news can affect public opinion directly and indirectly through processes such as agenda setting and framing. Moreover, even in a fragmented media environment largely dominated by online communication, television remains a prominent medium through which citizens follow news about science issues. Given this, scholars over the last several decades have endeavored to map the content of television news reporting on climate change and its effects on public opinion and knowledge. Results from this research suggest that journalists’ adherence to professional norms such as balance, novelty, dramatization, and personalization, along with economic pressures and sociopolitical influences, have produced inaccuracies and distortions in television news coverage of climate change. For example, content analyses have found that U.S. network television news stories tend to over-emphasize dramatic impacts and imagery, conflicts between political groups and personalities, and the uncertainty surrounding climate science and policy. At the same time, those skeptical of climate change have been able to exploit journalists’ norms of balance and objectivity to amplify their voices in television coverage of climate change. In particular, the increasingly opinionated 24-hour cable news networks have become a megaphone for ideological viewpoints on climate change. In the United States, a coordinated climate denial movement has used Fox News to effectively spread its message discrediting climate science. Coverage on Fox News is overwhelmingly dismissive of climate change and disparaging toward climate science and scientists. Coverage on CNN and MSNBC is more accepting of climate change; however, while MSNBC tends to vilify the conservative opposition to climate science and policy, and occasionally exaggerates the impacts of climate change, CNN sends more mixed signals. Survey and experimental analyses indicate that these trends in television news coverage of climate change have important effects on public opinion and may, in particular, fuel confusion and apathy among the general U.S. public and foster opinion extremity among strong partisans.
Critical opinions about climate change regarding this news
Warming of the [global] climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased”, states the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the Executive Summary for Policy makers of their Fifth Assessment Report “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis”.
While pre-industrial CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion were almost zero, they increased to 26.6 Gt in 2004 and 35.9 Gt in 2014. This caused an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, which exceeded 400 parts per million (ppm) in 2015, a more than 40% increase compared to the pre-industrial level of 280 ppm. The IPCC states: „It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century“. Nowadays, it is well known and increasingly accepted by a wider public that the industrialisation is based on the increasing burning of fossil fuels and that the subsequent emissions of CO2 leads to global warming. Deforestation and industrial agriculture with its growing livestock production are further contributing factors.
Continuing on the current path will lead to potentially catastrophic consequences for billions of people including rising sea levels, thawing of permafrost, the expansion of deserts and arid zones as well as more frequent extreme weather events, which will very likely lead to additional tens of millions of refugees during the next decades.
The scientific community working within the IPCC, regularly provides updates on global Climate Change and informs policy makers about the urgency to enforce drastic reductions of the global CO2 emissions. To prevent a dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the main international treaty on climate change was negotiated at the Earth Summit 1992 in Rio de Janeiro and entered into force in March 1994. Since 1995, the parties of the convention meet annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to negotiate environmental protection measures that are registered in treaties including the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the Cancún agreement (2010) and most recently the Paris agreement (2015). The lack of compliance and real enforcement mechanisms is often criticised.
Enough promises – real actions are needed to reduce global CO2 emissions
„Global temperature 2015 breaks all records“ and „record temperatures also measured in Switzerland“ are the headlines MeteoSwiss uses to describe the average temperature record from 2015. Global temperatures increase, glaciers melt and our ski tourism suffers. Nevertheless, political leaders from all parties, NGO’s like Greenpeace and the WWF, as well as the collaborating scientists at the COP21 in Paris, tell us the promises achieved in Paris were a great success.
The reality of the last 25 years – A complete failure of UN-politicians and the economy?
Most of us know that the global warming observed during the last decades, is a consequence of local and global use of enormous quantities of oil, coal and gas and the corresponding increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Our scientific community provided evidence thereof since more than a quarter of a century and ever more exact measurements, climate models and conferences have validated and quantified these findings. The central message remains essentially unchanged: if we want to stabilise the atmospheric CO2 concentration at current levels, we need to terminate the use of fossil fuels and stop the destruction of the remaining forests. To limit the temperature increase by 2100 to +1-2°C, the remaining allowed CO2 emissions up to the year 2100 are estimated to be about 900 billion tons of CO2. However, at current rates this amount will already be emitted during the next 20 years. While the problem was acknowledged by the world governments at the UN Earth Summit 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, we have since been told that such drastic reductions were impossible to achieve, utopian and would force the very poor to eternal poverty. According to the economic advisors of essentially all governments, further economic growth within the existing system, associated with further increases in the annual CO2 emissions, is required to reduce poverty and limit unemployment.
The latest promises made at the COP21 meeting in Paris are said to be “the best we can get” to limit global warming to a maximum of +2°C by the end of the 21st century. Unfortunately, they are inconsistent with the scientific recommendations and the ideas about further economic growth remain unchanged. Similar promises by the world governments have been made on many other topics during the past decades but were never realised. Should we keep believing in the “soon to be taken” sustainable development policies and techno-fixes, which eventually might keep the temperature increase below +2°C by the end of the 21st Century?
The truth is: Our current CO2 emissions lead us towards a +6°C warming.
Within the last 25 years, the atmospheric CO2 content increased from 360 ppm to more than 400 ppm. The annual increase of more than 2.0-2.5 ppm is even higher than 25 years ago and the latest data indicate that last years increase reached a record of more than 3 ppm. This is totally incompatible with the claimed maximal +2°C temperature goal by the end of this century. In fact, at the current speed we reach the corresponding CO2 level already during the next 20-25 years and are heading directly towards a +6°C temperature increase with unimaginable catastrophic global consequences. Moreover, our global policies have only increased the gap between the rich and the poor.
Within the current economic system, that is based on short-term profit making, the collapse of our natural life support system seems inevitable. We need to develop a new way of working and living together on a global and local scale. While success with finding a new way of doing things is not guaranteed, we know for sure that to keep going on the current path will eventually lead to disaster. As a start, we all need to accept the current problems and risks and accept our responsibility for the well being of future generations. We need political decision makers, who do not ignore the scientific advice and propose concrete measures to reduce and terminate the use of fossil fuels.
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