AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8612 Spring 2020 Assignments 1& 2  Course: Professionalism of Teaching (8612) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

Professionalism of Teaching (8612) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020 

Q1. According to you which teaching is called an effective teaching? Also explain the characteristics if a profession. (20)

A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. The term is a truncation of the term “liberal profession”, which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term “profession libérale”. Originally borrowed by English users in the 19th century, it has been re-borrowed by international users from the late 20th, though the (upper-middle) class overtones of the term do not seem to survive retranslation: “liberal professions” are, according to the European Union’s Directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications (2005/36/EC) “those practiced on the basis of relevant professional qualifications in a personal, responsible and professionally independent capacity by those providing intellectual and conceptual services in the interest of the client and the public”.

Profession” in a generic sort

We often use the term “profession” in a generic sort of way referring to what is your trade/vocation. Profession is derived from the word “profiteor” meaning to profess. The connotation here is that a professional is a person who possesses knowledge of something and has a commitment to a particular set of values both of which are generally well accepted characteristics of professions. History records the early professions of the priesthood, law, medical/physicians and university teaching. As time progressed, dentistry, engineering, accountants and architects were ascribed “professional” status.

Originally, any regulation of the professions was self-regulation through bodies such as the College of Physicians or the Inns of Court. With the growing role of government, statutory bodies have increasingly taken on this role, their members being appointed either by the profession or (increasingly) by government. Proposals for the introduction or enhancement of statutory regulation may be welcomed by a profession as protecting clients and enhancing its quality and reputation, or as restricting access to the profession and hence enabling higher fees to be charged. It may be resisted as limiting the members’ freedom to innovate or to practice as in their professional judgement they consider best.

Statutory regulation of psychologists

An example was in 2008, when the British government proposed wide statutory regulation of psychologists. The inspiration for the change was a number of problems in the psychotherapy field, but there are various kinds of psychologist including many who have no clinical role and where the case for regulation was not so clear. Work psychology brought especial disagreement, with the British Psychological Society favoring statutory regulation of “occupational psychologists” and the Association of Business Psychologists resisting the statutory regulation of “business psychologists” – descriptions of professional activity which it may not be easy to distinguish.

Besides regulating access to a profession, professional bodies may set examinations of competence and enforce adherence to an ethical code. There may be several such bodies for one profession in a single country, an example being the accountancy bodies of the United Kingdom (ACCA, CAI, CIMA, CIPFA, ICAEW and ICAS), all of which have been given a Royal Charter, although their members are not necessarily considered to hold equivalent qualifications, and which operate alongside further bodies (AAPA, IFA, CPAA). Another example of a regulatory body that governs a profession is the Hong Kong Professional Teachers Union, which governs the conduct, rights, obligations and duties of salaried teachers working in educational institutions in Hong Kong.

David Belfall, in his article, Creating Value for Members, published in 1999, identifies key characteristics that define an occupation as a profession. These characteristics are an assessment process for entry into the profession, a common body of knowledge, a code of ethics and a professional association.

Eric Hoyle and Peter John in their article, Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice, published in 1995 list as general characteristics of a profession the possession and use of expert or specialist knowledge, the exercise of autonomous thought and judgment, and responsibility to clients (e.g., students, parents) and wider society through a voluntary commitment to a set of principles. The advantage of these characteristics is that they are independent of any particular organizational model or occupation/trade. They can be applied to individual practitioners as well as recognized.

In the authors’ textbook, Rethink, Rebuild, Rebound: A Framework for Shared Responsibility and Accountability in Education, 2nd Edition published in 2011(Pearson Learning Solutions), in addition to the characteristics mentioned above it addresses life-long learning, collaboration and personal reflection as characteristics of a profession. Furthermore, the authors link characteristics of a profession (i.e., teaching) to teaching dispositions forming a composite view of the
consummate teacher. The dispositions listed in the aforementioned text are professional conduct, respect for diversity, high expectations (of themselves and those they teach), respect for others, compassion, advocacy, curiosity, dedication, honesty and fairness.

Let’s examine in more detail teaching as a profession as defined by the characteristics identified above. To begin, the chart lists the key characteristics of a professional as noted in this article and the authors’ assessment on how teaching stacks up.  

Teaching is as critical, many might suggest even more so, as any profession including medical, law or accountancy to list a few. Dedication to purpose, knowledge expertise and advocacy are core strengths of those in the teaching profession. While, unfortunately, it is not perceived in this great country to be on an equal footing as those professions named above teachers are instrumental in preparing others for those professions.

In Finland only the best and brightest are accepted in their schools of education preparing to be teachers. It is considered one of the most highly esteemed professions in Finland and not surprisingly one of the most competitive in terms of entry. They are compensated well relative to Finnish pay levels.

In the United States, we have work to do to elevate teaching as a profession. From the teaching professionals, including schools of education, to legislators/politicians and the media we need to rethink (and recalibrate) our priorities which the authors believe will result in teaching being elevated to the highest priority. Through serious and honest introspection, the teaching profession needs to adopt reforms necessary to catapult our measures of success to levels of excellence on a sustained basis. This includes transforming our schools of education, instituting rigorous (& honest) assessments of performance and paying for that performance (i.e., merit pay).

Raising the stature of the teaching profession in the United States is an imperative and increasing teacher pay is a major step in that direction. The U.S. needs the best and brightest professionals teaching our children.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q2. Differentiate between professionalism and process of professionalization with the help of examples, and how will you convey values while teaching at your school? Justify. (20)

The School of Education has identified eight dispositions with specific indicators that the effective professional educator displays.  The effective professional educator demonstrates a commitment to the following.

  1. Professional ethics
  • Maintaining my position as a positive role model for students and others in regular attendance, grooming, punctuality, and professional demeanor
  • Demonstrating positive work habits and interpersonal skills, including a positive attitude, dependability, honesty, and respect for others
  • Maintaining the standards of confidentiality regarding student information and communications
  • Using sound judgment and thoughtful decision-making with consideration of the consequences
  1. Collaboration

Collaborating with other professionals to improve the overall learning of students

Understanding and involving a wide variety of resources in the school, family, culture, and community to facilitate student learning

  1. Diversity

Recognizing students’ unique prior knowledge, life experiences, and interests as part of the context for student learning

Understanding and involving a wide variety of resources in the school, family, culture, and community to facilitate student learning

Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students

  1. Self-reflection

Life-long learning and personal growth through reflection, seeking constructive feedback, and willingness to learn from others and past experience

Using analysis and reflection to assess and plan for student learning

  1. Belief in students’ ability to learn

Promoting achievement of students at all levels

  • Understanding and involving a wide variety of resources in the school, family, culture, and community to facilitate student learning
  • Developing students’ skills as problem-solvers as they progress toward becoming independent, self-directed learners
  • Effective planning and classroom organization as tools in maximizing the time available for instruction and learning
  1. Technology

Understanding and involving a wide variety of resources in the school, family, culture, and community to facilitate student learning

Using analysis and reflection to assess and plan for student learning

  1. The teaching profession
  • Accepting responsibility for what occurs in my classroom and for other school-wide responsibilities that contribute to student learning and a safe, orderly environment
  • Using sound judgment and thoughtful decision-making with consideration of the consequences
  • Life-long learning and personal growth through reflection, seeking constructive feedback, and willingness to learn from others and past experience
  • Participating in professional growth activities within and outside the school
  1. Professional growth
  • Participating in professional growth activities within and outside the school
  • Life-long learning and personal growth through reflection, seeking constructive feedback, and willingness to learn from others and past experience

These attributes–sometimes known as soft skills–are more properly labeled as professional dispositions. Accrediting bodies such as the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) started emphasizing their importance many years ago. Even though they never defined them, NCATE spoke about dispositions in terms of values, commitments, and ethics; these in turn impact the behaviors and decisions of teachers in the classroom and in their interactions with others. More recently, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) as well as industry leaders such as the Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) emphasize the role that professional dispositions play in effective teaching and school leadership, and they hold schools of education accountable for identifying, selecting, and graduating individuals who indicate a propensity for success as an educator, including the demonstration of specific professional dispositions.

Needless to say, dispositions can have a huge impact on student learning, development, motivation, and overall happiness in school. Dispositions stem from our beliefs, our attitudes, and our personal “compass” that steers us through life. Do we really care about others? Are we compassionate and empathetic? Are we respectful of other ideas or traditions, even if they differ from our own? Do we take responsibility for our own actions? Do we take the high road even when no one else is looking?

Other important questions to consider:

  • What dispositions make the very best teachers? What about school leaders?
  • How can dispositions be assessed?
  • Can these skills be taught, or are they innate?
  • And if they can be taught, how can it be done effectively?
  • On a wider scale, are the dispositions for teachers and school leaders the same for those outside of education–such as in the health professions, or in IT, or in business?

Professional dispositions are the principles or standards that underpin a teacher’s success in the classroom. They are the values, commitments, and professional ethics that govern how a teacher acts with students, families, colleagues, and communities. The Washington State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) mandates, through the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), that all certified educators must be “fit to teach” and “have the proper dispositions to teach.” The transformation of a person from one who merely possesses knowledge and technique into a superior teacher must include the development of characteristics such as a capacity for active and creative communication, a tendency to probe, and a willingness to explore topics from a variety of perspectives. Further, an outstanding educator must possess the desire to engage and encourage students who have a wide range of abilities, interests, and temperaments. In order to provide the highest quality teacher force possible, Washington State University ’s College of Education has the responsibility of evaluating teacher effectiveness along a variety of dimensions. It uses many instruments and methods to assess the effectiveness of prospective teachers, to make certain they have the knowledge, skills and professional habits necessary to serve in the highly dynamic and complex classrooms of the 21st century.

Wide range of abilities

Good teachers come from widely different backgrounds, and have varied opinions, interests, and personalities. But some qualities, such as the ability to communicate clearly, are common to nearly all good teachers. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine a teacher being a success without possessing these qualities. Likewise, students in Washington’s K-12 classrooms come from varied backgrounds. They have a wide range of abilities, different levels of prior knowledge, and vary in how they feel about learning and school. These young people grow and develop, sometimes slowly, sometimes with astonishing quickness. Each classroom, therefore, is a mix of dozens of competing interests, stages of development, and strategies for learning.

Even within a single student’s attempt to learn, a teacher may have to try several approaches before finding one that succeeds. A student may believe that she is “no good at math (or science or history or reading),” for reasons having nothing to do with her abilities. With as many as a hundred different students and several different subjects to teach every day, teachers have an almost impossible mission. Yet we expect nothing less of them than success with every student. In order to be successful—to leave, truly, no child behind—teachers must purposefully act in caring, fair, professional, respectful, and responsible ways.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q3. Discuss in detail importance of teaching profession in the light of Islamic principles. How can a teacher adopt the Islamic principles in teaching profession? (20)

We pride ourselves to follow the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) teachings. This blog post will go through the top Ten Characteristics we feel are necessary of a Muslim Professional.

Below are some saying from the Prophet (PBUH) and Ayah from the Quran that is a reminder for all of us as Muslims:

“They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and vie with one another in doing good works and these are among the righteous.”– Quran 3:114

Allah says in the Quran: “And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will surely accomplish his purpose. Verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion” – (Surah Al-Talaq)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “If only you relied on Allah a true reliance, He would provide sustenance for you just as He does the birds: They fly out in the morning empty and return in the afternoon with full stomachs. (Ahmad, An-Nasa’I, Ibn Majah, Al-Hakim and At-Tirmidhi)

1) Accountability – The first characteristic of a Muslim Professional is being Accountable.

  • Always keep your word. The Prophet (PBUH) says, Each time you keep a commitment you are rewarded by Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) for obeying Him. If you mix a few drops of wine in a glass full of water, it spoils the whole glass of water and makes it unfit for consumption. Similarly, dishonesty in any sphere of your life permeates and corrupts your entire nature and eeman. When a person’s words carry no weight, it only reveals his/her treacherous nature. [Baihaqi]
  • We have often seen that one of the biggest things Muslims are known for is fulfilling what you have committed to doing.  We must make our Niat (intention) to complete the task at hand and to be able to deliver on time.  This is what it means to be Accountable.

2)  Courtesy – We treat our fellow co-workers, managers, customers, subordinates, and partners with courtesy and follow the steps of our Prophet (PBUH).

  • Abu Darda (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Nothing will be heavier on the Day of Resurrection in the scale of the believer than good manners. Allah hates one who utters foul or coarse language.” [Tirmidhi]
  • We as Muslims, need to set an example of what it means to be a Muslim.  For example, if we always cursed and portrayed negative habits at the workplace, our fellow Non-Muslims that you work with will have a negative perception of Islam.  Therefore, if a positive courteous image is portrayed, then they will be drawn towards Islam and will have a positive image of Muslims.  We need to be ambassadors of Islam and should know that as a Muslim Professional we always must have the highest of courtesy.

3) Respect –  We as Muslims must give respect to our fellow brothers / sisters at all times.

  • He Is Not Quality Muslim Who Does Not Show Kindness To The Young Ones And Respect To The Older Ones.   [Tirmidhi]
  • This is a basic principle of a Muslim to be able to control your ego, your anger at times when things are not going the way they are supposed to.  As a Muslim, we must give respect at all times regardless of the situation and whether things are going the way you want them to go.
  • We have seen in our countries back home and even Muslims abroad in America, that our ego overtakes what Islam teaches us and that is to be respectful towards everyone, not just Muslims.  As a Muslim Professional, this is one of the most basic characteristics that we must all strive to have.

4)  Honesty – When making decisions / taking actions, we must remember that our religion teaches being truthful. We make sure that in every dealing that we have with our peers, superiors, or customers, we are always being honest even if it may not make us look good, Honesty in Eyes of Allah is obligatory, and the right way.

  • Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. A man may speak the truth until he is recorded with Allah as truthful. Verily, falsehood leads to wickedness and wickedness leads to the Hellfire. A man may tell lies until he is recorded with Allah as a liar.” [Sahih Muslim]
  • Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “The buyer and the seller have the option of canceling or confirming the bargain unless they separate, and if they spoke the truth and made clear the defects of the goods, then they would be blessed in their bargain, and if they told lies and hid some facts, their bargain would be deprived of Allah’s blessings”.( Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34, Number 293)
  • The Hadith tveaches us that if we want barakah in our jobs, careers, businesses, organizations, we must be honest and not try to take advtantage of another individual or party be knowingly decieving them and lying to them.  As a Muslim Professional, it is expected for you to follow the teachings of Allah and our Prophet (PBUH) to be truthful when speaking or conducting business.  Any transaction that is made on lies, there will be bigotry, no barakah, no blessings from Allah in that transaction.  It will end up hurting you more then you think you will gain from it.

5)  Punctuality –  We are always on time, Punctuality is about keeping an amaanah (Trust أمانة).  The hadith below teaches us that we as Muslim Professionals should follow the prophet’s sayings of prayers being on time.  Therefore, if there are meetings, events, calls, then we must adhere to the time and be there on time as the Prophet has taught us.

  • Narrated Jarir bin ‘Abdullah: I gave the pledge of allegiance to Allah’s Apostle for to offer prayers perfectly, to pay Zakat regularly, and to give good advice to every Muslim.
  • As a Muslim Professional, the precedence that should be set is for us to always be on time and not be late.  Our Niat (intention) must be to conduct business in a timely manner and not being punctual.  This is a sunnah that the prophet teaches us even in our daily 5 prayers.  The reward of praying salah on time is much greater then praying salah after the time it was prescribed.  We can use the same example when coming to meetings, joining calls, or being somewhere to conduct business.

6)  Tranquility – As a Muslim, we must show calmness at all times and be in a state of peace.  We can get tied up in long meetings, disagreements, heated discussions, arguments.

As a Muslim Professional, you must be able to show patience and calm, being in a untroubled state.  This will cause a more positive working environment and provide everyone comfort when speaking to each other and speaking their mind.  Having a state of Tranquility (calmness) will bring ease and stress-free working environment.

  • Allah says: “Those who believe and whose hearts find tranquility in the remembrance of Allah, verily in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find tranquility.” [Surah Ar-Radd: 28]
  • Abu Huraira reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Richness is not having many possessions. Rather, true richness is the richness of the soul.”
  • Al-Bara reported: A man was reciting the chapter of the cave (surah al-kahf) and there was a horse tied with two ropes at his side, a cloud overshadowed him, and it came nearer and nearer as his horse became frightened of it. He went to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in the morning and mentioned that to him. The Prophet said, “Continue reciting. Verily, that was tranquility which came down for the recitation of the Quran.”

7)  Focus –  We remain focused on the task at hand and the goal ahead. We navigate through obstacles or setbacks but never lose sight of where we are headed and are focused to get the job done regardless of the challenges faced.

  • Our prophet would go through battles during Ramadan and through hard times, but he remained focused to the duty of his people.  This is a reminder from Allah that we must focus on our priorities and stick to them and don’t lose sight!

8)  Self-Critical –  As a Muslim, We must look our selves in the mirror first before pointing out faults of others.

  • The Prophet (PBUH) said: ‘Blessed is he who preoccupies himself with his own defects, rather than those of others.’ (Musnad Al-Bazzâr)
  • We must be able to look ourselves in the mirror first before we point out faults of others.  We must be non-judgmental and not make presumptions as Muslims.
  • As a Muslim Professional, this is very important, when there is a conflict or a critical situation, then one must look at himself first before standing ground and being firm in their own opinion.  This will help resolve issues and conflicts and will avoid conflicts to drag on and grow bigger and bigger.

9)  Ethics –  We strive to choose the option that is based on sound Islamic tenets, even when other alternatives appear more profitable/easier in the short run.   We must always choose the right thing to do, and not undermine Allah’s injunctions or any individual(s).

  • “The noblest of you in the sight of Allāh is the best of you in conduct” (49:13).

10)  Faith –  We have faith in Allah in whatever we do as a professionals.  We must remember that Allah is the king of kings and the best planner.  We always begin with saying ‘Bismillah’ and always end with saying ‘Alhamdulillah’.  It’s a blessing what he has given to us to allow us to succeed in our professional careers.

  • “They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and vie with one another in doing good works and these are among the righteous.” – Quran 3:114
  • Allah says in the Quran: “And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will surely accomplish his purpose. Verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion” (Surah Al-Talaq)
  • Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “If only you relied on Allah a true reliance, He would provide sustenance for you just as He does the birds: They fly out in the morning empty and return in the afternoon with full stomachs. (Ahmad, An-Nasa’I, Ibn Majah, Al-Hakim and At-Tirmidhi)

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q4. Explain the characteristics of a good teacher and as a teacher how you can enhance social and emotional skill of your students? Explain with the help of suitable examples. (20)

Education play a vital role in national development. National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan will prove a mile stone in educational development. These standards are necessary for every teacher to improve his teaching style and strategy. These courses and programmes range from three-month diploma courses to full-fledged Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in education and even MS/MPhil and PhD degrees for research purposes in the field. Universities are the biggest stakeholders in this endeavour. Though the universities are doing well in this regard, a change is still required in order to make future teachers fully compatible with the needs and requirements of the new era.

The National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan has a total 10 standards each of which comprises three equally important parts: knowledge (what the teacher knows), disposition (the teacher’s behaviour, attitudes and values) and performance (what the teacher can do and should be able to do).

Let us now take a brief look at what these standards are with special reference to our local setting. Firstly, the teacher must possess subject-matter knowledge. He or she should be able to apply it efficiently and effectively in whatever setting/situation he comes up with. Following the traditional syllabi the potential teachers are heavily burdened with theoretical subject-matter knowledge and since there is a lack of practical work so they are unable to apply the acquired knowledge in varying situations.

Growth and development

The second standard is human growth and development something which is highly important in the teaching-learning process. The teacher should not only be well acquainted with the basic concepts of educational psychology, developmental phases and their requirements, principles of development, development factors, individual differences, etc., he or she should also be in a sound position to apply the theories, conditions and laws of learning and motivation in an actual classroom setting. The actual situation in this regard is quite different and the teachers cannot do so as they are just being taught theoretically. The third standard is regarding knowledge of Islamic ethical values/social life skills. The teacher should be well-versed with these and be able to educate the pupils about the ethical values and life skills. But in the absence of practical work, life skills are somewhat extinct among teachers and there is a huge contradiction between the teacher’s words and actions which in turn affects the students’ attitude and behaviour.

The next standard is related to the use of proper instructional planning and strategies. The teacher must not only know the importance of planning the lesson, pedagogy and strategies. He or she should also be well-acquainted with all the teaching aids that can help in achieving the objectives of a lesson. But in practice the situation is quite discouraging as even after completion of their teaching training, the teachers are unaware of the use of overhead projectors (OHPs) and multimedia projectors. This is just because they are being heavily dosed with theory and not practice. Where these student-teachers are personally willing to use these gadgets to gain experience, they are being stopped from doing so on the pretext of the gadgets being fragile and costly.

Primary School Teachers

Teacher training at the post secondary level takes place in Regional Institutes of Teacher Education (RITE), and at the Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for a one-year program known as the Primary Teaching Certificate. In addition, prospective teachers are also prepared at the private sector institutions affiliated or enlisted with universities of public or private sector.

Secondary School Teachers

Government training institutes of education and different affiliated colleges in private sector train teachers for the secondary school level. They are awarded a Certificate of Teaching (CT) for one year study after passing the examination of Higher Secondary School Certificate.

Teacher Education at Universities

The prospective teachers aspiring to teach at the higher secondary school level study for one year at the Education Colleges for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, after two-year bachelor’s of Arts or Science (BA/BSc) education. Teachers possessing B.Ed degree are eligible to teach at the Secondary school level. Masters of Education (M.Ed) is a one year university education after completion of B.Ed.

Policy Priorities for Teacher Education

All the National Education Policies of Pakistan have accorded great importance to teacher education. The 1959 Commission on National Education stressed upon the necessity of adequate pre service teacher education gave recommendations about functions of teachers in a university and about selection and promotion of teachers. The Education Policy 1972-80 estimated the teacher producing capacity of then existing 12 teacher training colleges and 55 teacher education institutions in Pakistan, to be four thousand which was much less than the estimated demand of three hundred thousand additionally required teachers. It recommended the introduction of Education subject at Secondary, Higher Secondary and Degree level and students qualifying these subjects were suggested to be taken as primary, middle and high level teachers. Relaxation of training requirements for women teachers in special cases was recommended in order to increase the number of women teachers. An academy for teachers’ and educational Administrators’ training was recommended to be set up. The outdated nature of the teacher training courses was admitted, and their revision was recommended, along with this preparation of model standard textbooks for teacher trainees were advised.

The National Education Policy 1979 had vividly valued the significant role of teachers in the effective implementation of the education policies. It was asserted that teacher is the pivot of the entire educational system. In order to promote pre-service teacher education, all the Primary Teacher Training Institutions were planned to be upgraded to Colleges of Elementary Education. An Academy of Higher Education was approved to be established to provide in-service and pre-service training to the College and University teachers. Another Academy for Educational Planning and Management was also established to provide opportunities of training to administrators and supervisors working at different levels of the educational system. This National Education Policy envisaged that every teacher would be expected to undergo one in-service course during five-year cycle of his/her service. A system of National Awards for best teachers was planned to be instituted. Every year ten teachers of various levels and categories were planned to receive these awards from the President of Pakistan at national level. Similar awards were planned to be given to selected teachers by the respective provincial governors.

Assessment standard

The fifth is the assessment standard which means that the teacher should know the significance of assessment and different assessment techniques and methods. He or she should not show favouritism while assessing any of the students but the fact of the matter is quite contradictory to the standard.

The next standard deals with learning environment. The teacher should be well-acquainted with the meaning of learning, learning theories and other related concepts. He or she should at the same time take certain measures to create a learning and knowledge-sharing environment, not only within the classroom but outside of it as well. But here the teacher’s sole emphasis seems to be on the cramming factor. Communication is another factor in National Professional Standards, which means that the teacher should not only know the basic concepts related to communication. He or she should also be able to use it effectively and efficiently. The teacher is supposed to collaborate with certain professional development organisations in order to get updated about the new and most modern Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) and trends occurring in the field of education and research. Here as well the situation unfortunately is not that encouraging.

Above mentioned standards

In light of the above mentioned standards, this is the right time to replace the traditional instructional and teaching methodologies with new and modern techniques and pedagogical skills. There is a dire need to update the course outlines of the corresponding subjects as well by discarding the sole emphasis on theoretical knowledge in order to give the future teachers more exposure to practice and action research. These professional standards must be considered while updating the course outlines because they serve as a blueprint and give us an insight on how and to which direction a prospective teacher should be trained.

The future teachers after completing their degrees are considered as a product which is absolutely final and flawless in the field of teaching and learning. All these standards must be incorporated in them through the course content and they should be given complete autonomy to use each and every gadget which would aid them in gaining personal experience and lesson objectives in the actual classroom.

The component of teaching practice serves the basis for sensitizing and experiencing the prospective teachers about their work. But unfortunately the duration of teaching practice is very little, i.e., 40 days at the most in the Master’s degree of education. Since teaching cannot be learned theoretically and is rather a skill which gets strengthened through practice the duration of teaching practice should be increased up to six months for the Master’s degree and three months for Bachelor’s in education.

These feats would definitely pave the way in improving our educational system, which would ultimately lead to  progress and prosperity of the motherland. On the other hand, teachers were observed rarely engaged with parents and the wider community. Most of the teachers showed weak link to professional development as no evidence was observed regarding individual development plan, performance evidence log, professional portfolio, self-reflection or detail of instructional studies. Results of the study further indicate that majority of the teachers cannot communicate in target language due to lack of command on communication skill. Majority of primary school teachers don’t know about national professional standards. During research when the teachers were asked about national professional standards, most of the teachers not only didn’t know about national professional standards but even they remained unable just to tell the names or total number of standards which shows lack of command and awareness regarding national professional standards.

Teachers’ continuous professional development

It is an in-service process for professional refinement of practicing teachers. It is a life long process in which efforts are made to improve and polish up the potentials of the teachers. It includes professional trainings like workshops, short courses and seminars. This is usually formally arranged by good schools or can be self directed through reading of professional books, discussions with colleagues, benefiting from on line courses, or attending training workshops, conferences, and symposiums.

With the passage of time, all institutions have started to value in service training of teachers more and more; and are regularly arranging training programs of different durations for their teachers. These trainings are sometimes general in nature for the improvement of the overall teaching methodologies, and sometimes focused on improving specific subject-teaching skills, enabling teachers master innovative concepts recently incorporated in the existing curriculum. Such in service trainings are usually taken up in anticipation for the expected promotions.

Usefulness of Comparing Teacher Education Systems

Comparative education is a popular educational venture and is considered very useful in countries like USA, UK, Russia and even India. It is considered so, as education has been recognized an investment for development of human resources, which is in fact the development of human capital formation. All people engaged in the field of education have much to learn from the policies and educational practices of other lands. Apparently the educational system of a country grows out of the historical background, economic and social conditions, geographical features and political systems and no country is in a position to totally adopt the educational patterns of another country as such. But lessons can be learnt, and successful practices can be adopted to meet the needs from the angle it looks upon them.”

With advancement in technology and with communication explosion, the geographical distances are shrinking and people are coming closer to each other. The similarities caused by science and technology are overpowering the differences resulting from cultural diversities. The fact suggested by increasing similarities is that different nations of the world–which looks like a global village now, can learn a lot from each others’ experiences and progress to save time, energy and resources required for the ‘try and learn’ activities. The knowledge about the successes and failures of other systems can be very awakening and beneficial in comprehending one’s own educational problems. The backwardness or advancement of one’s own system can be ascertained only through analytical comparison, particularly with those of the economically and educationally advanced countries.

Spite of increased investment in education sector

In spite of increased investment in education sector, Pakistan has not yet achieved its target of UPE (Universal Primary Education) set in 1960 that was to be achieved by 1980. Analysis of the educational status of Pakistan reveals that a reasonable progress has been made by it since independence. At that time not even a million students were studying in schools, whereas now more than twelve million children are in schools. But at the same time due to a very high population growth rate, more than twelve million school age children are out of school, doing jobs or just doing nothing. The recent comparisons with the educational situation in China and India show that Pakistan is still far behind than the more thickly populated neighbouring countries, where China with literacy rate of 90% and India with 65% are substantially ahead of Pakistan. The situation of full enrollment which is a far cry is further aggravated by an alarmingly high rate of dropouts. Female literacy rate is abysmally low, and education of females and rural population at all levels is much underrepresented.

As the population is growing at a geometrical rate, the need for more schools and for more and better teachers has risen substantially. With increased focus on the quantitative expansion necessitated by substantial raises in population, the qualitative dimension of teacher education in Pakistan has not received adequate attention, resulting in passing out of scores of teachers from different teacher education institutions with inadequate grip over the content and teaching methodologies. This demands special focus to improve the status of teacher education, by learning through analysis and comparison with education systems that are progressing and delivering well in other countries of the world.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1& 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q5. Describe the code of professional conduct and its implementation in the field of education. (20)

Every day when parents send kids off to school, they trust teachers and other school officials to care for their children’s safety and well-being as well as their learning. Teachers have a wide range of responsibilities to students that come from a variety of federal, state, and local laws and regulations. If they don’t meet these standards, parents might be able to file complaints and force changes—or even to sue the school in some circumstances.

Teachers Should Provide Quality Education

Of course, most people would say that a teacher’s first responsibility is to teach well. Beyond the minimum requirements for the job (including education and credentials), federal, state, and local education agencies set out standards for providing high quality instruction and ensuring that all students have the opportunity to learn.

It’s not news, however, that many schools and teachers fail to meet those standards. When that’s true in your child’s school, what can you do? Unfortunately, whenever parents have tried to sue schools for failing to provide an adequate education (what’s known as educational malpractice), courts have usually thrown the cases out. If you can’t get your child into a better school, your only option may be to push for changes in educational (and maybe fiscal) policies, in your local school district as well as on a statewide level.

Teachers Must Provide Proper Supervision

Teachers have a legal duty to supervise students in the same way that a sensible, careful parent would do in similar circumstances. If students are hurt because of negligent supervision, their parents might be able to pursue a personal injury lawsuit against the school.

Teachers Must Protect Students’ Privacy

Both state and federal laws protect the privacy of school records. Schools must get permission from parents before revealing information from students’ records to anyone other than certain school officials and others with an educational or legal need to see the information.

Teachers also learn things about students that might not be in their records. For instance, children might tell their teachers (or inadvertently reveal) private information about their families. Ethical rules typically forbid teachers from passing on any information about students that they learn in the course of their work unless the disclosure is legally required or is necessary for purposes of the child’s education.

Teacher Tenure

Most states protect teachers in public schools from arbitrary dismissal through tenure statutes. Under these tenure statutes, once a teacher has attained tenure, his or her contract renews automatically each year. School districts may dismiss tenured teachers only by a showing of cause, after following such procedural requirements as providing notice to the teacher, specifying the charges against the teacher, and providing the teacher with a meaningful hearing. Most tenure statutes require teachers to remain employed during a probationary period for a certain number of years. Once this probationary period has ended, teachers in some states will earn tenure automatically. In other states, the local school board must take some action to grant tenure to the teacher, often at the conclusion of a review of the teacher’s performance. Tenure also provides some protection for teachers against demotion, salary reductions, and other discipline. However, tenure does not guarantee that a teacher may retain a particular position, such as a coaching position, nor does it provide indefinite employment.

Prior to attaining tenure, a probationary teacher may be dismissed at the discretion of the school district, subject to contractual and constitutional restrictions. Laws other than those governing tenure will apply to determine whether a discharge of a teacher is wrongful. If a probationary teacher’s dismissal does not involve discrimination or does not violate terms of the teacher’s contract, the school district most likely does not need to provide notice, summary of charges, or a hearing to the teacher.

Teacher Contracts

The law of contracts applies to contracts between teachers and school districts. This law includes the concepts of offer, acceptance, mutual ASSENT, and consideration. For a teacher to determine whether a contract exists, he or she should consult authority on the general law of contracts. This section focuses on contract laws specific to teaching and education.

Teachers Should Respect Students and Observe Boundaries

Ethical rules typically require teachers to show respect for all students, considering their age, gender, culture, and socioeconomic background. The Model Code of Ethics spells out specific behavior that teachers should avoid, including:

  • touching students unless there’s a clearly defined reason for doing so
  • maintaining personal relationships outside of school with students or their family members, if those relationships might get in the way of the teacher’s objectivity or effectiveness, and
  • engaging in a romantic or sexual relationship with students under any circumstances.

Obviously, the duty to respect students also includes refraining from any kind of physical or verbal abuse, harassment, or illegal discrimination.

Limits on Discipline

In order to ensure that all students have a safe and productive learning environment, teachers have a responsibility to discipline any students who disrupt the classroom and endanger other children. But state laws and regulations set limits on what teachers can do to carry out that discipline. Most states outlaw spanking or other types of physical discipline in schools, but a significant majority still allow it. (For more details, see our article on corporal punishment in schools.)

Talking With a Lawyer

Consider consulting with a lawyer if you suspect that a teacher has harassed, abused, or inappropriately touched your child, or has violated your child’s privacy. An attorney with experience in a field like education law should be able to give you practical advice about reporting the behavior to officials and getting them to respond to your complaints. In addition, a knowledgeable lawyer should be able to explain which laws apply your situation, and whether you have legal reasons for a possible lawsuit against the school.

Ratification of Contracts by School Districts

Even if a school official offers a teacher a job and the teacher accepts this offer, many state laws require that the school board ratify the contract before it becomes binding. Thus, even if a principal of a school district informs a prospective teacher that the teacher has been hired, the contract is not final until the school district accepts or ratifies the contract. The same is true if a school district fails to follow proper procedures when determining whether to ratify a contract.

Teacher’s Handbook as a Contract

Some teachers have argued successfully that provisions in a teacher’s handbook granted the teacher certain contractual rights. However, this is not common, as many employee handbooks include clauses stating that the handbook is not a contract. For a provision in a handbook to be legally binding, the teacher must demonstrate that the actions of the teacher and the school district were such that the elements for creating a contract were met.

Breach of Teacher Contract

Either a teacher or a school district can breach a contract. Whether a breach has occurred depends on the facts of the case and the terms of the contract. Breach of contract cases between teachers and school districts arise because a school district has terminated the employment of a teacher, even though the teacher has not violated any of the terms of the employment agreement. In several of these cases, a teacher has taken a leave of absence, which did not violate the employment agreement, and the school district terminated the teacher due to the leave of absence. Similarly, a teacher may breach a contract by resigning from the district before the end of the contract term (usually the end of the school year).

Remedies for Breach of Contract

The usual remedy for breach of contract between a school district and a teacher is monetary damages. If a school district has breached a contract, the teacher will usually receive the amount the teacher would have received under the contract, less the amount the teacher receives (or could receive) by attaining alternative employment. Other damages, such as the cost to the teacher in finding other employment, may also be available. Non-monetary remedies, such as a court requiring a school district to rehire a teacher or to comply with contract terms, are available in some circumstances, though courts are usually hesitant to order such remedies. If a teacher breaches a contract, damages may be the cost to the school district for finding a replacement. Many contracts contain provisions prescribing the amount of damages a teacher must pay if he or she terminates employment before the end of the contract.

Teacher Freedom of Association

Similar to rights to freedom of expression, public school teachers enjoy rights to freedom of association, based on the First Amendment’s provision that grants citizens the right to peaceful assembly. These rights generally permit public school teachers to join professional, labor, or similar organizations; run for public office; and similar forms of association. However, teachers may be required to ensure that participation in these activities is completely independent from their responsibilities to the school.

Teacher Privacy Rights

Teachers enjoy limited rights to personal privacy, though courts will often support disciplinary action taken by a school district when a teacher’s private life affects the integrity of the school district or the effectiveness by which a teacher can teach. Thus, for example, a teacher may be terminated from his or her position for such acts as ADULTERY or other sexual conduct outside marriage, and courts will be hesitant to overrule the decisions of the school board.

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