AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

AIOU Solved Assignments code B.Ed 8618 Spring 2020 Assignment 1& 2  Course:School Leadership (8618) B.Ed Spring 2020. AIOU past papers

School Leadership (8618) B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Spring, 2020

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

Q1. Discuss the need and scope of leadership. Elaborate different levels of leadership in detail.

 Management and leadership skills are often regarded as one and the same to many businesses. While the two inherently share many similar characteristics, they differ in that not all managers are leaders, but all leaders are managers. They are complementary qualities inexorably linked to each other, and any attempt to extricate one from the other is impossible. Whereas the manager exists to plan, organize and coordinate, a leader serves to inspire and motivate. Militarily speaking, a manager is the battlefield general while the leader is the commander-in-chief.

Manager And Leader – One And The Same

Mintzberg (1990) defined a manager and a leader as one and the same. Mintzberg considered a manager “the person in charge of the organization or one of its subunits. In his HBR article (which originally appeared in Harvard Business Review in 1975), he referred to CEOs as managers. Managers include “foremen, factory supervisors, staff managers, field sales managers, hospital administrators, presidents of companies and nations. Mintzberg maintained that managers are vested with authority over an organizational unit and from this authority comes status, which then leads to interpersonal relations and access to information. And, it is information that allows a manager to make decisions and develop strategies.

Manager And Leader – Not Synonymous

“Leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not synonymous. Management functions can potentially provide leadership; Leadership activities can contribute to managing. Nevertheless, some managers do not lead, and some leaders do not manage.

“Leadership is path-finding; management is path-following. Leaders do the right things; managers do things right. Leaders develop; managers maintain. Leaders ask what and why; managers ask how and when. Leaders originate; managers imitate. Leaders challenge the status quo; managers accept it . . . Leadership is concerned with constructive or adaptive change, establishing and changing direction, aligning people, and inspiring and motivating people . . . They set the direction for organizations. They articulate a collective vision. hey sacrifice and take risks to further the vision.

“Managers plan, organize, and arrange systems of administration and control. They hold positions of formal authority. Their position provides them with reward, disciplinary, or coercive power to influence and obtain compliance from subordinates. The subordinates follow directions from the manager and accept the manager’s authority as long as the manager has the legitimate power to maintain compliance—or the subordinates follow out of habit or deference to other powers of the leader. Management is concerned with consistency and order, details, timetables, and the marshaling of resources to achieve results. It plans, budgets, and allocates staff to fulfill plans” (Bass, 2008, p. 654).

Good Leader ≠ Good Manager, Good Manager ≠ Good Leader

Here’s an example that illustrates the difference:

A good leader (e.g., CEO of a software company) may not be someone technically proficient in guiding a software developer through a complex job. That job belongs to a competent manager. And, a good manager may be good at managing the day-to-day duties in the factory or office, but lacks the vision required of a great leader to strategically guide an organization.

Different Concepts That Overlap

“Although there are clear differences between management and leadership, the two constructs overlap. When managers are involved in influencing a group to meet its goals, they are involved in leadership. When leaders are involved in planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling, they are involved in management. Both processes involve influencing a group of individuals toward goal attainment.

Qualities of a Manager

A manager is considered a copy of the leader, responsible for communicating the rules and philosophies of the company to individual employees, and insuring that they abide by them. For a manager, his or her relationships with employees are determined by a hierarchical management system, and rarely through personal ones. They are responsible for maintaining the day to day operations of the company so the cogs of the operation stay well-oiled. Managers are generally more concerned with the quarterly bottom line, and will often base decisions based on these calculations. Good managers are often considered “good soldiers” in that they rarely question the decisions of the higher echelons of the company, and only serve to enforce the execution of its policies.

Qualities of a Leader

In contrast, a leader focuses on interpersonal relationships with other important contacts in other companies, as well as promoting promising individuals within the company to foster innovation. A leader bases his or her decisions on reports from department heads to assess the entire company’s situation, and future strategies. A true leader will also be willing to ignore the company’s quarterly bottom line for several quarters – much to the chagrin of shareholders – and make investments for a long-range growth perspective. A leader is considered a “fearless innovator” in that he or she challenges the status quo and is unafraid to take high risks in search of high rewards, for customers, employees and shareholders alike.

 Comparison between Managers and Leaders

 It is said that a manager asks “how” and “when”, whereas a leader asks “what” and why”. In many professions, managers and leaders assume the same role. However, if a leader of a business simply manages a company – rather than challenge its true potential – then it will likely fall behind its industry peers. Likewise, if managers overstep their bounds and attempt to revolt against the company, then they may soon find themselves out of the job. In some cases, where micromanagement is essential to maximize efficiency, nurture skills and keep employees organized, strong managers are an absolute necessity to prevent high turnover rates and the “brain drain” of a skilled workforce. A good leader will also stay in the front line of battle, and be familiar with every aspect of the company, leading through inspiration rather than coercing through hierarchical control. A perfect manager who attains the status of a true leader will be able to lead people effectively and draw on the correct strengths and knowledge of every key individual in the company. Many managers will struggle for their entire careers and never attain this, but a skilled few will evolve into true leaders.

 School leadership

The term school leadership came into currency in the late 20th century for several reasons. Demands were made on schools for higher levels of pupil achievement, and schools were expected to improve and reform. These expectations were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. Maintenance of the status quo was no longer considered acceptable. Administration and management are terms that connote stability through the exercise of control and supervision. The concept of leadership was favored because it conveys dynamism and pro-activity. The principal or school head is commonly thought to be the school leader; however, school leadership may include other persons, such as members of a formal leadership team and other persons who contribute toward the aims of the school.

While school leadership or educational leadership have become popular as replacements for educational administration in recent years, leadership arguably presents only a partial picture of the work of school, division or district, and ministerial or state education agency personnel, not to mention the areas of research explored by university faculty in departments concerned with the operations of schools and educational institutions. For this reason, there may be grounds to question the merits of the term as a catch-all for the field. Rather, the etiology of its use may be found in more generally and con-temporarily experienced neo-liberal social and economic governance models, especially in the United States and the United Kingdom. On this view, the term is understood as having been borrowed from business.

Approved a superintendent

In the United States, the superintendency, or role of the chief school administrator, has undergone many changes since the creation of the position—which is often attributed to the Buffalo Common Council that approved a superintendent on June 9, 1837. If history serves us correctly, the superintendency is about 170 years old with four major role changes from the early 19th century through the first half of the 20th century and into the early years of the 21st century. Initially, the superintendent’s main function was clerical in nature and focused on assisting the board of education with day-to-day details of running the school. At the turn of the 20th century, states began to develop common curriculum for public schools with superintendents fulfilling the role of teacher-scholar or master educator who had added an emphasis on curricular and instructional matters to school operations. In the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution affected the superintendent’s role by shifting the emphasis to expert manager with efficiency in handling non-instructional tasks such as budget, facility,and transportation. The release of A Nation at Risk in 1983 directly impacted public school accountability and, ultimately, the superintendency. The early 1980s initiated the change that has continued through today with the superintendent viewed as chief executive officer, including the roles of professional adviser to the board, leader of reforms, manager of resources and communicator to the public.

 The demands on educational leaders are evolving. To prepare yourself to face these challenges and create transformative change in education, you need to understand the role of educational leadership, its responsibilities and your options for furthering your education to move your career forward in this field.

Educational leadership involves working with teachers and other education professionals on systemic plans to improve educational programming and outcomes. From K-12 to higher education, leaders in the industry include: teachers, superintendents, principals, administrators, department chairs, provosts and deans.

Responsibilities of Educational Leaders

To facilitate improvement and positive change, the role of educational leaders may:

  • Analyze student data and observe classes to pinpoint potential problems and areas for improvement
  • Build effective teams and committees
  • Change organizational structure
  • Create and update budgets
  • Design, implement and assess school policy and procedures
  • Hire, evaluate and manage teachers
  • Set curriculum standards
  • Work to reform education on the local, state or national level

To accomplish these tasks, it is imperative to work and communicate with others, including teachers, staff, and students and their families. School performance benefits from a collaborative approach to leadership, which includes sharing findings, failures, and concerns. Relationship building is essential to effective educational leadership, and it is vital to acknowledge, and support the roles and contributions of all stakeholders. A true leader will create an educational environment in which opportunities for positive change are present and supported throughout the organization.

Types of Educational Leadership Degrees

At the doctoral level, you have options when it comes to your preparation for leadership roles in education. Which type of educational leadership you choose depends on your interests and career goals.

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership is geared specifically toward education professionals. In a doctorate in educational leadership program, students focus solely on leadership in the education context and learn alongside other education professionals with similar backgrounds and perspectives.

Doctor of Education in Interdisciplinary Leadership focuses on leadership for professionals in any industry — including education. Your classmates will have a wide range of experiences and backgrounds, offering many different perspectives on challenges and potential strategies for tackling them, and ultimately creating a richer learning experience.

Creighton University’s Doctoral Program in Interdisciplinary Leadership is a Doctor of Education online program and falls under the second category. It supports some of the same goals as an educational leadership degree but with a more inclusive approach. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the program, Creighton admits high-achieving professionals from various industries into this competitive program, including a select number of education professionals. Students’ insights — along with those from faculty in arts and sciences, business, education, health and law, provide them with perspectives on leadership from many fields.

Creighton’s Online Leadership Program: Lessons Beyond Education

With Creighton’s Doctorate in Interdisciplinary Leadership, you will gain the knowledge and skills to position yourself as a trusted authority that can be called on to help both schools and students succeed. Through the dissertation, you will have the opportunity to create real change in your institution by using your workplace for research and application of content. Additionally, Creighton offers a Superintendent Certificate option for qualified candidates interested in that path.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

Q2. Discuss the need of leadership in education sector. Also elaborate the future of educational leadership in global perspectives.

 Effective school leaders are key to large-scale, sustainable education reform. For some time, educators have believed that principals must be instructional leaders if they are to be the effective leaders needed for sustained innovation. Newmann, King, and Youngs (2000), for example, found that school capacity is the crucial variable affecting instructional quality and corresponding student achievement. And at the heart of school capacity are principals focused on the development of teachers’ knowledge and skills, professional community, program coherence, and technical resources.

Fink and Resnick (2001) examined school districts’ efforts to develop principals into instructional leaders who could achieve a large-scale turnaround in literacy and numeracy. They described some core strategies for developing the role of the principal as instructional leader, including five mutually reinforcing sets of strategic activities: nested learning communities, principal institutes, leadership for instruction, peer learning, and individual coaching.

Characterizing instructional leadership as the principal’s central role has been a valuable first step in increasing student learning, but it does not go far enough. Literacy and mathematics improvements are only the beginning. To ensure deeper learning—to encourage problem solving and thinking skills and to develop and nurture highly motivated and engaged learners, for example—requires mobilizing the energy and capacities of teachers. In turn, to mobilize teachers, we must improve teachers’ working conditions and morale. Thus, we need leaders who can create a fundamental transformation in the learning cultures of schools and of the teaching profession itself. The role of the principal as instructional leader is too narrow a concept to carry the weight of the kinds of reforms that will create the schools that we need for the future.

Moral Purpose

Moral purpose is social responsibility to others and the environment. School leaders with moral purpose seek to make a difference in the lives of students. They are concerned about closing the gap between high-performing and lower-performing schools and raising the achievement of—and closing the gap between—high-performing and lower-performing students. They act with the intention of making a positive difference in their own schools as well as improving the environment in other district schools.

Let me be clear: If the goal is systemic improvement—to improve all schools in the district—then principals should be nearly as concerned about the success of other schools in the district as they are about their own school. Sustained improvement of schools is not possible unless the whole system is moving forward.

Student learning is paramount to the Cultural Change Principal. This principal involves teachers in explicitly monitoring student learning. But the Cultural Change Principal is also concerned with the bigger picture and continually asks, How well are other schools in the district doing? What is the role of public schools in a democracy? Are we reducing the gap between high-performing and lower-performing students in this school? district? state? nation? The Cultural Change Principal treats students, teachers, parents, and others in the school well. Such a principal also works to develop other leaders in the school to prepare the school to sustain and even advance reform after he or she departs. In short, the Cultural Change Principal displays explicit, deep, comprehensive moral purpose.

Understanding Change

 Having innovative ideas and understanding the change process are not the same thing. Indeed, the case can be made that those firmly committed to their own ideas are not necessarily good change agents because being a change agent involves getting commitment from others who might not like one’s ideas. I offer the following guidelines for understanding change:

  • The goal is not to innovate the most. Innovating selectively with coherence is better.
  • Having the best ideas is not enough. Leaders help others assess and find collective meaning and commitment to new ways.
  • Appreciate the implementation dip. Leaders can’t avoid the inevitable early difficulties of trying something new. They should know, for example, that no matter how much they plan for the change, the first six months or so of implementation will be bumpy.
  • Redefine resistance. Successful leaders don’t mind when naysayers rock the boat. In fact, doubters sometimes have important points. Leaders look for ways to address those concerns.
  • Reculturing is the name of the game. Much change is structural and superficial. Transforming culture—changing what people in the organization value and how they work together to accomplish it—leads to deep, lasting change.
  • Never a checklist, always complexity. There is no step-by-step shortcut to transformation; it involves the hard, day-to-day work of reculturing.

Students Are Ready

Regardless of their educational path, students moving into adulthood today need more than anything else to be voracious, passionate learners, adept at creating their own personal learning curriculum, finding their own teachers to mentor and guide them in their efforts, and connecting with other learners with whom they can collaborate and create.

Kids already demonstrate many of these dispositions in their out-of-school pursuits. This past summer, the Pokémon Go craze exploded among adolescents and adults alike. Most young players have a deep knowledge of the more than 150 Pokémon characters and various strategies for playing the game. From the day of the app’s release, online Pokémon Go communities of game players sprang up to share hacks on game play and to exchange information on where and how to capture the most sought-after creatures. No one was waiting for a course or workshop.

Free Students to Pursue Their Interests

The third essential shift in our work in schools is to free students to pursue their own learning interests and goals in the classroom. As educator John Spencer (2016) says, “Student choice is more than simply choosing a topic. It is about empowering students through the entire learning process.” Spencer suggests that students be allowed to select the topic, questions, content, materials and resources, strategies, scaffolding, audience, format, and groups to work with. All of this prepares students for times when they won’t have a teacher by their side.

At the Mosaic Collective, an innovative school within a school in the Castle View School District in Colorado, high school students are invited to “invent your education.” The mission is to “promote the bliss of intrinsic learning and a strong focus on community by intentionally practicing and reflecting on what is good for learners—of all ages and backgrounds.” Mosaic students pursue independent projects they deem interesting, such as writing and publishing magazines about the local community, designing and building a better skateboard, and composing and performing a piece of music. Teachers serve as colearners who lend guidance and expertise when needed or requested. The focus is on learning how to learn.

A similar scenario describes kids who learn to play Minecraft, primarily through YouTube videos and gaming communities. No documentation or manual was released for Minecraft when the game debuted in 2011. Game players had to learn literally everything about the game on their own or from other players.

When we observe kids learning Minecraft or Pokémon Go—or the millions of other things that are meaningful to them—it’s not hard to see the dispositions that are required for dealing with a fast-changing world: aspiration, or wanting to learn a new skill; self-awareness, or knowing what we know and don’t know; vulnerability, or a willingness to see yourself as a perpetual beginner; and relentless curiosity (Anderson, 2016). The reality is that children are powerful learners by their very nature. They are driven by a passion to master certain skills or answer interesting questions that have some immediate application in their lives. Their curiosity drives them, and they show persistence that we rarely see in the classroom.

Of All the Knowledge in the Universe

Seymour Papert is also known to have wondered what “one-billionth of one percent of all the knowledge in the universe” we should be teaching in school. Now that we have access to so much knowledge, it’s obvious that we can’t teach it all. In essence, curriculum is just a best guess at what our kids need to flourish. As the world continues to shift, our odds of making the right guess are becoming increasingly small. The new reality is that our students will be required to build their own curriculums, find their own teachers, and assess themselves as learners and doers in an increasingly complex variety of contexts. That is the work of new global-ready learners. And preparing them for it is the work of the modern school.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

Q3. Discuss different leadership styles in details.

Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Advantages and disadvantages exist within each leadership style. The culture and goals of an organization determine which leadership style fits the firm best. Some companies offer several leadership styles within the organization, dependent upon the necessary tasks to complete and departmental needs.


A laissez-faire leader lacks direct supervision of employees and fails to provide regular feedback to those under his supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees requiring little supervision fall under the laissez-faire leadership style. However, not all employees possess those characteristics. This leadership style hinders the production of employees needing supervision. The laissez-faire style produces no leadership or supervision efforts from managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and increasing costs.


The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the input of others. Managers possess total authority and impose their will on employees. No one challenges the decisions of autocratic leaders. Countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. This leadership style benefits employees who require close supervision. Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this leadership style.


Often called the democratic leadership style, participative leadership values the input of team members and peers, but the responsibility of making the final decision rests with the participative leader. Participative leadership boosts employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision-making process. It causes them to feel as if their opinions matter. When a company needs to make changes within the organization, the participative leadership style helps employees accept changes easily because they play a role in the process. This style meets challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period.


Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or punishments to team members based on performance results. Managers and team members set predetermined goals together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals. The manager possesses power to review results and train or correct employees when team members fail to meet goals. Employees receive rewards, such as bonuses, when they accomplish goals.


The transformational leadership style depends on high levels of communication from management to meet goals. Leaders motivate employees and enhance productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility. This style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet goals. Leaders focus on the big picture within an organization and delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish goals.

Knowledge Creation and Sharing

Creating and sharing knowledge is central to effective leadership. Information, of which we have a glut, only becomes knowledge through a social process. For this reason, relationships and professional learning communities are essential. Organizations must foster knowledge giving as well as knowledge seeking. We endorse continual learning when we say that individuals should constantly add to their knowledge base—but there will be little to add if people are not sharing. A norm of sharing one’s knowledge with others is the key to continual growth for all.

The Cultural Change Principal appreciates that teaching is both an intellectual and a moral profession. This principal constantly reminds teachers that they are engaged in practicing, studying, and refining the craft of teaching. The Cultural Change Principal is the lead learner in the school and models lifelong learning by sharing what he or she has read lately, engaging in and encouraging action research, and implementing inquiry groups among the staff. Teachers who work with the Cultural Change Principal know that they are engaged in scientific discovery and the refinement of the teaching knowledge base. Knowledge creation and sharing fuels moral purpose in schools led by Cultural Change Principals.

Coherence Making

Because complex societies inherently generate overload and fragmentation, effective leaders must be coherence-makers (Fullan, 1999, 2001). The other characteristics of the change leader—moral purpose, an understanding of the change process, the ability to build relationships, and the creation and sharing of knowledge—help forge coherence through the checks and balances embedded in their interaction. Leaders with deep moral purpose provide guidance, but they can also have blinders if their ideas are not challenged through the dynamics of change, the give-and-take of relationships, and the ideas generated by new knowledge. Coherence is an essential component of complexity and yet can never be completely achieved.

Principals not attuned to leading in a culture of change make the mistake of seeking external innovations and taking on too many projects. Cultural Change Principals, by contrast, concentrate on student learning as the central focus of reform and keep an eye out for external ideas that further the thinking and vision of the school. They realize that overload and fragmentation are natural tendencies of complex systems. They appreciate the creative potential of diverse ideas, but they strive to focus energy and achieve greater alignment. They also look to the future and strive to create a culture that has the capacity not to settle for the solution of the day. Cultural Change Principals value the tensions inherent in addressing hard-to-solve problems because that is where the greatest accomplishments lie.

Leadership and Sustainability

To develop and support Cultural Change Principals, we must turn our attention to sustainability—the likelihood that the overall system can regenerate itself toward improvement. Key components of sustainability are developing the social environment, learning in context, cultivating leaders at many levels (and ensuring leadership succession), and enhancing the teaching profession.

Developing the Social Environment

Those concerned about the depletion of resources in the physical environment were the first to discuss the issue of sustainability. Our concern is the depletion of resources in the social and moral environment (Hargreaves, in press). In the social and moral environment of the school, we need the resources to close the achievement gap between high and low performers, to develop all schools in the system, and to connect schools to the strength of democracy in society. Further, if school leaders do not concern themselves with the development of the social and moral environment of the entire district (in addition to the development of the environment within their own school), then not only will the school system deteriorate, but eventually their own school will also fail.

Learning in Context

Recruiting top-performing principals and rewarding good principal performance are both important. Providing strong principal training is useful, too. But as Elmore (2000) points out, What’s missing in this view [of focusing on talented individuals] is any recognition that improvement is more a function of learning to do the right thing in the setting where you work. Learning at work—learning in context—occurs, for example, when principals are members of a district’s intervisitation study team for which they examine real problems—and the solutions they have devised—in their own systems. Learning out of context takes place when principals go to a workshop or conference. Such learning can be valuable for further development, but it is not the kind of applied learning that really makes a difference.

Learning in context has the greatest potential payoff because it is more specific, situational, and social (it develops shared and collective knowledge and commitments). This kind of learning is designed to improve the organization and its social and moral context. Learning in context also establishes conditions conducive to continual development, including opportunities to learn from others on the job, the daily fostering of current and future leaders, the selective retention of good ideas and best practices, and the explicit monitoring of performance.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

Q4. What is situational leadership model? What do you think up to which level this model ko effective.

Situational leadership is a theory developed in 1969 by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. In this lesson, you will learn what situational leadership is, the different leadership styles under the theory, and be provided some examples. A short quiz will follow the lesson.

Situational Leadership Defined

Situational leadership is a theory of leadership that is part of a group of theories known as contingency theories of leadership. Generally speaking, contingency theories of leadership hold that a leader’s effectiveness is related to the leader’s traits or behaviors in relation to differing situational factors. According to situational leadership theory, a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on his ability to modify his management behavior to the level of his subordinates’ maturity or sophistication.

Styles of Situational Leadership

The style a leader uses under situational leadership is based upon combining levels of directive behavior and supportive behavior. You can think of directive behavior as an order and supportive behavior as providing support or guidance.

Hersey and Blanchard focused on four different leadership behaviors based on the levels of directive and supportive behavior:

  1. Telling is where the leader demonstrates high directive behavior and low supportive behavior
  2. Selling is where the leader demonstrates high directive behavior and high supportive behavior
  3. Participating is where the leader demonstrates low directive behavior and high supportive behavior
  4. Delegating is where the leader demonstrates low directive behavior and low supportive behavior

A follower’s overall maturity for the purposes of situational leadership theory is a function of two components. A follower’s task maturity is the ability of a follower to perform the task. A follower’s psychological maturity represents the follower’s willingness to perform a task.

Under situational leadership, the leader’s function is to determine the level of a follower’s task and psychological maturity. Once the leader determines a follower’s overall level of maturity, the leader should adjust his behavior in a way that most effectively manages the follower’s behavior in light of the follower’s maturity. More mature employees require less direction and support, while employees with less maturity require more direction and support.

You like pot-a-to. I like pot-ah-to. You like tom-a-to. I like tom-ah-to. Pot-a-to, pot-ah-to, tom-a-to, tom-ah-to – who’s to say which is right? Depending on your preference, I am sure you could easily argue one is better than the other, but is that always true in every situation? The situational leader would suggest not.

Situational Leadership Defined

The situational leader emerged out of the contingency school of management, which can be summarized as the ‘it all depends’ approach.

According to situational theorists, there are no universal behaviors or practices appropriate for all leadership scenarios.

They believe effective leader behaviors differ from situation to situation. A manager must choose the appropriate management style based on the leadership situation and the capacity of both the leader and his or her followers. Consequently, before the situational leader can make decisions, they have to first assess these factors. The situational leader will then adjust their style to accommodate any limitations that surround the situation, themselves, and the subordinates.

Situational Leader Example

To better understand situational leadership, let’s take a look at this example.

Sanjay is a head nurse at a small hospital. As a nurse, Sanjay faces high pressure situations that require him to assess the surrounding circumstances on an individual basis. For example, when faced with a situation where a patient is receiving routine treatment, Sanjay can allow his subordinates to participate in the decision making and even allow them to make decisions on their own. Because the situation is typical and Sanjay’s employees are well trained to handle it, he can be far more laissez-faire, or give the least possible guidance to subordinates. However, in a code blue scenario where a patient might be on the verge of dying, Sanjay must maintain a higher degree of control over the situation and decision making.

Most of us are members of many different social groups, and several of those groups have leaders. In this lesson, we define and discuss both instrumental and expressive leadership in groups. We also cover three leadership decision-making styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.

Instrumental vs. Expressive Leadership

Many of us choose to be in social groups because there are number of benefits that we receive as members. We may choose to be in a group for instrumental (or task) reasons so that the other group members can help us accomplish something. Or, we may choose to be in a group for expressive (or emotional) reasons so that the other group members can provide us with companionship, love, and security.

Think about our social groups in the context of leadership. There are typically two types of leadership: instrumental and expressive. Instrumental leadership focuses on achieving goals. Leaders who are dominantly instrumental work to maintain productivity and ensure that tasks are completed. They make good managers because they get the job done. However, they are often so focused on the task that they can alienate other members of the group.

Expressive leadership, on the other hand, focuses on maintaining group cohesion. Leaders who are dominantly expressive work to maintain warm, friendly relationships and ensure the collective well-being of the group. They make good bosses because they truly care for their employees. However, they are sometimes lacking efficiency and organizational skills.

Although most leaders are dominantly instrumental or expressive, both styles are needed for groups to work effectively. So, the most effective leaders have the ability to use the style that best fits the situation. They can switch from being instrumental and focusing on the task, to being expressive and focusing on collaboration, whenever they see a need.

Authoritarian Decision-Making

Beyond dominant leadership types and abilities, leaders also vary in their decision-making styles. There are three basic styles of leadership decision-making: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.

Leaders who use authoritarian decision-making make all the major group decisions and demand compliance from the group members. Authoritarian leaders typically make decisions on their own and tell other group members what to do and how to do it. Authoritarian leadership can be beneficial when a decision needs to be made quickly or when a project or situation is particularly stressful.

For example, imagine you’re a member of the Greek army during the Trojan War. It would have been beneficial for Odysseus to practice authoritarian decision-making in order to determine who would perform each task of building the Trojan Horse. You and the other soldiers would not have had to worry about making complex decisions, but instead, you could focus on your individual tasks. Imagine what would have happened if all of those soldiers had spent days debating while in the midst of a war!

While authoritarian leadership can be beneficial at times, it is often the case that it’s more problematic. This type of decision-making is easily abused, and authoritarian leaders are often viewed as bossy and controlling. Because authoritarian leaders make decisions without consulting the group, many group members may resent the leader because they are unable to contribute ideas.

Democratic Decision-Making

The next type of leadership decision-making is democratic. Leaders who use democratic decision-making encourage group discussion and believe in decision-making through consensus. Democratic leaders still make the final decision, but do so only after carefully considering what other group members have said. Usually, their decision goes with the majority. Democratic leaders are generally the most popular. They make members of the group feel included and promote teamwork and creativity.

For example, think about King Arthur and his knights. Most of us are familiar with the famous round table, where all of the knights plus King Arthur would sit in equal status. They would discuss problems in the kingdom together and come to a consensus before King Arthur would take action.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1& 2 Code 8618 Spring 2020

Q5. Write short notes on the following.

  1. a) Educational leadership

Leadership is all about inspiring, empathizing and supporting others to achieve their true potential. It is the art of positive influence that helps build teams. As a personal belief, we can influence others only if we are a good judge of what people are going through, may it be displeasure, bliss, or stress…, and are able to engage with them likewise. A gentle pat on the back, a few words of encouragement and a hearty smile, doesn’t cost much but goes a long way in building relationships that help leaders get the job done. Successful leaders have diverse personal characteristics that set them apart from non-leaders, like oratory skills or to effectively interact with people individually or in groups.

A wide variety of leadership roles impact the society globally and Educational Leadership is one of them. Although the basic attributes of all leaders are the same, Educational Leaders, especially School Heads, have quite a challenging role to play. Effective Educational Leaders need to have a very high level of emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills. Often their power is vested in their capacity to persuade and influence, rather than to direct. Since they are dealing with a wide variety of people with varied age group and socioeconomic backgrounds, they have to build collaboration and get people to work together.

Steer a nation towards economic

Education is the foundational tool to steer a nation towards economic and social development that makes the role of an Educational Leader phenomenal. Their interaction with the public, including parents at various levels of literacy and diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds, requires professional expertise and ethics for positive influence on the entire community including teachers and students. Their decisions impact the life and future of generations to come; hence, setting them apart from other kinds of leadership roles that is mostly involved with the organization’s internal hierarchy. Recognizing this, special attention is being globally focused on the professional training and development of Educational Leaders and Managers.

In Pakistan, however, more work is needed in developing human resource in the field of Educational Leadership and Management. The institutional heads are usually not trained and equipped with the professional standards and expertise that Educational Management demands. Teachers and other staff members are hard-pressed to perform tasks related to management hence compromising on their teaching responsibilities and duties as facilitators in the classroom practice.

International development goals

Pakistan’s commitment to strive towards the international development goals in education like Education for All (EFA) is encouraging. Yet there are numerous challenges regarding its implementation, including the lack of professional educational leaders, who can steer the policy implementation in the right direction. I believe it is high time to realize that as a developing country, we must professionally nurture the human capital for leadership and management roles and help them apply the learnt skills – in order to fill the gaps to improve both public and private education sectors and contribute towards sustained prosperity of the country.

One of the most important concerns of the educational sector in Pakistan is that many children are deprived of the opportunity to go to school for basic education. The society must encourage and support this basic human right of a child and understand the importance of education to develop a functional modern society. It is crucial to understand that education concerns and impacts every aspect of the society, from public health to life standard, intellectual discoveries, democracy and world peace at large. Every member of the society must realize their individual responsibility, in bringing about an educational revolution in Pakistan, to nurture a healthy progressive economy. The consequences of not doing so can be severe and impact everyone’s lives. More than anyone else, we as Educational Leaders owe this to the society, for who we are today is directly linked to the fact that we could go to schools.

Influence the entire community

A school leader can influence the entire community as he/she connects the school, parents and teachers in a triangle keeping the child in the middle. School leaders must have a clear vision and an inner drive to bring change for improvement. They should focus relentlessly on improving teaching and learning with an effective plan for professional development of the staff. For the improvement of students’ learning and well-being, they must track every child’s progress, with appropriate support, and intervene based upon a detailed knowledge of individual students. The school head has to eliminate unsatisfactory teaching wherever it exists in the system and must raise teachers’ expectations of what pupils can do and enable them to make cross-curricular links for skill development. Ensuring that resources are kept up to date also enhances learning. An institutional head has to take steps to improve the children’s speaking and listening skills, advance the level of student’s attendance in school and emphasize on value-based education. Effective school leaders cultivate a range of partnerships particularly with parents, teachers and the community to support their pupil’s learning and progress. They are robust and rigorous in terms of self-evaluation and data analysis with clear strategies for improvement.

However, literature reveals that we are not loners caught in this disheartening situation. Parker J. Palmer in his book ‘The Courage to Teach’, explores the world of teachers and school systems, and narrates stories of several educationists who have thoughts and ideas, problems and difficulties, challenges and courage– no different to what we experience in our system of education. He gives hope for revival with a new perspective of ‘Unity’. The unity of the like-minded– those who believe in the same cause, same values, who care for education and are heartbroken at its decrepitude. These like-minded people can together make a difference to systems that stand like unmoved brick walls.

Many networks and organizations are already working towards educational revival in Pakistan. The move may seem small now but is contagious. It has the potential to attract schools, communities and individuals towards a common cause. strong faith that every individual can make a difference and together educational leaders can be agents of change for the educational sector and effectively contribute to the progress and prosperity of Pakistan.

  1. b) Moral leadership

Ethical leadership is not only important because it leads to financial and strategic success for organizations, it’s important because it’s the right thing for the greater good. In this lesson, we’ll discuss why ethical leadership is so critical.

The Importance of Ethical Leadership

There is no shortage of examples where the lack of ethical leadership has led to financial loss and even the collapse of entire companies. In the early 2000s, Enron, WorldCom, and Arthur Anderson, companies that were leaders of their industries and decades old, collapsed because of the unethical accounting process and business decisions of their executives.

Many would say it was unethical leaders pushing overly aggressive lending practices that led to the financial crisis of 2007. Along with trillions of dollars in lost pensions and retirements, that crash was the beginning of what became the worst recession the world has seen since the Great Depression. The effects of unethical leadership continue to linger throughout the world, even 10 and 15 years after those decisions were made.

How Ethical Leadership Matters

If ethical leadership is important shouldn’t be a question; history provides an unequivocal and firm ‘yes’ to that. How an ethical leader can exert influence within their organization, and even beyond their official sphere of power, is important to understand. Part of the answer can be found in the tendency for groups to follow the leader, good or bad. Part of the answer can be found in the fundamental assumption of capitalism that good ethics are rewarded by consumers. And part of the answer is found in the study of organizational behavior and how an organization can take on the culture of the people within it, especially those with power and influence.

Research in organizational behavior – the study of how individuals behave as part of an organization or group – has repeatedly identified a phenomenon referred to as herd mentality. Herd mentality essentially states that people in an organization will act as a herd, taking behavioral cues from one another. While groups of people with shared interests will behave similarly, that desired behavior has to start somewhere. Hopefully, that behavior is seen in terms of ethical leadership by top-level executives and every level of management throughout the organization.

Capitalism’s Reward

One of the fundamental assumptions of capitalism is that consumers make decisions that drive producers in, or out, of the marketplace. If a firm makes a product that is too expensive, low quality, or doesn’t meet consumers’ needs, they can’t sell their goods and have to close shop.

Capitalism assumes that ethical leadership is one of many components consumers reward through their purchasing decisions. If a company has a reputation for unethical leadership, consumers will stop purchasing that company’s goods, creating a link between company survival or success and ethical leadership. Even in the United States there are companies that are often the target of protests because of the wage they pay their employees, or the lack of other important benefits like adequate sick leave or health insurance.

The virtue of this last point is simple: don’t take morality for granted. Every organization will say publicly it is doing what’s right and avoiding what’s wrong, ethically. But internally there are men and women of power and influence who either assume all is well or ignore obvious problems. And that’s when trouble strikes. Few people go into business to be transgressors, but transgressions occur because people are people and can make poor choices.

Furthermore, avoiding right and wrong is one thing. Deciding between two rights is the tougher choice. Those questions touch on how you do business, what you sell, how you sell and promote it as well as how you recruit, retain and promote employees.

A leader who is vigilant of the behavior of others and importantly holds himself to ethical standards is one that can help, as Seidman says, “build moral muscle.”

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