AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8616 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course:School Administration and Supervision (8616) Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

School Administration and Supervision (8616) B.Ed (2/5, 1/5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020 

Q1. How you will define school administration strengthen your answer with relevant literature and in your opinion what is the scope of educational administration in teacher education.

The school represents perhaps the most important institution in the child’s life. Spending approximately three-fourths of the conscious part of their weekdays at school, children critically depend on this setting for their development. Unfortunately, this environment does not always lend itself to student achievement.

Aside from teaching and instructional demands, the potential bureaucratic difficulties associated with different students’ educational and life demands detract from teacher preparation measures. Interactive or small group teaching requires much planning, organization and structure. Perhaps administrative demands of the learning environment take away a part of the organizational process. School administrators determine the policies and procedures of the educational setting. Thus, they have the responsibility for fostering the academic communities developing our children outside our homes. This article considers research findings about student achievement and administrative processes and how these findings may be used to create a stronger learning setting.

Academic Environments

Since parenting indirectly impacts student achievement through motivational orientation, similar classroom management styles may yield like results. Students respond to their academic environment. This response does not necessarily show on their report cards however. at the college level that grade attainment did not predict skills acquisition. These researchers’ measure of motivation showed consistent and positive relationships with most skills and grade measures. The authors perceived some sort of reward structure associated with student attributes, but the setting did not challenge the brightest students. Brighter students have already been negatively affected before they came to the university.

Administrative behaviors:

Administrative behaviors may relate to teacher morale itself. Evans on a situation exposing the effect poor management has on teacher morale. However the study did not appear to discuss the issues of accountability and how problematic management situations, such as the studied case, could be addressed. It did demonstrate how adverse managerial policies can affect teacher morale. Unless the teacher is seasoned enough to distinguish between social arenas, this poor morale may easily be conveyed to the students in the classroom.

the training of educational administrators. Their study, however, did not observe the quality of the individual graduate programs where studies occurred. It did challenge the higher education administrative studies system overall however. because it demonstrates that long term student success and achievement results from factors in their primary and secondary settings. How we teach and work with students in our elementary classrooms have large bearings on their future success.

Motivational environments:

Student views of motivational environments are important over time. Middle school is a time where students develop negative attitudes toward school, self-esteem and academics, where self-concept declines, and where they value academic pursuits less. have shown that high motivation in middle school students relates to teachers who know, support, challenge, and encourage them to act independently. Adolescents want their teachers to take them seriously. They need clear communication that learning and success are valued. Studies show that high school dropouts see elements of unfairness in their teachers.

Influences on the Setting:

Administrators need to focus on teacher motivation because effectively motivated teachers provide the most favorable setting for students. External motivators are not effective however. The observations and comparisons appear to demonstrate that extrinsic motivators in the form of bonus pay may not have long term success without complementary intrinsic motivators, such as meaningful teacher involvement. Teachers appreciate financial bonuses, but do not respond to them, as policy makers believe.

Peer assessment:

Peer assessment may ease the assessment difficulties. Findings of a peer evaluation study have found support and assistance with difficult dealings, meaningful evaluation through learning and cooperation, and increased trust through non-threatening and candid communication. The peer method also lacked enough visiting and processing time, lacked consistency due to unclear exceptions, and lacked open criticism however Principal assessment is a complex process because there does not appear to be a consensus of effective leadership traits. Moreover, evaluations are inconsistent, with politics often motivating their results. “Principals are challenged in knowing which voices to attend to, which to ignore, and how to distinguish reasonable arguments for emotional harangues”

Direct Influences:

The learner clearly requires a strong motivational setting. School leadership does not appear to directly influence student achievement concluded that the weak relationship between leadership and student achievement was due to the influence of other school factors, namely: quality of curriculum, amount of instruction time, attentiveness of pupils, opportunities to learn, and capacities of teachers. Other influences appear to mutually interface to affect the setting. For example, teachers perceive themselves as the primary causes on the performance of the school. research also suggests that student composition, organizational health, and the external community play roles. The students’ school primary experience occurs in the classroom. the passive learning environments which teachers create in their classrooms. The researchers found efficient and effective schools involved more teacher-student interaction and more small group learning. Students in these settings perceived their learning environments and teachers more positively than students in other settings. The authors harp on the need for stronger instruction and administrative measures.

School administration:

School administration plays a very important role in student development. While research has not determined a direct relationship between administration and student achievement, administration does strongly influence school environmental conditions affecting such growth. Classroom experiences represent one area. Classroom teachers strongly motivate students and stimulate their long term successes. These motivations have lasting effects. School administrators should facilitate environments allowing classroom teachers such opportunities. Such processes would use intrinsic motivators, prompt self-reflection and development to prompt a cooperative, trusting relationship. Unless the administration provides a school setting that supports teacher morale, only the most mentally disciplined teacher will differentiate between the administrative burdens and learner needs. Future research should consider the effectiveness of teacher coping measures for dealing with such circumstances. Findings from such research would provide teachers stronger abilities to focus on student developmental needs. Research into effective methods for developing administrator prioritization and personal skills would also support environments promoting student development.

Educational institutions in Pakistan

3 pursuits characterised reform initiatives in education in the late 1980s and early 1990s: privatization of schools that had been nationalized in the 1970s; a come back to English as the moderate of instruction in the more snobs of these privatized schools, reversing the imposition of Urdu in the 1970s; and ongoing importance on Pakistan studies and Islamic studies in the curriculum. Until eventually the late 1970s, a extraordinary amount of educational expending went to the heart and higher levels. Education in the colonial era had been geared to staffing the civil service and creating an educated elite that distributed the attitudes of and was loyal to the British. It was unabashedly elitist, and modern education–reforms and commissions on reform notwithstanding–has retained the same quality. This fact is evident in the manifest gap in informative accomplishment between the country’s public schools and the private schools, which were nationalized in the late 1970s in a move intended to facilitate equal access.

Teachers and school principals

Whereas students from lower-class backgrounds did gain improved entry to these private schools in the 1980s and 1990s, teachers and school principals alike bemoaned the drop in the level of quality of education. Unfortunately, it seems that a better portion of children of the elites are vacationing in foreign countries not only for university education but also for their high school diplomas. The expansion of literacy to better numbers of people has stimulated the working class to would like to middle-class goals such as possessing an automobile, taking summer vacations, and offering a daughter with a once-inconceivable dowry at the time of marriage. In the past, Pakistan was a country that the landlords possessed, the army ruled, and the bureaucrats governed, and it drew most of its elite from these three groups. In the 1990s, on the other hand, the army and the civil service were sketching a better percentage of knowledgeable members from weak backdrops than ever before. One of the education reforms of the 1980s was an improve in the variety of specialized schools throughout the country.  Those schools that were specified for females integrated hostels nearby to offer protect housing for female students. Improving the number of technical schools was a reaction to the high rate of underemployment that had been evident since the early 1970s. The Seventh Five-Year Plan aimed to increase the share of students going to technical and occupation institutions to over 33 % by improving the number of polytechnics, commercial colleges, and vocational training centers. Although the numbers of such institutions did improve, a compelling need to broaden vocational training further persisted in early 1994.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q2. Differentiate between financial management and people management. Do they have any link with quality assurance? Explain it with examples.

The district promotes a culture of growth-oriented supervision through a combination of formal evaluations and ongoing, informal instructional feedback. The district’s evaluation procedure for administrators’ performance meets the requirements of state law and regulation and is informative, instructive, and used to promote individual growth and overall effectiveness. Compensation and continued employment for administrators are linked to evidence of effectiveness, as assessed by improvement in student performance and other relevant school data. Through effective supervision practices, administrators identify the strengths and needs of assigned staff in order to plan effective implementation of district and school initiatives, assess the application of skills and practices learned from professional development, provide struggling staff with opportunities for additional professional development and support and provide frequent, high-quality feedback focused on professional growth. The district ensures that school leaders regularly use evidence-based supervision processes to monitor and support teachers to meet instructional and program expectations based on high standards of performance aligned to the common core of professional knowledge and skills. The district’s evaluation procedure for teachers’ performance is aligned to the supervision process, incorporates multiple sources of data including student achievement results, effectively implemented by trained administrators, and fulfills the requirements of state law and regulation. The district has identified variegated strategies for supporting and developing struggling teachers and has dismissed or demoted educators who do not meet evaluation criteria over time. The district ensures that school administrators receive the guidance and support to effectively use the formal evaluation process to hold staff accountable to high professional expectations for performance.

Professional Development: District and school organization, culture and structures create a climate conducive to adult learning through effective communication, ongoing professional improvement and joint responsibility for student learning. The district maintains a strong commitment to creating and sustaining a professional development program that supports educators at all stages in their careers. Professional development programs and services are based on district priorities, information about staff needs, student achievement data, and assessments of instructional practices and programs at each school. Programs progress developmentally and differentiate for educators’ different areas of responsibility and levels of expertise and experience. The district supports teacher leadership and growth by creating opportunities for exemplary teachers to have responsibility for instructional leadership and mentoring.  Professional development includes a) both job-embedded and individually pursued learning, including content-based learning, that enhances a teacher’s knowledge and skills and b) structures for collaboration that enable teachers to have regular, frequent department and/or grade-level common planning and meeting time that is used to improve implementation of the curriculum and instructional practice.

Academic Support:  The district has policies, procedures, and practices that promote student high achievement, support course completion, reduce grade retention, and encourage on-time graduation. The district has an effective system for identifying all students who are not performing at grade level. Each school schedule is designed to provide adequate learning time for all students in core subjects. For students not yet on track to proficiency in English language arts or mathematics, the district ensures that each school provides additional time and support for individualized instruction through tiered instruction, a data-driven approach to prevention, early detection, and support for students who experience learning or behavioral challenges, including but not limited to students with disabilities and English language learners.

Access and Equity:  District and school staff members work to close proficiency gaps by using aggregated and disaggregated data on student participation and achievement to adjust policies and practices and to provide additional programs or supports. Inclusive classrooms and programs that use an integrated services model minimize separation of special populations from the mainstream of school activity. The district and its schools work to promote equity through such means as increasing the proportion of underrepresented subgroups in advanced and accelerated programs. Beginning at the middle school level, leaders actively create pathways to ensure that all students are prepared for post-secondary education and career opportunities upon graduation.

Educational Continuity and Student Participation:  District and school policies and practices promote student attendance, which is continuously monitored, reported, and acted upon. They also promote and track staff attendance and participation, and appropriate provisions are made to ensure continuity for students. District and school policies and practices also help all students make effective transitions from one school, grade level, or program. Entering and mobile students are promptly placed in educationally appropriate settings using information from skill and other assessments when prior school records are not accessible.  Transient and homeless students have timely and equitable access to quality programs supported by district oversight, policies and practices to address their needs. Fair and equitable policies, procedures, and practices are implemented to reduce suspensions, exclusions, and other discipline referrals. Policies and practices are implemented to reduce or minimize dropping out, and the district has practices to recover dropouts and return them to an educationally appropriate placement.

Partnerships and Services to Support Learning:  The district ensures that each school creates a safe school environment and makes effective use of a system for addressing the social, emotional, and health needs of its students that reflects the behavioral health and public schools framework.  Students’ needs are met in part through a) the provision of coordinated student support services and universal breakfast (if eligible); b) the implementation of a systems approach to establishing a productive social culture that minimizes problem behavior for all students; and c) the use of consistent schoolwide attendance and discipline practices and effective classroom management techniques that enable students to assume increasing responsibility for their own behavior and learning. (CSE #9) The district ensures that each school develops strong working relationships with families and appropriate community partners and providers in order to support students’ academic progress and social and emotional well-being (CSE #10); such community partners and providers as human service agencies, corporate and civic sponsors, and higher education give students and families access to health, social, recreational, and supplemental educational services.

Comprehensive and Transparent Budget Process:  The district’s budget is developed through an open, participatory process, and the resulting document is clear, comprehensive, complete, current, and understandable. The budget provides accurate information on all fund sources, as well as budgetary history and trends. The district and community have appropriate written agreements and memoranda related to 603 CMR 10.0 that detail the manner for calculating and the amounts to be used in calculating indirect charges levied on the school district budget by the community. Regular, timely, accurate, and complete financial reports are made to the school committee, appropriate administrators and staff, and the public. Required local, state, and federal financial reports and statements are accurate and filed on time.

Adequate Budget:  The community annually provides sufficient financial resources to ensure educationally sound programs and quality facilities, with a sufficient district revenue levy and level of local spending for education. The combination of Chapter 70 Aid and local revenues, considering justified indirect charges, meets or exceeds Net School Spending (NSS) requirements of the education reform formula. The district’s budget and supplemental funding are adequate to provide for effective instructional practices and adequate operational resources.

Cost-Effective Resource Management:  As part of its budget development, the district implements a review process to determine the cost-effectiveness of its programs, initiatives, and activities. This process is based, in part, on student performance data and needs. The district ensures that each principal makes effective and strategic use of district and school resources and has sufficient budget authority to do so. The district has a system in place to pursue, acquire, monitor, and coordinate all local, state, federal, and private competitive grants. The district implements an effective system to monitor special revenue funds, revolving accounts, and the fees related to them to ensure that they are managed efficiently and used effectively for the purposes intended and to advance the district’s improvement plan. The district actively seeks ways to leverage resources and expand capacity through collaboration with such external partners as educational collaboratives and institutions of higher education.

Financial Tracking, Forecasting, Controls, and Audits:  District administrators are able to regularly and accurately track spending and other financial transactions. The district uses forecast mechanisms and control procedures to ensure that spending is within budget limits. It uses efficient accounting technology to facilitate tracking, forecasting, and control procedures, and to integrate the district-level financial information of each school and program. All procurement, tracking, and monitoring systems and external audits are accurate, current, and timely. The district has a system in place to ensure that state procurement laws are followed, that staff are qualified to manage their fiscal responsibilities, and that all assets and expenditures are monitored and tracked to attain the most efficient and effective utilization.  The district competitively procures independent financial auditing services at least every five years, shares the results of these audits, and consistently implements their recommendations.

Capital Planning and  Facility  Maintenance:  The district has a formal preventive maintenance program to maximize and prolong the effective use of the district’s capital and major facility assets, as well as to ensure that educational and program facilities are clean, safe, secure, well-lit, well-maintained, and conducive to student learning. The district has a long-term capital plan that clearly and accurately reflects future capital development and improvement needs, including the need for educational and program facilities of adequate size. The plan is reviewed and revised as needed with input from all appropriate stakeholders.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q3. What do you know about the administrative structure of government schools and private schools.

Governmental agencies, more often than any other, have clear and defined structure. In American government, defined scopes and roles of individuals are not only the standard, but are typically recorded with detailed job descriptions and organizational charts. By and large, there is not tremendous variation in structure types, but if one looks carefully, there are a few.

Vertical Structures

Most government organizations are classic examples of vertical structure. Vertical organizational structures are characterized by few people at the top and increasing numbers of people in middle management and lower level positions. In other words, a few people make policy and decisions, and many people carry them out. Governments often lean toward them because they create very defined job scopes and powers–each person has a clear role to play. Vertical structure is the classic bureaucracy and is epitomized and originated in one of the oldest government functions: military command.

Horizontal Structures

Horizontal organization charts are characterized by a few positions at top and then many positions on the next row down. In other words, there are very few supervisors and many peers or equals. While this structure is most common in professional organizations such as law and architecture firms or medical practices, a few types of government use this structure. For instance, in very small programs–especially after budget cutbacks–certain city and county social services such as drug prevention or domestic violence education programs may find themselves with only a few staff members. In order to deliver services or because they do job sharing, staff may work together cooperatively rather than in hierarchical order.

Divisional Structures

Divisional structures divide function and responsibility based on specialty or geography–such as a market territory. In the case of the public sector, a few organizations such as courts use this system. For example, federal courts are divided into regional circuits and even most counties have multiple courthouses which hear cases from their defined territories within the country. These courts run parallel and are not affected by one another. Similarly, police and fire departments usually have precincts and battalions with specific jurisdictions for better functionality.

As a rule, a single public task may not be carried out by more than two tiers of government. A more efficient division of tasks leads to fewer rules, fewer political office holders and fewer public servants. What is more, it saves money.

As the coalition agreement says:

  • ‘Central government, the provinces, the municipalities and the water authorities will restrict themselves to their core tasks. For the provinces, these lie in the areas of spatial planning, the economy and the natural environment.’
  • ‘The tasks of government will be performed at a level that is as close as possible to the people.’
  • ‘No more than two tiers of government will be concerned with the same subject in a given policy area.’

Central government is transferring some of its tasks to the municipalities, provinces and water authorities. The municipalities and provinces, for instance, are taking over tasks in areas of special concern to their residents, such as youth care and public transport. The principles of the coalition agreement have been translated into the terms of the administrative agreement between central government and the municipalities.

Administration can be viewed as the act of effectively managing the affairs of a business organisation or state. It implies the optimum use of people, information and other resources of the organisation, in the attainment of the ultimate goal of the company. The administration can be done either by public officials or private individuals. Public administration is a branch of economics that works with service motive. On the other end, private administration works with business intuition.


The public administration differs from the private administration, in three important ways, i.e. the political character, accountability and scope of their activities. Here an article is presented to help you understand the meaning and differences between public and private administration.

Content: Public Administration Vs Private Administration

Comparison Chart

Basis for Comparison Public Administration Private Administration
Meaning Public administration refers to orderly managing the resources, to achieve the purposes established by the government. Private administration is the operation, management and organization of the affairs of the business enterprise.
What is it? It is a political process. It is a business activity.
Operation In governmental set up In non-governmental set up
Approach Bureaucratic Egalitarian
Decision making Pluralistic Monopolistic
Revenue Taxes, fees, duties, etc. Profits
Accountability Accountable to general public Accountable to the owners
Orientation Welfare oriented Profit oriented



Key Differences Between Public and Private Administration

The important points of difference between public and private administration are given below:

  1. The systematic and well-planned management of the affairs of the state to achieve the purposes established by the government is known as Public Administration. The term private administration refers to the operation, management, and organisation of the affairs of the business enterprise.
  2. Public Administration is a political process. On the other hand, the private administration is a business activity.
  3. Public administration takes place in governmental setup, whereas private administration operates in the structure other than the governmental setup.
  4. Public administration follows a bureaucratic approach, while the private administration has an egalitarian approach.
  5. Decision making in public administration is pluralistic, but in private administration, there is monopolistic decisions are taken.
  6. In public administration, the revenue is generated from taxes, fees, duties, penalties and other dues paid by the general public. As opposed to private administration, where profits from operating activities are the major source of revenue.
  7. When it comes to accountability, public officials are accountable to the general public. Unlike, private administration where the employees are accountable to the owners.
  8. Public administration is welfare oriented; it works with service motive. Conversely, the private administration is profit oriented.


Public administration runs in a governmental setting, and that is why it is also known as government administration. On the contrary, the private administration is a business process, hence considered as business administration. Both of them play a crucial role in contributing towards the development of the society in different ways. Moreover, the measurement of performance, progress and results thereof, can be done using different methods.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q4. What is performance of appraisal? What different techniques are used in different scenarios.

The performance appraisal is the process of assessing  employee performance  by way of comparing present performance with already established standards which have been already communicated to employees, subsequently providing feedback to employees about their performance level for the purpose of improving their performance as needed by the organisation.

As said above the very purpose of performance uprising is to know performance of employee, subsequently to decide whether training is needed to particular employee or to give promotion with additional pay hike. performance appraisal is the tool for determining whether employee is to be promoted, demoted or sacked ( remove ) in case of very poor performance and no scope for improvement.

Every corporate sector uses performance appraisal as a tool for knowing about the employee and take decisions about particular employee. for the purpose of performance appraisal of employees there are different methods under the category of traditional methods and modern methods which are discussed in following chapters.

What is Performance?

What does the term performance actually mean? Employees are performing well when they are productive. Productivity implies both concern for effectiveness and efficiency, effectiveness refers to goal accomplishment. However it does not speak of the costs incurred in reaching the goal. That is where efficiency comes in. Efficiency evaluates the ratio of inputs consumed to outputs achieved. The greater the output for a given input, the greater the efficiency. It is not desirable to have objective measures of productivity such as hard data on effectiveness, number of units produced, or percent of crimes solved etc and hard data on efficiency (average cost per unit or ratio of sales volume to number of calls made etc.).

In addition to productivity as measured in terms of effectiveness and efficiency, performance also includes personnel data such as measures of accidents, turnover, absences, and tardiness. That is a good employee is one who not only performs well in terms of productivity but also minimizes problems for the organisation by being to work on time, by not missing days, and by minimizing the number of work-related accidents.

What is Appraisal?

Appraisals are judgments of the characteristics, traits and performance of others. On the basis of these judgments we assess the worth or value of others and identify what is good or bad. In industry performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of employees by supervisors. Employees also wish to know their position in the organization. Appraisals are essential for making many administrative decisions: selection, training, promotion, transfer, wage and salary administration etc. Besides they aid in personnel research.

Performance Appraisal thus is a systematic and objective way of judging the relative worth of ability of an employee in performing his task. Performance appraisal helps to identify those who are performing their assigned tasks well and those who are not and the reasons for such performance.


Performance appraisal has been defined by different scholars in various ways. Some of the important definitions are as follows:

Dale S. Beach, “Performance appraisal is systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development”.

Randall S. Schuler, “Performance appraisal is a formal, structured system of measuring and evaluating an employees job, related behaviour and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently perfuming on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee, organisation, and society all benefit.”

Heyel, “It is the process of evaluating the performance and qualifications of the employees in terms of the requirements of the job for which he is employed, for purposes of administration including placement, selection for promotions, providing financial rewards and other actions which require differential treatment among the members of a group as distinguished from actions affecting all members equally.”

Dale Yoder, ”Performance appraisal includes all formal procedures used to evaluated personalities and contributions and potentials of group members in a working organisation. It is a continuous process to secure information necessary for making correct and objective decisions on employees.

Performance appraisal and performance management process

In the present scenario, the organizations have shifted their focus from performance appraisals to performance management as a result of internationalization of human resources and globalization of business. The functions of HRM have become far more complicated as today the major focus of strategic HRM practices is on the management of talent by implementing such development programmes which enhance the competencies of the employees. The performance management approach focuses more on observed behaviors and concrete results based on the previously established smart objectives. By adopting techniques like Management by Objectives (MBO), smart objectives are established in terms of either facts and figures and in the entire process the superior plays the role of a coach or a facilitator. The objectives are mutually decided at the beginning of the performance season and serve as a standard of performance for evaluation. In this method, the employees can offer a feedback on their contributions by filling up a self appraisal form. Performance management is a much broader term in comparison with performance appraisal as it deals with a gamut of activities which performance appraisals never deal with. This system is a strategic and an integrated approach which aims at building successful organizations by developing high performance teams and individuals and improving the performance of people. This process starts when a job is defined. Performance management emphasizes on front end planning instead of looking backward unlike performance appraisals and the focus is on ongoing dialogue instead of appraisal documents and ratings. Thus, performance management may be regarded as a continuous process.

A table depicted below shows a comparison between performance appraisal and performance management:

Performance Appraisal Performance Management
Focus is on top down assessment Stresses on mutual objective setting through a process of joint dialogue
Performed annually Continuous reviews are performed
Usage of ratings is very common Usage of ratings is less common
Focus is on traits Focus is on quantifiable objectives, values and behaviors
Monolithic system Flexible system
Are very much linked with pay Is not directly linked with pay

Performance management is concerned with assumptions, mutual obligations, expectations and promises (Guest, D E et al, 1996). The views of some of the leading organizations of performance management approach are given below:

  • According to Eli Lilly and Co., performance management focuses on aligning the individual goals with the goals of the organization and ensures that the employees work on the right tasks and do the right things.
  • According to Standard Chartered Bank, performance management is concerned with those processes and behaviors by way of which the managers manage the performance of the employees for developing high achieving organizations.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8616 Spring 2020

Q5. What is the difference between authorities and synergistic supervision?

Researchers identified a form of supervision they called Synergistic Supervision. Synergistic supervision emphasizes cooperation between supervisor and supervisee and encourages the impact of working together to exceed the simple combination of efforts. Based on research, they believed this style of supervision had the greatest impact on student affairs work. Synergistic style of supervision has a dual focus on both the organization and the individual, the effort to achieve organizational goals and objectives while also supporting the staff member in achieving personal and professional goals.

Four researchers followed the previous work  and found that synergistic supervision was associated with discussions of exemplar performance, long-term career goals, inadequate performance, and personal attitudes as well as frequent informal performance appraisals. They used those findings to create the Synergistic Supervision Scale (SSS). The SSS measures the extent to which a staff member perceives that their supervisor focuses on both the advancement of the institutional mission and goals and their personal and professional advancement as an individual staff member. Twenty two behaviors constitute the scale. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, supervisees rate the frequency of identified behaviors in their current supervisory activities and relationship. The sums of the items are collected to reflect the overall level of perceived synergistic supervision received by the supervisee.

The authors tested the SSS for internal consistency reliability by calculating a Cronbach’s alpha co-efficient and an alpha co-efficient of 0.94 was found. Correlations were found for the item totals ranging between 0.44 and 0.75. The authors found the Pearson product-moment correlation between the Index of Organizational Reaction and Synergistic Supervision Scale was 0.91 (n = 275, p < 0.001) and between the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Synergistic Supervision Scale was 0.64 (n = 275, p < 0.001) indicating the validity of their instrument. Since the creation of the Synergistic Supervision Scale, researchers within student affairs have continued to examine synergistic supervision.

This study, taken from dissertation research , furthers the literature in synergistic supervision and begins a discussion of its relationship to key performance indicators: core self-evaluation and supervisor-related commitment.

Core Self-Evaluation and the Core Self-Evaluation Scale

Core self-evaluation theory originated with, who believed that fundamental appraisals, identified as core evaluations, affected the assessments of certain situations. Researchers expanded on this notion arguing that core evaluations of self were the most fundamental evaluations that individuals hold and that these appraisals of self, impact all other beliefs and include the evaluations about their capabilities, competence, and self-worth. They identified four dispositional traits as part of the core evaluation of self: self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability, and locus of control.

Core self-evaluation has been linked to a variety of important outcomes such as job satisfaction, engagement, popularity, and job performance within employees. Core self-evaluation and its importance to supervision was not directly measured until researchers developed the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES). The creators of the CSES compared the data collected using their instrument to data collected using four separate instruments that measured each of the four core traits (self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability, and locus of control). The authors also collected data on several outcome measures such as job satisfaction and performance. Strong internal consistencies, with alpha coefficients greater than 0.80 were reported, test-retest reliability of 0.81 demonstrated good stability, and convergent and discriminant validity was displayed in strong correlations with the four core traits . Additionally, the CSES showed empirical validity in correlating with job satisfaction and performance.

The CSES uses a 5-point Likert-type scale to indicate the level of agreement or disagreement with each of the statements. The 12 statements address the composite personality traits of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability and the sum score of the items represents the overall value the individual has of themselves.

Supervision Policy Statement

All staff members are entitled to quality supervision. Supervision is ongoing and includes two-way communication to achieve the dual purposes of institutional and staff member development. Supervision will focus on competence with the supervisor responsible for leadership toward the accomplishment of meeting institutional and staff needs. Staff members should be given clear guidance regarding expectations about their role in the unit.

Using the Staffing Model in Supervision

The integrated staffing model operates on the principle of all components of the model being interrelated and strongly influenced by supervision. Therefore, it is important to mention the five other dimensions of the model: , orientation, staff development, performance appraisal, and separation. Supervision, as the linchpin of the model, permeates each of these dimensions. Consequently, supervision principles as discussed here should not be considered in isolation, rather, should be applied to each dimension of the model.

Functions of Supervision – Supervision is not always easy. A supervisor is often called upon to make decisions based upon the knowledge and skills which have been acquired through the years of professional involvement. A supervisor must serve many functions. Among these are:

  • Articulating and achieving the unit’s missions and needs
  • Monitoring and managing the climate of the unit
  • Fostering individual development
  • Developing teamwork capabilities and group resources
  • Coordinating work activities
  • Promoting active problem solving

Approaches to Supervision – The process of supervision can take on one or a combination of styles, and one particular style may not be appropriate for every supervisory situation. It is important that a supervisor is aware of his or her predominate approach to supervision so that the style may be adapted as the situation or the staff member requires. Winston and Creamer (1994) provide an instrument to identify supervisory approaches (click here for an example) . The four approaches included in the instrument are:

Authoritarian – based on the belief that staff members require constant attention

Laissez Faire – based on the desire to allow staff members freedom in accomplishing job responsibilities

Companionable – based on a friendship-like relationship

Synergistic – a cooperative effort between the supervisor and the staff member

Synergistic Supervision

Synergistic supervision has been described as having the greatest utility for working with student affairs professionals. Its cooperative nature allows joint effects to exceed the combination of individual efforts. Important characteristics of synergistic supervision include:

Dual Focus – Staff members need to feel that they have a significant influence on selecting and defining the goals of the unit and in devising strategies to accomplish them. If staff members perceive goals as being imposed on them, they may not make a personal investment in trying to achieve the goals of the unit. For example, it is a given that a successful Residence Life operation has a process for assigning rooms and roommates to new students. However, the individual staff members can play a large part in defining how that process will most effectively work.

Joint Effort – Supervision is not something done to staff but rather a cooperative activity in which each party has an important contribution to make. Plans for accomplishing tasks such as determining unit priorities, scheduling and distributing work, and coordinating the efforts of the division are worked out jointly between the supervisor and the staff member.

Two-way Communication – In the synergistic model of staffing practices, supervision is dependent upon a high level of trust between staff members and supervisors. Staff members must be willing to allow supervisors to learn personal information about them. Staff members must also feel free to give their supervisors honest, direct feedback. Communication is key in developing this trust.

Focus on Competence – Supervision should concentrate on four areas of staff competence:

Knowledge and information – Staff members must understand how to effectively perform the duties of their job. This includes, but is not limited to understanding college student development theory, current laws and other legal parameters of practice, standards of professional practices, ethical standards, and institutional rules and policies.

Work-related skills – Supervisors must ensure that staff members stay current on developing trends within the field of student development and that they are trained in a wide range of skills related to their job description, such as interpersonal communication, goal setting, and computer skills. For student affairs professionals to remain effective, these skills have to be refreshed regularly. This is especially true for skills that are not used on a regular basis. Supervisors must also provide the means for staff members to develop and acquire new skills.

Personal skills – The synergistic style emphasizes a holistic approach to supervision. Just as attention must be paid to development of a staff member’s work-related skills, so too must personal skills be developed. To function successfully as a professional, individuals must acquire skills in areas such as time management, anger control, diet and exercise, and retirement planning.

Attitudes – Supervisors must maintain a positive attitude among their staff members. Positive attitudes can motivate individuals to apply knowledge or skills to strive toward personal, unit, and division goals.

Student affairs professionals are involved in a people business. Therefore, their attitude toward people, especially students, must be appropriate. Whether a staff member approaches tasks with an attitude of enthusiasm or sarcasm often determines that staff member’s success.

Growth Orientation – An important responsibility of supervision is career development of staff. Supervisors should provide assistance to staff as they pursue work that is meaningful and personally satisfying. This manual suggests using Schein’s Model of Career Anchors (Table 1) to help clarify a person’s occupational self-concept. If a supervisor can understand a staff member’s career anchors, it may be much easier to help that person climb the career ladder and find work assignments that are congruent with their interests and abilities.

Proactivity – Synergistic supervision focuses on identifying potential problems early rather than reacting to problems that have been building over time. In this style supervision emphasizes early identification and development of strategies by the supervisor and staff member jointly to prevent or lessen their effects.

Asking for assistance or advice from a supervisor is not a sign of weakness. For staff members to present problems to a supervisor does not mean that the problems are being transferred to the supervisor for a solution. Nor does it imply that the supervisor will or should encroach on the staff member’s autonomy to attack the problem.

Supervisors should create sessions that permit staff to bring issues and problems they are facing to the table. However, supervisors must provide feedback, or offer advice on problems that staff members may not be able to handle independently.

Goal Based – Synergistic supervision requires the supervisor and staff member to have clear expectations of one another. Goals and expectations should be developed between them and a commitment made to review and adjust those goals on a regular basis. It is recommended that supervisors meet with their individual staff members on a biannual basis to set and evaluate goals and on a bimonthly basis to monitor progress of those goals.

Systematic and Ongoing Process – Supervisory sessions should be held on a regular, proactive basis and not as a response to crises or inadequate job performance. The newer and less experienced the staff member, the more frequent the sessions should be held. Both good and poor performance should be addressed. Topics to be addressed at the meetings range from work attitudes of the employee to values of the profession of student affairs.

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