AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8612 Spring 2020 Assignment 2  Course: Professionalism of Teaching (8612) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

Professionalism of Teaching (8612) B.Ed 1.5 Years
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q1. a). Critically discuss the importance of digital technological in the field of education . Give suitable examples to support your answer. (10)

There are countless reasons why technology is a key aspect of learning in the schools. Whether we like it or not, technology is everywhere; and in order for our students to survive in post-secondary education and the business world, they must know technology.

To narrow it down, we came up with 10 reasons for the importance of technology in education:

  1. Students demand it.
    Students are engaging with technology constantly outside of the classroom. Kids like to be interactive, and learning through technology has now become a part of their lifestyle.
  2. New teachers are demanding it. 
    The technology movement has been implemented in post-secondary education as well as other professional jobs. For new teachers, technology is considered a necessity for the learning environment.
  3. Kids are the digital native.
    Kids know technology better than most adults. It has become the easiest way they learn, because it is such an integral part of their life. Engaging with technology in the classroom has not only helped them learn better, but they also acquire multi-tasking skills. At this day in age, they hardly know how to learn without it. This knowledge is important, because they would be way behind in the real world without it.
  4. Kids can learn at their own pace.
    We know from years of experience that kids learn at their own pace, but sometimes the traditional classroom makes it difficult to do so. With the integration of technology in education, children have the ability to slow down and go back over lessons and concepts, and more advanced kids can go ahead. It also frees up the teacher to help kids on a more one-on-one level.
  5. With technology, there are no limitations. 
    Having access to other information outside of the book gives students many different ways to learn a concept. Teachers can come up with creative ways to teach their students that keeps them engaged. Technology has changed the learning environment so that learning is more hands-on. Schools throughout the nation are diverse in income, and often kids don’t always get the resources they need. The implementation of technology in schools helps close that gap.
  6. Technology has the ability to enhance relationships between teachers and students.
    When teachers effectively integrate technology into subject areas, teachers grow into roles of adviser, content expert, and coach. Technology helps make teaching and learning more meaningful and fun. Students are also able to collaborate with their own classmates through technological applications.
  7. Testing has gone online
    One protocol that schools don’t have control over, but must adapt to, is online testing. Testing online is the way of the future, but it has a lot of advantages. Assessing students’ performance can be done instantly with technology. Beyond seeing test scores in real-time, teachers can better track and understand students’ grasp of the subject.
  8. Multitude of resources 
    Computers, tablets, and other forms of technology bring multiple resources for the teacher that’s not in the book. They not only keep students engaged with exciting new features and apps, but also have other ways to teach students material. Every kid learns differently, and technology helps with this gap as well.
  9. Technology keeps kids engaged.
    The students of this generation are considered technological learners. They learn best being more interactive, and technology is what helps them do that. Children often struggle to stay on task or interested, and with resources to help the teacher, they can better stay focused and learn faster.
  10. Technology is necessary to succeed outside of primary and secondary education
    Whether we like it or not, technology is an essential concept to learn. Because it changes so quickly, children are better off learning about it sooner. It is a primary part of every industry, and there is no way around it. These days, technology means more than just learning basic computing skills. Technology has made itself part of every aspect of our lives today, and the students who understand it are the ones who succeed in the business world.

b). How many steps are involved in career development process? Discuss. (10)

The term  open and distance learning reflects both  the fact that  all  or most of the  teaching is  conducted by  someone who is away from the learner, and that the mission aims to include  greater  dimensions  of  openness  and  flexibility, whether in terms of access, curriculum or other elements of structure. Open and distance learning systems can usually be described as made up of a range of components such as: the mission  or  goal  of  a  particular  system,  programs  and curricula,  teaching/learning  strategies  and  techniques, learning  material  and  resources,  communication  and interaction, support and  delivery systems,  students, tutors, staff  and  other  experts,  management,  housing  and equipment, and  evaluation.

The  ODL  system is  used  for school-age  children  and  youth  those  who  are  unable  to attend ordinary schools, or  to support teaching in  schools, both at primary and secondary level. However, most courses and programs are aimed at the adult population.   In  developing  countries  particularly  ODL  education  for primary and secondary schools is an important method  of expanding  educational opportunities  to  the semi-adult  and adult population. Teacher training program is an important area where ODL learning has made a major contribution. In developing  countries it  is found  that teacher  training at  a distance  may  reach  large  groups  of  students  and  have profound impact on the development of national education systems.  This  includes  initial  training  for  formal qualifications, in-service supplementary training for formal upgrading, and  continuing in-service training in  particular subjects  and  topics.  The  use  of  ODL  system  for  teacher education is therefore a crucial strategy when expansion or quality  improvement  is  needed  in  the  public  education system.

Both  private  and  public  providers  have  made important contributions to the development of industry and trade  through  programs  for  technical  and  vocational education.  The  basic  purpose  is  to  include  the  ability  to respond  flexibly to  the  need  for working  adults to  obtain training, and to provide opportunities for those who are most deprived by existing provision.   The capacity of  ODL is to support  large-scale campaigns, e.g. in the field of HIV/AIDS education, is significant in the context  of  continuing  education  and  training.  Non-formal education  and  community  development  represents  other sectors  where  ODL  is  increasingly  used.  Programs  at  a distance  often  reach  substantial  numbers  of  women,  in societies  where  women  lack  equal  opportunities  for participation  in  conventional  forms  of  education  and training.  ODL  system  allows  lending  themselves  to  the teaching of many complex  issues of  the modern world, in which  input  from  a  variety  of  disciplines  is  necessary. Distance  education  now  functions  in  two  ways.

Focuses on open access to education

The concept of open learning and distance education system focuses on open access to education and training to make the learners free from the constraints of time and place, and offering flexible learning opportunities to individuals and groups of learners. Open and distance learning (ODL)is one of the most rapidly growing fields of education now a days and it has substantial impact on all education delivery systems. The new ODL system growing fast because of the development of Internet-based information technologies, and in particular the World Wide Web.

The concept of ODL education came from idea where the learners and the teachers can not be in a class room and they should be separated by some geographical distance or may be they can not come close to each other to make the entire education system flexible. The distance education is not a new concept. In the late 1800s, at the University of Chicago, the first launched major correspondence program in the US in which the teacher and learner were at different locations. It is addressed to a wide range of potential partners, governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, specialized institutions, associations, industrial corporations, telecommunication companies, and others interested in this field, to seek their cooperation in meeting today’s urgent education and training needs, through open and distance learning.

After the development of Radio during the First World War and television in the 1950s the mode of instruction outside of the traditional classroom had suddenly found new delivery systems. In the present days we have audio and computer teleconferencing which have influenced the delivery of instruction in public schools, higher education, the military, business, and industry. The objective of the present paper is to review open and distance learning in the context of present challenges and opportunities, examine relevant concepts and contributions, outline current global and regional trends, suggest policy and strategy considerations.

Teacher Education:

Teacher  education  is  an  important  area  where  distance education has been used extensively to provide pre-service teacher  preparation,  upgrading  of  academic qualifications, and  in-service  continuing  professional  development  in particular subjects, content areas and instructional methods.  The  distance  learning  initiatives  in  countries  such  as Burkina Faso,  Chile, China,  India, Mongolia, Nigeria, and South Africa to prepare new teachers or upgrade skills of the existing  teaching  force.  The  use  of  open  and  distance learning for teacher education is therefore a crucial strategy when  expansion  or  quality  improvement  is needed  in  the public  education  system. Distance  education  may play an increasingly  important  role  during  this  decade  in  helping address  the  growing  shortage  of  teachers,  educational administrators  and  other  educational  professionals experienced  in  both  developing  and  developed  countries. Internet serves as the principal or  supplementary means of providing both pre-service and in-service teacher education.   There  is  a  growing  number  of  high  quality  Web-based professional development resources available for  educators globally.  The  Web  also  provides  opportunities  for  online mentoring and support of novice teachers  during their first year  of  teaching  and  to  develop  online  communities  of practice.

Virtual Web based environments for teachers now enable  them  to  seek  help  from  other  teachers,  locally, nationally,  or  globally  in  solving  classroom  problems, sharing lesson plans and materials, interacting with experts in particular fields, and in planning collaborative curriculum development projects.  Distance education  may also  play a major role in upgrading the knowledge and skills of teacher educators both in higher education and educational agencies.   The  advantage of distance education is that it makes teacher preparation  and  professional  development  programs accessible  to  indigenous  peoples  and  others  located  in remote, rural  areas who  do not have convenient  access to higher  education  institutions  and  where  there  is  often  a shortage  of  well-prepared  teachers  and  other  educational professionals.

Vocational and Continuing Education:

Technical  and  vocational  education  have  in  recent  years played  important  roles,  not  only  in  contributing  to  the improvement of  productivity  of  a national  labour  market, but  also  in  assisting  individuals  to  improve  their employment prospects in  rapidly changing socio-economic conditions. In this context the ODL system has the role in the field of technical and  vocational education  to respond effectively to the growing demand of working adults or any others  who  have  difficulties  in  getting  training  in conventional education because of lack of flexibility in  the timing and location of courses. Open and distance learning in the field of technical and vocational education makes up a mixed  and  complex  picture.

Conclusion and Future Scope:

UNESCO.s role in international co-operation for spreading ODL system which consists of both intellectual co-operation and technical assistance.[6,7]. Great importance is given to international interregional and regional co-operation for the promotion of open and distance learning, such as awareness, confidence  and  capacity  building,  mapping  of  relevant experience,  success and  failures, networking between  key players  in  distance education and  educational  technology, piloting and  adapting educational technologies in different settings, shared development of learning systems programs, and learning materials involving inter-country and industry-country  exchanges  and  joint  ventures,  technology assessment,  examining  the  actual  costs  and  impact  of alternative  delivery  systems,  and  support  for  the development  of system wide  policy  and planning  on new technology  in  education.  Co-operation  is  pursued  with intergovernmental organizations  such as  other UN system agencies, the Commonwealth of Learning, the World Bank, the Commission of  the European  Union,  the Organization for  Economic  Cooperation  and  development,  regional development banks, private and public sector partners, non-governmental organizations, notably with  the International Council  for  Open  and  Distance  Education (ICDE).

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020 

Q2. How teacher are regarded as role models? Discuss. (20)

Educating is just one of the many things you will have to do in your role as teacher. This lesson will detail several of the key roles teachers play in classrooms and schools.

The Roles of a Teacher

Though a teacher-training program focuses on training you to become an effective educator, there are actually many more roles you will play throughout your career. The roles of a teacher are the various responsibilities and activities in which teachers engage. This lesson will detail several of these roles as seen through the eyes of a veteran teacher.

Mrs. Johnson is a veteran teacher who has been in the field for 15 years. During her career, she has taught at various grade levels in several different schools. While the students, environments, and challenges changed, Mrs. Johnson has always found that she plays several key roles on the job.

Teacher as Educator

The first role Mrs. Johnson fills is a fairly obvious one. She is, first and foremost, an educator. A teacher is the person in the room who has the skills, tools, and information necessary to educate young people. In her role as educator, Mrs. Johnson is responsible for teaching the school’s curriculum through engaging lessons and activities.

The teacher as educator must take into account student learning styles, abilities, and personalities. To be an effective educator, Mrs. Johnson must create lessons that are accessible to every student in her classroom. Taking on the role of educator is what Mrs. Johnson was trained for in her teacher preparation program. It is in this role where most of her energy is focused, but is by no means her only responsibility in the school.

Teacher as Caregiver

Teachers are the adults that children spend a large chunk of their time with. They are with the children for around seven hours a day, five days a week. Because of the large amount of time spent with her students, Mrs. Johnson must also be a caregiver in her classroom. This means providing physical, emotional, and intellectual support for students in various capacities.

For example, Mrs. Johnson works with younger students. Therefore, accidents are likely to occur in the classroom, such as a child falling and getting hurt. It is then that Mrs. Johnson steps into the role as caregiver and tends to the child’s physical and emotional wounds. While there is often a school nurse on staff to fulfill this role, Mrs. Johnson is the first line of support before the nurse.

A teacher is also there to emotionally support students. Several years ago, Mrs. Johnson had a student she suspected was being bullied. She stepped into her role as caregiver and cared for the child emotionally while also handling the situation professionally with other staff and administrators. As a teacher, you cannot effectively educate your students if you do not also care for them in various ways.

Teacher as Community Leader

Schools are often the central hubs of communities. It is in school where children make friends, community events are held, and adults meet and collaborate with one another. Therefore, a teacher must also be a community leader. Mrs. Johnson steps into this role when she volunteers at dances, organizes fundraising, and interacts with parents and other members of the community outside of the school.

Principals not only exercise leadership. Principals are also role models for professional development. This lesson goes over the ways in which principals can be role models for teachers so that they are inspired to keep growing through learning.

Doing vs. Saying

Anne is a school principal who is always speaking to teachers at her school about the need to continue learning. However, Anne not only speaks about this concept; she’s also a model of inspiration for teachers as she is often taking new training, classes, reading about new research, etc. This way, the teachers who work with Anne see in their principal a role model because Anne demonstrates through actions the importance of constant professional development. In short, a role model is someone who shows through actions how to approach a given area, such as education in the case of principals. Professional development refers to the set of learning opportunities people can have to continue improving as professionals. In this lesson, we explore the ways in which principals can be role models for professional development. Let’s begin.

How to be a Role Model

School leaders need awareness about the actions that make them role models of professional development. To sum it up, principals can be models through reflective practices, continuous learning, progress monitoring, and being open with faculty and staff regarding personal growth. Let’s explore each of these actions principals can perform.

Reflective Practices

Reflective practice is an action in which a person engages in critical conversation about their own approach to a given area. When it comes to principals, reflective practice is very important to get teachers to grow professionally. To illustrate this, let’s take Anne’s example. When Anne meets with teachers, she refers to recent research she has read. She concentrates on specific topics such as classroom behavior management skills. Anne even refers back to the time she was a teacher and makes a critic of her own past practices and how she could have been better in the area of classroom behavior management skills. Then, she invites teachers to do the same. This reflective practice allows teachers to feel comfortable analyzing their own teaching performance. As a consequence of this reflective practice, teachers can identify areas that need improvement and work in order to improve.

In addition, a good reflective practice for principals is the one in which they often stress the importance of continuous learning to teachers. For example, Anne is very aware of the fact that a teacher who learns all the time has a positive impact on students’ learning. Thus, Anne often speaks about this need in meetings. Constant reminders of the importance of professional development allows teachers to think about it and feel motivated to learn more all the time.

Continuous Learning

Any professional can access continuous learning nowadays. This includes both formal training (i.e., a higher degree, a university class) and informal training (i.e., reading on new education trends, new research, attending a webinar).

Principals can be role models for their teachers through furthering their own education. For example, Anne is currently studying to get a Ph.D. in Educational Administration. Also, due to the nature of her work as a principal, Anne often attends seminars, workshops, etc.

Aside from furthering their education, principals can also be role models through acting as instructional leaders. For instance, Anne often shares new knowledge with her teachers which can inspire them to keep learning and growing professionally.

Finally, principals should also be supporters of continuous learning. For example, Anne often does research on opportunities for teacher professional development that includes funding. She makes sure to pass on the information to teachers and encourages them to sign up to benefit from both the learning opportunities and funding.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q3. Explain the impact of globalization on teacher education. (20)

It’s tempting to say that no matter how much technology pushes on education, every teacher will always need to know iconic teacher practices like assessment, curriculum design, classroom management, and cognitive coaching.

This may end up being true–how education changes in the next 20 years is a choice rather than the inevitable tidal wave of social and technological change it’s easy to sit back and wait for. Think of the very limited change in education since 2000 compared to the automotive industry, computer industry, retail consumer industry, etc. Huge leaps forward are not a foregone conclusion.

But it’s probably going to be a bit different than that. There are certain areas where significant change is more probably than others. It doesn’t seem likely that eLearning–as we now understand and use the term–will replace schools and teachers. Online courses are inferior to in-person teaching in too many important ways to completely supplant teachers and schools. (Blended learning is more likely to be the norm in the next decade.)

We’ve written before about the kinds of “things” modern teachers must be able to do. Below are 15 tasks that are less skill-based–and some a bit more conceptual, collectively representing how teaching is changing.

Teaching is no longer about classroom management, testing, and content delivery.

In all the excitement around what technology can do for education, the frustrations of the teachers faced with using it often get drowned out. Even educators who embrace the idea of using more technology with their students have found that it brings its share of challenges. And many of them feel powerless to address those challenges on their own.

The most common complaints teachers have about bringing more tech into the classroom can be boiled down to the five categories below. To fix them, teachers and administrators will have to work together. Obviously, that’s easier said than done, but we’ve got a few ideas to help.

Five Top Tech Problems for Teachers

1)   New Technology Takes Time to Learn

Teachers don’t wake up one day knowing how to use the new technology they’re expected to work with. Many of the tech tools schools invest in require training. Teachers are busy already and are understandably wary of adding one more thing to their very full plates — especially if they must do so without the in-depth support they really require.

2)   Students Don’t Always Use Educational Technology for its Intended Purpose

Bring mobile devices into the classroom and on the one hand you get a lot of creative educational uses. On the other, allowing your students to bring these devices into the classroom is essentially adding a tool for constant distraction. Some of the technology meant to help teachers becomes disruptive when put into the hands of mischievous students. This gives teachers who just want to teach one more thing to police.

3)   The Infrastructure Isn’t There

Let’s say a teacher is 100% on board with a new web-based technology and bases her entire lesson plan one day around it. But then the internet doesn’t work – nothing but buffering for the whole period. If schools are quicker to buy new products than they are to invest in support staff and infrastructure, they’re setting educators up for trouble.

4)   The Investment Doesn’t Pay Off (or Worse, Leaves Some Students Out)

The money for tech has to come from somewhere and if it’s being pulled from services that teachers value more, they aren’t going to be excited about it. Worse, for teachers at some schools tech presents a bigger problem: their students are left out of the fold. Assignments that require tech that students don’t have access to puts them at a clear disadvantage.

5)   The Product Doesn’t Add Anything Educational

Teachers are used to doing things a certain way that works for them. Being told that they should instead do things this other way (that involves learning a new product) is a hard sell. If they aren’t convinced the tech adds value for them and their students, why bother taking the time to deal with it? And even if they do see the value a new piece of tech can add, if it’s simply reinventing a strategy that already works, they may not feel its worth the effort.

Teachers are typically problem solvers, ready to tackle whatever issue comes their way. But some challenges they face can’t be fixed without help and collaboration.

Five Tips for Collaborative Solutions

As is the case in so many situations, proper communication is key to collaborating with your administration to solve your school’s tech challenges. It may take a little bit of extra work and organization on the teachers’ part, but if you can find a successful middle ground, it will pay off.

1) Make a Case to Administrators to Bring Teachers into the Purchasing Process

Some administrators may fall victim to “shiny object syndrome,” a malady known to afflict people in all sorts of professions and walks of life. When they hear a great pitch from a salesperson, the excitement of what seems possible with a new tech product may trump taking the time to understand if it’s something teachers and students really need.

Make a case to your administration that the school’s funds won’t be spent in the most useful way unless teachers are consulted in the decision-making process. You’re the ones on the ground seeing the challenges students face every day, which makes you perfectly situated to properly identify the solution. Where possible tie your argument back to ROI and cost savings, so you’re speaking their language.

2) Provide Organized Feedback to Administrators on What’s Working and What Isn’t

A complaint here and there may be something administrators hear and care about, but to turn that feedback into action it helps to bring it up in the right way, at the right time.

Have a meeting with the other teachers to discuss your concerns. If it’s too hard to get everyone together outside of business hours, try meeting virtually in a forum or start an email thread instead. Whatever the format, communicating with each other gives you the chance to identify the main difficulties you all have in common.

Collect those most common complaints and discuss some possible solutions to propose for them. Then carefully construct a letter or proposal to the administration that makes a persuasive case for your suggestions. The language you use here is important, and being able to show it comes from many of you rather than just one or two should help increase its priority level.

3) Suggest an Incentive-Based Program for Training

Many of the teachers struggling to learn new technology aren’t resistant to the idea of it; they just don’t have the time. And even if they could make the time, they at least need acknowledgement from higher up that their time is valuable, and that squeezing in one more thing is a big ask.

To get teachers on board, the school should offer some kind of incentive. Maybe it could be in the form of money, maybe some extra vacation time. In a cash-strapped school, the administration may have to get creative (it might help if teachers offer administrators ideas). The point is to make sure teachers know their time is appreciated.

4) Create a Teacher-Led Committee to Interface With the Administration on Tech Issues

In addition to being involved during the purchasing process, teachers should regularly have the chance to weigh in on any issues they encounter. If a bad internet connection keeps slowing down lessons, administrators should know.

A teacher-led tech committee can weigh in on whether or not more support staff is needed or if a certain type of technology isn’t working out after all. They can bring to light challenges the administration won’t see on its own to ensure they have a better chance of being addressed.

5) Create a Shared Idea Bank Between Teachers to Exchange Ideas for Using Tech

This is one you don’t actually need the administration for at all. Some shared Google Drive files can be turned into an idea bank for providing each other with inspiration. One teacher that’s having a hard time figuring out what they could possibly use that new tech product for can benefit from another teacher’s notes on something cool they did with it.

An idea bank can help inspire creativity amongst the teachers and make it possible to build off each other’s ideas to create even better ones. Knowing how the technology has benefitted other teachers can go a long way toward getting a hesitant instructor to give something new a try.

In Short

Obviously neither of these lists is entirely comprehensive. And as technology evolves and new shiny objects get attention in the education space, new challenges will inevitably arise. Most of those challenges will be much easier to overcome if teachers and administrators work out a system now to communicate and collaborate better over time.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q4. What king of political interference a society is facing in promotion of teaching professional? Explain your answer with reference to the context. (20)

Teachers in fragile and crisis contexts face enormous barriers to quality professional development. This is not news to most readers. But what are these barriers and how can we begin to address or reverse engineer professional development? This post outlines some of these obstacles.

Politicians, we are told, campaign in poetry but govern in prose. So far – and here’s a challenge to Boris perhaps – I haven’t noticed many sonnets or haikus on offer in this election.

Nevertheless it’s perhaps encouraging to see some similar themes emerging under the heading of education. Leaving aside whether it’s a good in itself (and I believe it is), all parties seem to agree that education is a key driver of economic success and social mobility. This is why it is crucial that, however prosaic, the government that emerges after May 7 preserves what is most successful in our schools, reverses the politicisation of the education system and encourages productive partnerships between state and independent schools. We all want to bring the best education to every child. On the whole, our politicians seem to understand that independent schools have a great deal to offer when it comes to educational opportunity. But there remains an implication that we are not pulling our weight in educational reform and “must try harder”.

However, 90 per cent of independent schools are already involved in partnerships with state schools and the sector contributes £9.5 billion to the economy every year, as well as saving the nation enough money every year to fund 460 new free schools. So we have experience to offer and legitimacy when it comes to commenting on policy. Labour, for example, is right to emphasise the value of local schools working together to improve the quality of education. In a recent cross-party debate on making education fair for all, Tristram Hunt said he wanted the relationship between state and independent schools to be characterised by “collaboration, partnership, support and challenge”.

Difficult working conditions

Not surprisingly, the greatest barrier to quality professional development in fragile contexts is the difficult conditions in which teachers work. The lack of (irregular, delayed or low) remuneration, overcrowded classrooms, the potential for (or probability of) sexual harassment or abuse, a lack of respect from school leaders and community members, violence in, to, and from school, too many needy students, and a lack of teaching and learning materials, all contribute to such difficult working conditions. As they would be for anyone, these conditions—both discretely and cumulatively—are often highly demotivating for teachers and negatively affect three important teacher characteristics, all of which are critical to effective teaching performance.

Teacher identity

Many teachers in fragile contexts become teachers, not be design, but by necessity, and, as Kirk & Winthrop note, “may therefore lack a strong professional identity” or desire to strengthen that identity, even in places where respect for teachers is high and even where education is seen as important or even restorative.

Teacher efficacy

Teachers’ efficacy beliefs are strongly correlated with teacher performance. Teachers with high self-efficacy believe that they can teach students well and believe they have a certain degree of control over both teaching and learning process and their performance. Efficacy also relates to teacher perceptions about students—a belief that their students can succeed academically. If teachers are poorly prepared; if they receive little or inadequate professional support—particularly if they teach children with acute emotional and academic needs— they may continue to lack confidence in their own abilities as teachers. They may continue to doubt their own efficacy; they may not believe that their students can learn; and they may begin to channel these frustrations onto students—blaming them for the weaknesses of the system. It’s hard to love your job when deep down you think you are terrible at it. All of this undermines teacher-student relationships, undermines the quality of teaching and learning, undermines student learning, and undermines the notion of teaching as a desirable, even noble, profession.

if a way can be found to do that. Allow recent changes to qualifications to bed in. More facilitation for independent/ state school partnerships must be a good idea. Make entry to the profession much more accessible to good graduates and then leave teaching to the teachers and leadership to school leaders.

Teacher professionalism

Difficult working conditions, low status, gender bias, and teaching in hierarchical conditions often prompt teachers to look for alternative work and/or resist any attempts to enhance increased professionalism—such as professional development—especially when teachers are not paid for extra hours or when they see professional development as not resulting in either improvements in their own practice or leading to promotion. Hierarchical, rigid education systems exacerbate this lack of professionalism by treating teachers as a problem, by not seeking their input or voice on decisions that affect teachers, and by dismissing concerns about pay or working conditions or safety. This lack of professionalism of teachers is often then a reflection of the lack of professionalism of the education system itself. Essentially, many teachers, so exhausted and worn down by this lack of professionalism, combined with the conditions in which they work, may resist change of any sort, systematic initiatives of any sort, or new ideas of any sort because they are simply trying to survive, physically or emotionally, in the face of so much adversity.

Systematic challenges

Fragile countries often have fragile education systems characterized by poor leadership, limited administrative capacity or inadequate budgets. Many fragile countries are unable to provide teachers with salaries and working conditions or professional opportunities that one finds in other professions. Fragile contexts often lack qualified personnel who can help teachers master content or research, such as proven instructional or assessment strategies. And they lack systems and incentives to encourage and help teachers improve their practice.

If there is some form of professional development, its effects may be nullified by problems related to coordination between the entities that deal with professional development or between entities that evaluate teachers. There are often problems with the quality and variety of the tools used to observe and supervise teachers and provide them with feedback about their teaching.


Not every fragile country is in conflict, but conflict obviously creates Hydra-like, multilayered barriers to opportunities for teacher professional development. Holding classes for students—not to mention teachers—is often inconceivable. Even when and where professional development opportunities exist, it simply may be too dangerous for teachers to attend them. Professional development providers may be seen as too closely aligned with an unpopular government, in the case of civil conflict, and thus are potential targets. Infrastructure, such as roads, electricity, cellular networks, Internet, landlines may be destroyed, thus making any professional development, even distance learning, difficult or impossible. Additionally, professional development offered to one social group at the exclusion of another may actually contribute to the exacerbation of tension and/or violence.

Poorly designed professional development

This last barrier is both a consequence of the above three (difficult working conditions, systematic challenges, and, in some cases, conflict) and a cause of the lack of access to quality professional development. Not surprisingly, in many fragile contexts, the professional development that does exist is episodic versus sustained and intensive. It often reflects budget constraints, the lack of qualified facilitators, volatility, and logistical challenges. It may often reflect policymakers’ and donors’ misunderstandings about who teachers are and what they do and how they should learn. It may occur only on a short-term basis and be disconnected from policies around teacher recruitment, assessment, retention, support, and compensation. In areas recovering from conflict or natural disaster, it may be of an emergency nature and thus not explicitly aligned with broader Ministry of Education goals and strategies. It may not take into account the tenets of adult learning or what we know to be best practices around teacher learning. It may be designed and carried out by instructors who have no teaching experience in general and no teaching experience in fragile contexts in particular. Not surprisingly, it is often perceived by teachers as being of low quality and completely irrelevant—something to be endured rather than embraced.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8612 Spring 2020

Q5. Highlight ethical issues related to education. (20)

To spot and avoid conflicts of interest

You’ll learn from several examples in an educational setting where conflicts of interest can affect students, parents, administrators, school psychologists, teachers and others.

Tutoring Scenario

Jeremy is an eighth grade student in Ms. Pinkett’s class. Jeremy’s having some trouble with math.

His father meets with Ms. Pinkett to discuss how to help Jeremy get on track. She recommends private tutoring, twice per week, outside of school hours in order to give Jeremy a boost.

Jeremy’s dad says to Ms. Pinkett, ”Jeremy does love your teaching style. Would you be willing to tutor him as a private client? I’d be able to pay you the going rate compared with other tutoring services.”

What’s wrong with this picture? If Ms. Pinkett accepts this private job from Jeremy’s father, she could find her primary obligation to her students comprised. This lesson discusses why conflicts of interest can be such a problem.

Definition of Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest in education is a situation in which your primary responsibility to a student is compromised by competing priorities. Conflicts of interest could range from unknowingly allowing another priority to affect one’s judgment, all the way to outwardly and intentionally violating a policy for personal gain.

Ms. Pinkett cannot recommend private tutoring services and then benefit financially from providing those services. Why is this a problem? First of all, it likely violates a school policy or even state law regarding conflicts of interest. Secondly, without realizing it, Ms. Pinkett could find her desire to grow her tutoring clientele to compete with her obligation to teach in her regular classes. In addition, there may be other unpredictable challenges that could arise over time.

Perhaps Jeremy’s dad requests something extra of Ms. Pinkett during the school year. Maybe he tells her to take a second look at a test with a low grade because the tutoring sessions haven’t covered that topic as thoroughly as they could have. He says he’s not sure her tutoring services have been effective and wonders if Jeremy should still receive a low grade if she is responsible for helping him improve.

Now Ms. Pinkett has a conflict between assessing Jeremy fairly along with the rest of the class and responding to the critique of Jeremy’s dad, who has become a type of employer.

Examples of Conflict of Interest in Education

Let’s take another example, this time from the experiences of school psychologists.

The National Association of School Psychologists lays out principles for the conduct of those who work in the field. In the most basic sense, a school psychologist has one main client, and that is the student. Other parties, such as parents, teachers, and administrators, will also have requests and requirements for the psychologist, but ultimately, the student is the central obligation.

How does this play out?

Let’s say Bart is a school psychologist in a high school. He’s been friends with several parents of students for years.

His good friend, Myra, is the mother of an eleventh-grader. One day, Myra storms into the school and insists on talking with Bart. She says that she wants to know what Bart and her daughter have discussed in their counseling sessions. She’s frustrated that her daughter won’t talk to her about what’s happening in her life and finds it even more frustrating that Bart won’t tell her anything.

eachers in private schools are not usually required to be certified or licensed but most hold at least a bachelor’s degree. Those who wish to be teachers in postsecondary schools typically need to earn a doctoral degree.

According to the Bureau of U.S. Labor Statistics (BLS), preschool teachers would experience a 7% job growth for 2014-2024. Elementary teachers would have a 6% job growth during the same period, while postsecondary teachers would have 13% job growth. The median salary as of May 2015 was $28,570 for preschool teachers, $54,890 for elementary teachers, and $72,470 for postsecondary teachers.

Career Options

Preschool Teacher

Preschool teacher requirements vary by state, employer and the source of funding for the program. A few programs require only a high school diploma or associate’s degree, but most require a bachelor’s degree in child development or early childhood education. Some programs may require a national Child Development Association (CDA) credential.

Federally funded programs such as Head Start require all preschool teachers have at least an associate’s degree, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Teachers who teach in pre-kindergarten programs in public schools must be licensed in early childhood education.

Kindergarten and Elementary Teacher

Public school elementary teachers must possess a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. An elementary license allows a teacher to teach kindergarten through sixth grade in most states. A future teacher must also complete a supervised practicum or student teaching internship. Some states also require a teacher to earn a master’s degree within a specified time after beginning teaching. Since elementary teachers instruct in all subjects, they take classes in math, reading, science and social studies methods.

Middle School Teacher

A public middle school teacher must have a bachelor’s degree in childhood education and complete a student teaching internship. A middle school license usually allows the teacher to teach grades five through eight. Most middle school teachers must have a certain number of credit hours in the subject area they wish to teach. This subject area may be indicated as an endorsement on their teaching certificate. Areas of endorsement include language arts, math, science, physical education, foreign language and special education.

Secondary Teacher

A public high school teacher needs a bachelor’s degree in the subject they are going to teach, as well as having completed a program of study in secondary education. A secondary school teaching license qualifies teachers to teach up through grade 12 but may include some middle school grades. Some high schools may look for teachers with master’s degrees. High schools hire teachers in core academic areas and the fine and applied arts.

Postsecondary Teacher

Postsecondary teachers at a 4-year university or college usually need a doctoral degree in the subject they will be teaching. Universities and colleges sometimes hire teachers with a master’s degree for part-time positions. Community colleges typically require a master’s degree for most full-time positions. Vocational and technical colleges require a bachelor’s degree in the subject of instruction.

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